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SECOND ARTICLE.

Motionless torrents! silent cataracts!

my death, I earnestly entreat that a full and unqua tellectual powers, and adds-“ Are we then to de- / which were, “ The Statesman's Manual ; or, the Bible were not great, and that several friends were generous he has not trodden ; recesses which he has not pene- distinctions between reason and understanding, has

life with more kind regard from his fellow-men than intervention of his friend, Sir Humphry Davy, to

soul has more to demand of the appropriate excelever before, perhaps, befell one who attained such deliver a course of lectures, at the Royal Institution lencies of youth than youth has yet supplied to it ; eminence. We become particularly sensible how ad- in London, on poetry and the fine arts. He received

that the evil under which he labours is not a supermirable his conduct was in this respect, when we for the course 100 guineas; but he was often a de

abundance of the instincts and the animating spirits contrast it with the paltry viperousnesses which some linquent upon lecture days, and it was not merely can he gain from this admonition? He cannot recall

of that age, but a falling short or a failure. But what eminent literary men ever and anon allow to escape once that a whole line of the carriages of the families past time ; he cannot begin his journey afresh ; he them, as if to show how compatible the best talents of the gentry were reversed in their course up Albe

cannot untwist the links by which, in no undelightful are with false taste and an essentially mean and vulgar marle Street by the first arrived receiving the intelli- harmony, images and sentiments are wedded in his nature. Enemy-makers of all kinds might be directed gence of Mr Coleridge's“ sudden indisposition.” In- and must be, for him no more than a remembrance. to study the character of Scott, as a lesson calculated disposition it certainly was on the lecturer's part—but He may, notwithstanding, be remanded to nature; to be of the greatest benefit in their peculiar case. not of the nature of ill health. Haply some friend had and with trustworthy hopes, founded less upon his

After all, in as far as it may be impossible to effect broken in upon his preparatory hours, and, in that case, sentient than upon his intellectual being—to nature, a complete cure of the enemy-maker, I would call for it is most probable that the friend received the lecture but to reason and will, as leading back to the wisdom

not as leading on insensibly to the society of reason ; his being regarded a little more gently by the world. in his own person, while the true audience were riding of nature. A reversion, in this order accomplished, He is an unfortunate being, whether as naturally back disappointed to their residences. Sir Humphry will bring reformation and timely support ; and the defective in tact or self-control. Then his unlucky Davy at this time remarked, that he feared Coleridge's two powers of reason and nature, tlius reciprocally escapades expose him to so much inevitable obloquy, want of punctuality would always prevent his emer

teacher and taught, may advance together in a track and act so injuriously, in most instances, on his for- gence from difficulties. Some of the lectures actually

to which there is no limit." tune. Upon the whole, he is a more fit object of pity delivered were uttered in tones so uncaptivating, and before Sunrise in the Vale of Chamouny” was pub

It was in “The Friend,” too, that the fine “ Hymn than of blame. When any ordinary person of the with a listlessness so repulsive to uninitiated auditors, lished. Of this hymn, which consists of an aposworld experiences a shock from an enemy-maker, let that we cannot be surprised that the lecturer did trophe to Mont Blanc, we annex the greater portion :him consider what an unhappy thing it is to have a not become a general favourite. Yet for this posi “ Who sank thy sunless pillars deep in earth? tendency to act so as to excite hostility; let him reflect tion, and for these subjects of criticism, there is no

Who filled thy countenance with rosy light? how fortunate he himself is in being free from such a doubt that Coleridge was naturally better adapted

Who made thee parent of perpetual streams? peculiarity; and he will be disposed not so much to than for the author's desk. It is probable that opium

And you, ye five wild torrents, fiercely glad!

Who called you forth from night and utter death, resent as to forgive. drinking thus early was exercising its baneful influence From dark and icy caverns called you forth,

Down those precipitous black jagged rocks, upon him. We believe that a very eminent short

For ever shattered, and the same for ever? THE LIFE AND WRITINGS OF COLERIDGE. hand writer was employed to take down these deli Who gave you your invulnerable life,

Your strength, your speed, your fury, and your joy, vered lectures, and that he found the task to be im

Unceasing thunder and eternal foam ! practicable; not from incapacity for his duty, but, as And who commanded (and the silence came)

Here let the billows stiften and have rest ! Ar what precise period opium-drinking acquired a he is said to have expressed it, the impossibility of

Ve ice-falls ! ye that from the mountain's brow mastery over Coleridge it does not seem possible to catching Mr Coleridge's flow of words. Most other

Adown enormous ravines slope amaindetermine, as he sedulously kept the matter secret speakers he could almost precede when they had uttered Torrents, methinks, that heard a mighty voice,

And stopped at once amid their maddest plunge! from his friends. Mr Cottle, one of his oldest friends, half of a sentence, because practice had enabled him did not become aware of his giving way to this babit to form a tolerable conception of the style of the con Who made you glorious as the gates of Ileaven,

Beneath the keen full moon? Who bade the sun till 1814, on which occasion he addressed to him an clusion of the period. But Mr Coleridge was so unlike

Clothe you with rainbows? Who, with living flowers affectionate remonstrance, to which a reply of the all other speakers, and so full of ever-startling thought, Of loveliest blue, spread garlands at you feet? most toachingly despondent character was sent by that the conclusion of his sentences was quite as novel

GOD! let the torrents, like a shout of nations,

Answer; and let the ice plains echo-Gop! the delinquent. It was not a matter of doubt that at and unexpected as the commencement

God! sing ye mcadow streams with gladsome voice! this period he drank from one pint a-day to two quarts On June 1, 1809, appeared No. 1 of “ The Friend."

Ye pine groves with your soft and soul-like sounds!

And they, too, have a voice, yon piles of snow, of laudanum per week. On one occasion he was re This was a single-sheet periodical, projected by our And in their perilous fall shall thunder-God! ported to have taken, within the twenty-four hours, author, and published by him at Keswick when resi

Ye living flowers, that skirt the eternal frost!

Ye wild goats sporting round the eagle's nest! ono whole quart of laudanum. This exceeds the quan- dent at Grassmere in Westmoreland. A more in Ye eagles, playinates of the mountain storm! tity taken by that literary impostor Psalmanazar, or, judicious plan and place of publication could per

Ye lightnings, the dread arrows of the clouds !

Yo signs and wonders of the elementindeod, any other opium-consumer upon record. The haps scarcely have been devised by the most perverse Utter forth God, and fill the hills with praise !" following letter to Mr Wade of Bristol, dated June ingenuity. Its appearance was too frequently irre1814, is most melancholy, but instructive, as evincing gular as to date of publication, and its rambling cha- titled " Christabel," which is in fact an unfinished

In the year 1816, Coleridge published his poem enhow absolute is the slavery of such a passion.

racter unattractive. After the publication of twenty- and unfinishable romance of a mystic nature. Of a “ Dear Sir—For I am unworthy to call any good eight numbers, it was given up; though afterwards, similar character was a ballad entitled the “ Ancient man friend, much less you, whose hospitality and love in happier times, enlarged, almost rewritten, and re- Mariner,” published amongst his earlier poems. There I have abused ; accept, however, my entreaties for printed in three volumes. In “ The Friend” appeared is a remarkable instance of alteration in the value of your forgiveness and your prayers.

some of Coleridge's attempts at a system of political literary property connected with this ballad. It apConceive a poor, miserable wretch, who for many philosophy, but in so unconnected and irregular a peared originally in a small volume of ballads composed years has been attempting to beat off pain by a con

in very simple language, and partly after the model of form as rather to perplex than enlighten as to his en

the old English ballads. Most of them, with the exstant recurrence to the vice that reproduces it. Con- tical philosophy, Coleridge has declared that his object of Mr Wordsworth. The volume was loudly assailed

tire views on this subject. Both in mental and poli- ception of the “ Ancient Mariner,” were from the pen ceive a spirit in hell, employed in tracing out for others

was to overthrow the ascendancy of Locke and Paley. with a burst of ridicule, amidst which it sunk out of the road to that heaven from which his crimes ex

How far he might have succeeded in this attempt, had public notice. The publisher of these ballads in their clude him. In short, conceive whatever is most more auspicious circumstances fostered his endeavours, original form, in disposing of his copyrights to the wretched, helpless, and hopeless, and you will form as we can only conjecture; certainly the efforts he ac Messrs Longman, found the copyright of this volume tolerable a notion of my state as it is possible for a tually made fell far short of the object.

valued at "nothing." Upon his request it was good man to have.

In “ The Friend,” Coleridge thus spoke of the im- willingly returned to him at this value, and by him I used to think the text in St James, that he who may appear eren to sleep, or may be exasperated with sent period, perhaps, no portion of Mr Wordsworth's

At the preprovement of the human race :-“A whole generation given to Mr Wordsworth at the same. offended in one point, offends in all,' very harsh ; but rage-they that compose it tearing each other to pieces poems have been more fully appreciated, being by I now feel the awful, the tremendous truth of it. In with more than brutal fury. It is enough for com numerous readers as loudly applauded as they were the one crime of OPIUM, what crime have I not made placency and hope, that scattered and solitary minds once derided. Moreover, the “ Ancient Mariner," myself guilty of! Ingratitude to my Maker ; and to

are always labouring somewhere in the service of to the unintelligibility of which Mr Wordsworth

truth and virtue ; and that by the sleep of the multi- principally attributed the failure of this volume, has my benefactors—injustice ; and unnatural cruelty to tude the energy of the multitude may be prepared; now become one of the most admired of Coleridge's my poor children ; self-contempt for my repeated pro- and that by the fury of the people, the chains of the minor poems. mise-breach, nay, too often actual falschood. After people may be broken.” He proceeds to unfold the During the years 1816, 1817, and 1818, were pub

high requirements for the successful exercise of in- lished several of our author's works, the chief of lified narration of my wretchedness, and of its guilty spond_to retire from all contest—and to reconcile the Best Guide to Political Skill and Foresight;"

and cause, may be made public, that at least some little ourselves at once to cares without generous hope, and the “ Biographia Literaria,” a rambling but exceedgood may be effected by the direful example. to efforts in which there is no more moral life than ingly interesting volume, before noticed, a large por

May God Almighty bless you, and have mercy on that which is found in the business and labour of the tion of which is devoted to the critical development your still affectionate, and in his heart grateful,

unaspiring many? No !—but if the inquiry have not of the theory of poetic phraseology, in connexion S. T. COLERIDGE.” been on just grounds satisfactorily answered, we may with Mr Wordsworth's poems. In 1825, appeared

refer confidently our youth to that nature of which “ Aids to Reflection, in the Formation of a Manly About this period he was in great distress for he deems himself an enthusiastic follower, and one Character, on the Several Grounds of Prudence, Momoney, notwithstanding that his regular expenses ico "We would tell him that there are paths which of a religious character, and based upon the author's

who wishes to continue no less faithful and enthusias- rality, and Religion,” &c. This work, which is mainly to him, Mr De Quincey giving him a present of L.300, trated ; that there is a beauty which he has not seen, been more popular than might have been expected and Dr Fox of Bristol one of L.50, while the pension a pathos which he has not felt, a sublimity to which from its philosophical character. We have now the of the munificent Wedgwoods was still continued. he hath not been raised. If he have trembled because third edition in our hands, with a preface by an AmeHe declares in a letter that, if he had L.200 clear in there has occasionally taken place in him a lapse of rican gentleman, from an American edition.

The last work, we believe, published by Coleridge his possession, he would put himself into a private attacks, which he has had intimations that he will himself, was a small volume sent forth in 1830, on asylum for lunatics, in order to be cured of his fatal neither be strong enough to resist, nor watchful enough the Constitution of the Church and State, according love of opium, his will being of no avail in the to elude, let him not hastily ascribe this weakness, to the idea of each,” &c. case. Could there be a more affecting illustration of this deficiency, and the painful apprehensions accom It would appear, from the list of works that he has the dismal nature of this indulgence? It is grati- panying them, in any degree to the virtues or noble left as almost ready for the press, that his greatest fying to reflect that Coleridge ultimately was eman-qualities with which youth by nature is furnished; performances were never delivered to the eyes of the

but let him first be assured, before he looks about for public. In this list there are named four works on cipated from its thraldom.

the means of attaining the insight, the discriminating poetry and philosophy, “ of which,” says he, “I have In 1808, he was invited, most probably through the powers, and confirmed wisdom of manhood, that his I already the written materials and contents, requiring

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only to be put together,” &c. None of these have, he apportioned his various books and manuscripts, friends, bad pat in operation various manquvres, and however, been brought forward by his friends. The with a solemnity ill according with their value, except had made applications, all as Raymond had revealed greatest disappointment has been excited in reference as mere testimonials of affection.

his intent to do. In the mean time, Bernard was safe to what he calls his “great work” upon philosophy in

as regarded Amenaide, for, though the lady seemed relation to Christianity, to the preparation of which

THE PLACE AND THE MARRIAGE.

very little chagrined by his absence, the honest Rayhe himself tells us that he devoted twenty years of

mond had no intention of supplanting a suitor really his life, and to which he considered all his other prose

ALTERED FROM A FRENCH FECILLETON.

favoured by her. After dinner, the party went to one writings as only preparatory. He could probably Four travellers occupied the interior of the diligence of the theatres. Having afterwards seen M. Dufour have spoken the matter of this work in his private passing betwixt Bordeaux and Paris. The custo- and his daughter home, Bernard without much difficonversations, but he had not advanced far in pre- mary call of the conductor, on leaving the former culty induced Raymond both to visit a café-table and paring it for the press, and it is thus lost to us. Such place, made out their names to be M. Dufour and a masquerade-ball at the opera. The inexperienced of his posthumous works as have already been given Mademoiselle Amenaide Dufour, M. Raymond, and young provincialist paid a heavy penalty for these to the public (and they are probably all that could M. Bernard. The first of these was a man of tifty, indulgences. While his wily friend escaped uninor should be given) consist of mere scraps, often not with the air of a respectable, wealthy, good-natured jured, Raymond was incapable of stirring from his very intelligible, but upon the whole valuable. merchant, and the lady, his daughter, was a very pillow all the following day. Of this time Bernard

Coleridge's mind was eminently projective. He pretty and interesting girl of eighteen. The other made the best account, stirring actively to get the proposed to write more works than most persons would two were young men, seemingly about thirty years of vacant place for himself

. Raymond recovered someread in a lifetime. Some of them were of vast import age, and were both of them favourable specimens, in what from his sufferings, and rose in the evening; but and labour, and a few were actually in progress; but looks and manner, of the educated classes of society. though his perfidious friend tried to wile him abroad it is quite a safe assertion that he seriously projected After the first few moments, M. Dufour opened up a by a billet in a female hand, making a fictitious apmuch more than he ever could have lived to com- conversation, taking, with wonted stage-coach caution, pointment at the masquerade balls, the young man plete at his rate of performance. In fact, he was the weather as his subject ; and by his address to

had the good sense to keep his chamber, that he might known as a man who could never be relied upon to M. Bernard, it became apparent that they were ac

ensure no neglect of business on the morrow. fulfil any engagement. When advertised to deliver lec- quainted. However, though the discourse grew more Next morning, accordingly, Raymond remarked to tures, he was the first to propose excuses for absence on general and more interesting in its cast, the reader Bernard when they met, “Paris has many temptaseveral of the appointed days; nor could he be expected will learn more of some of the parties by an account tions. Hitherto I have been feeble, but now will i to complete his promised periodical publications, if any of a conversation betwixt the two young men, when turn to business in reality.” “ Pooh !" said Bernard, friend should unfortunately drop in and engage him in they descended for a time to relax their limbs by afraid of a premature discovery, “what is the hurry?” discourse upon the subject in hand. These circum-walking.

“ I will delay not a moment longer in making my stances, together with his unaccommodating and often After offering his companion a cigar, Raymond applications.” “Well, then, you must at least breakoffensive manners, render it not so remarkable that he remarked, “ I am going to Paris to solicit'a provincial fast first, as those to whom you are going will also do ; was always poor, as that he found so many friends. place, which I an almost certain of obtaining. No and, as I have engaged some other friends to breakfast As soon as he repulsed one of these, he seemed to gain one yet knows of the vacancy, and no one is even likely with me this moruing, come with me.” Raymond another, in a remarkable manner, and this continued to know for some short time.” The other was also

saw no danger in a breakfast. However, it proved till the end of his life. Perhaps no man ever lived so far open in speech. “ I will confess to you that it otherwise. One of the young men whom he met at who might be held up so suitably as an example to be is Mademoiselle Amenaide who takes me now to Paris. the table took an occasion rudely to contradict him, imitated in some points and shunned in others-to be They are going for the Carnival and Lent amusements. and seemed desirous, in short, to fasten a quarrel upon admired and reprobated-loved and disregarded. That I met them in the country, and, though not an ac

him. Raymond was any thing but quarrelsome, yet so little of what he has done, and what he has left, cepted suitor, I have not discovered any rival as yet.”

no young man of common spirit could have borne seems to realise, to any thing like its full extent, what “ ''he place is lucrative, and there is little to do six tamely the insults given to him, and he made such is known of his powers, may prove an instructive thousand francs a year,” said Raymond. “A very

retorts as brought on a challenge. According to
chapter to posterity--to great equally with common charming girl," continued Bernard, “ with a dowry of the horrid customs of modern Paris, an immediate
minds. To the first it enforces the important truth
that the highest intellectual powers, undirected

by livres 3-year in prospect.”Thus did the two young retfect seriously on his position, his hand was armed
a hundred thousand francs, and twenty thousand adjournment of the whole party to the wood of Vin-

cennes took place, and, almost ere Raymond could
well-regulated habits of thought and action, will men keep up the fire on both sides, until it was time
neither bring worldly happiness to their possessor to return to the vehicle and its other passengers.

against a fellow-creature. The same hand was raised nor secure him hereafter an enviable fame--while it It was somewhat odd that both the young men

mechanically by the bewildered young man, but still tells the more humbly-gifted that a vigilant and well threw themselves into the corner of the diligence, and the aim proved deadly: . His opponent fell. The directed exercise of their powers may bring them not seemed alike disposed to silence after their return.

others rushed up, and the instant cry of all was, “ Ile only happiness, but secure them a place in the grate- The fact was, that M. Bernard was busied in mental is dead !” ful hearts of thousands.

cogitation on a point newly started to him. “A mar- “Unhappy chance !” cried Bernard; “fly, fly, RayFor the last nineteen years of Coleridge's life he ried man has need of a place, to give him considera- mond! The laws are now most severe on the duellist ; lived in serenity and comfort in the house of a friend tion in the world,” thougħt lie; “ and, as I am so very Hy to the country instantly, I will conceal myself at Highgate Grove, near London, lecturing sometimes far below the Dufours in fortune, this place of six here in a secure retreat, and communicate with you at public institutions, and writing various scraps of thousand francs a-year would help in every way to when the danger is over." The agitated Raymond poetry and prose, but chiefly displaying the extraor.

ensure me against rejection.” Raymond had for returned accordingly to his hotel, to make arrangedinary powers of his mind, in a kind of self-sustained merly been too much absorbed with meditations on ments for flight. Here, however, he met M. Dufour, conversation; which he would pour out for hours at a his place to look much at Amenaide. “What a who had come to ask for him, and the poor youth told time to a circle of admirers, astonishing all by the rich charıning-looking girl!” he now said, as he glanced the old merchant all. Flight is the worst step posstore of thought which he seemed to have at com- at her ; " he is not accepted, and she really may not sible, my poor boy,” said Dufour ; " it is like owning mand. For many years before his death he was sub- like him ; oh! how nicely such a wife and my place to the whole fault. I would advise you simply to ject to acute sufferings of body and melancholy lassi- would suit.” The consequence of Bernard's reflec- conceal yourself for a short time. You may then tude, but he contemplated his end with undisturbed tions was, that he set himself with art and diligence appear or not as things are likely to turn out." But serenity, and much of child-like piety. The last four to draw out of Raymond the particulars relative to where can I take refuge ?" said Raymond ; " I know lines of an epitaph which he wrote for himself are- the vacant office, and secretly noted down the whole. no one here." " Come with me," said the good mer

Raymond, on the other hand, took up what was in chant; “my own private apartment shall be your " That he who many a year, with toil of breath,

itself a natural and pleasing task. lle applied him hiding-place for a day or two." Raymond was but Found death in life, may here find life in death! Merey for praise--to be forgiven for fame

self to the duty of playing the courteous cavalier to too happy to accept of the proposition, and in the lle ask'd, and hoped through Christ. Do thou the same."

Mademoiselle Dufour. He soon noticed, however, chamber of the old merchant he did find a refuge.

that his chances of success seemed to be small. Ber When they were fully informed of the rude and cruel Ile expired on the 25th of July 1834, and on the 20 nard appeared to be respected by the father, and to

manner in which he had been hurried into the late of August was privately buried at Highgate New stand reasonably well in the graces of the daughter. attair, he had the satisfaction of receiving sympathy Church, where a handsome marble tablet has been Raymond's good sense also satisfied him that they both from Amenaide and her father. placed by his Highgate friends, graved with a beau

were not people to change friends for mere change's After a consultation, M. Dufour went out on the tiful inscription to his memory.

sake, and that, even if Ainenaide was not prepossessed, following day, to make inquiries cautiously on the In the above sketch, it is obvious that we could he, a stranger in Paris, would have very little chance subject of the duel. To his surprise, he found that merely permit ourselves to glance at the most gene with Bernard, who was thoroughly fitted to be their neither the police, nor the newspapers, nor the public, rally interesting features in the life and writings of daily cicerone there.

appeared to have the slightest knowledge of any such Coleridge. Any thing approaching to a detailed ap- After three days' travel, the party reached Paris, event. Another inquiry, at his own suggestion, M. preciation of Coleridge's literary character and attain- where the carnival or public masquerades, held during Dufour also made. This was an inquiry at the office, ments, cannot be attempted in a popular miscellany the holidays preceding Lent, were then in full blow. where Raymond had intended to apply for the prolike the present. The outline of his life, which we M. Dufour went to lodge in a respectable hotel. Ber- vincial post which was vacant. Here the startling have here presented, may indicate, in a small degree, nard did not think it proper to go to the same abode, information met him, that for the last three days, a what he attempted. But of his metaphysics, which but accompanied Raymond to a neighbouring hotel. M. Bernard, from Bordeaux, had been actively canoccupied so large a share of his contemplation and When they had got installed, “I hope you do not vassing for the post, and was likely to procure it. M. conversation, it would be injudicious here to attempt intend,” says Bernard, “ to spend your first days in Dufour went home be wildered. The then first coman explanation. They frequently transcend our grasp, business, in place of going about with us, and satisfy- municated to Raymond and Amenaide the fact of the and, we really believe, not seldom transcended his own. ing your curiosity in this new scene ?" " I should total silence existing as to the duel. Raymond started He had no system that was definable, and no practical like it of all things," answered Raymond ; “ but you up. “Oh! thank Heaven!” he cried ; "he may have result that was aimed at. He has been accused, lat must remember that my business will not allow of recovered—I may be no sheuder of blood.” When terly, of borrowing largely from the Germans in this being deferred.” “I think you said that you con- Dufour proceeded to relate what liad passed at the department, although we think somewhat unjustly, ceived yourself sure of some considerable advantage as office, however, a different feeling found its way into at least as to extent. We confess he borrowed the to time,” said Bernard ; “ you will take a week's the young man's mind. Ile sat thoughtfully for a groundwork of his speculations from them-that is, amusement at least ?” “ I cannot,” replied the other; few minutes. His face fushed, and he said, “I am the starting posts for his intellectual excursions-but " that would compromise all.” “Two or three days, no murderer, but I am a dupe. Pardon me,” he conthis he has acknowledged.

then," said Bernard ; “ to-morrow, at all events, M. tinued, “I cannot now disclose to you, at least, my The thread of the life of Coleridge is so indistinctly Dufour and Amenaide count upon you to walk and suspicions.” But the suspicions of both M. Dufour manifested by the literary remains and letters, &c., dine with them.” “ I did not hear them say so." and Amenaide were now also aroused, and, at their that have been published, that we have found the ** They charged me with the invitation ; you cannot pressing request, he stated that, on looking back on greatest difficulty in preserving the appearance of disappoint them.” Raymond, who was too easy in all that had passed-on reflecting on his communicaconsecutiveness in this brief sketch. If our readers disposition, could not resist the wily arguments of his tions to Bernard, on the engagements and delays should feel a desire to know how he succeeded in bring companion, and said, “Well, since I might disappoint which had been forced on him by the latter, and on ing up and educating his family, we confess that we others, pleasure be it for to-morrow, at least !” the circumstances of the duel-he suspected that deep have been unable to discover any clue to the answer. On the morrow, the two young men accordingly treachery had been practised against him. “ The It may, however, be unknown to some, that one son accompanied the Dufours to the Museum. Bernard man who has been guilty of it shall never be my sonis now a judge, another a bishop, and a third a poet. there directed them along the gallery of the Louvre ; in-law, cried Dufour.“ The man who has been The will of Coleridge is, though pleasingly affec and, under the pretext of some little business, left guilty of it shall never call me wife,” said Amenaide, tionate, somewhat amusing, inasmuch as it is a spe- them, recommending them to devote a quarter of an with even more emphasis. Raymond looked at her, cimen of a wordy bequeathment of next to nothing hour to each picture, " as he had often done.” He ard his look called up a blush. -nothing in pecuniary value. To kindred and friends was absent three hours. In that time he bad seen Raymond was so fully convinced of the perfidy of

GOOD FRIDAY.

The 6

Bernard, that he proposed to go out himself, and make (that is, darkness), which is still practised at Rome, inquiries.

EASTER SUNDAY. No, my dear boy,” said Dufour, " there appears to be a modification of this custom. Upon á is a possibility, though a slight ono, that the duel may triangular frame, fifteen candles are arranged, seven Easter (from the Saxon oster, rising, referring to have been no pretext. The truth will soon come to yellow ones at each side, and a white one at the top. the Resurrection) is observed with much ceremonial, light. For the post, let it go ; it may be made up.” | The fourteen yellow candles represent the eleven not only throughout Catholic Europe, and in the The last words had an amazingly and mysteriously apostles, the Virgin Mary, and the women that were countries where the Greek church is established, but strong effect on Raymond. He remained within doors, with her at the crucifixion; the white one at the top in Turkey and the Mahommedan countries along the and from the long and seemingly interesting conver represents Christ. Fourteen psalms are sung, and at coast of Africa. The festival is an engraftment upon sations which he held with Amenaide, it is probable the end of each one of the yellow candles is put out the Jewish Passover, the name of which (pascha) is that he found not the time heavy on his hands. This Then, the light on the altar being extinguished, the still applied to it in almost every country besides state of things came to a close with the appearance, white candle is taken down and hid under the altar. England. The Catholic observances of Easter are of on the second day, of M. Bernard. His face was joy- The putting out of the fourteen candles denotes the an elaborate character. At Rome, the Pope is carried ful when he met M. Dufour ; that of the latter was flight or mourning of the apostles and women, and in state to perform high mass in St Peter's, from the grave.

the hiding of the white candle denotes that Christ is balcony of which he afterwards blesses the people “ The affair is arranged, then ?" said the old mer. in the sepulchre. Then a noise is made by beating assembled in the piazza below-perhaps one of the chant. " What affair do you speak of?" asked Ber- the desks and shuffling with feet, to represent the most imposing religious spectacles which the world nard. “The duel of Raymond, certainly,” was the earthquake and the splitting of the rocks. In St any where presents. In England, before the Refor. reply. Bernard had probably hoped that this matter, Peter's church, on this day, the hundred lights usually mation, the Catholic observances of Easter were as or at least the details of it, would never reach the ears kept burning on St Peter's tomb are extinguished, fully enacted as in any other country. Early in the of the Dufours. He coloured slightly, as he replied, and an illuminated cross is suspended under the dome, morning, a sort of theatrical representation of the “ Bah! it was all nonsense—a jest which his simplicity where it appears as if self-supported.

Resurrection was performed in the churches, the led some wags to play off upon him. His opponent Eggs and apples are curiously connected with Good priests coming to the little sepulchre where, on Good was never hurt. But see, M. Dufour; while the silly Friday. A Protestant writer in Elizabeth's time Friday, they had deposited the host, which they now fool has run away into exile, I have been prudent notes the Popish custom of “creeping to the cross brought forth with great rejoicings, as emblematical enough to secure his proposed place. And now, I with eggs and apples.” Probably they were used as of the rising of the Saviour. In the course of the think I may venture to ask your daughter's hand offerings. Another writer, of the same age, says that day, the clergy had a game at ball in the church, a without delay.”

the Roman Catholics, on Good Friday, "offered unto custom of which it is now difficult to believe that it “And I refuse my hand,” said Amenaide, entering Christ egges and bacon, to be in his favour till Easter ever could have existed. A ball being brought in, the from the open door of another room, leaning on the day was past.” “ To holde forth the cross for egges dean began a chant suited to Easter day, and then, arm of Raymond. “ You, sir, have treacherously on Good Friday," occurs among the Catholic customs taking the ball in his left hand, commenced a dance abused this gentleman's confidence ; you artfully censured by John Ball, a Protestant writer, in 1554. to the tune, others of the priests dancing round, hand forced his inexperience and good nature into de- A French writer of a later age speaks of a custom of in hand. At intervals, the ball was handed or tossed lays to take advantage of them; and you finally con- preserving all eggs laid on Good Friday, as good for by the dean to each of the choristers, the organ playspired with accomplices to remove him from your extinguishing fires into which they may be thrown. ing music appropriate to their various antics, until it path. It was here, happily, that he found a refuge. In England, no kind of eatable but one, soon to be was time to give over, and retire to take refreshment. For what you have done you have your chosen re- adverted to, remains in association with the day. At present, in large seats of population, Easter Sunward. M. Raymond here receives my hand in recom We find that, in the time of the civil war, the puri- day is distinguished by little besides the few peculiaripense, the sole condition attached to it being that he tan severity relaxed itself on this day upon a prin- ties of the service, and the custom of going to church leaves you to the punishment which your own selfish- ciple of contradiction. A “ zealous brother" is thus in attire as gay as possible. But in rural districts ness will attach to your reflections on the subject.” described in 1631 :—“ He is an Antipos to all church- there still exist a few vestiges of old superstitions and

government; when she fasts, he feasts : Good Friday customs connected with the day. It was once a gene

is his Shrove Tuesday. He commends this notable ral belief, and probably still is so in a few out-of-theENGLISH POPULAR FESTIVALS. carnal caveat to his family-Eat flesh upon days pro-way places, that on Easter morning the sun danced hibited, it is good against Popery.”

or played immediately after his rising. People rose

In old times, Good Friday was distinguished in Lon- early and went into the fields to see this supposed pheGood Friday,* as the presumed anniversary of the don by a sermon preached at Paul's Cross (a wooden nomenon. Suckling, in his ballad on a wedding, alday of the Crucifixion, has for ages been solemnly pulpit mounted on stone steps, and surmounted by a ludes to itobserved throughout Christian Europe, the only excross, which stood till the time of the civil war, in the

“ But, Dick, she dances such a way,

No sun upon an Easter day ceptions being in Presbyterian countries, such as Scot- open air, near the north-east corner of St Paul's Ca

Is half so fine a sight." land. In Catholic times, the observances of the day thedral). The sermon was generally on the subject of in England were of the same character with those Christ's passion. Connected with it, two or three And Sir Thomas Browne, in denying it in his “Vulgar which are still maintained in many parts of the Con- others were preached on Monday, Tuesday, and Wed. Errors,” uses language which shows how intertwined tinent. It is still a solemn festival of the Church of nesday, in Easter week, at the Spital in Spitalfields, with religious feeling the notion had become_“We England, and the only one besides Christmas which is where the Lord Mayor and all the most eminent per shall not, I hope," says he, "disparage the resurrechonoured by a general suspension of business. Strict

sons in London generally attended. Spital tion of our Redeemer, if we say the sun doth not dance church-of-England people abstain from any kind of sermons” are still kept up, but take place in St Bride's on Easter day.”. In some places, it was considered animal food, even from cream to tea ; such, we are Church.

necessary, in order to realise this spectacle, to go to informed by Boswell, was the custom of Dr Johnson.t

The eatable above alluded to is the famous Hot the brink of a fountain, and observe the reflection of The churches are well attended, and it is considered Cross Bun. All England still eats hot cross buns on the sun upon its surface, which of course wðuld reduce proper to appear there in black clothes.

Good Friday. These are small cakes, slightly spiced, the miracle to a natural fact. On Easter day, it was The religious usages of old times were generally sometimes of a round shape, and sometimes long and customary to adorn the churches with flowers, and more remarkable for the earnestness which prompted tapering at both ends, but always marked on the top there was in some places a custom called Clipping the them than for their rationality or good taste. One of with an indentation in the form of a cross. In Lon- Church, which was thus acted. The children came those appropriate to Good Friday appears in modern don, as well as in almost every other considerable town one after another to church, where they arranged eyes of an unusually grotesque character. The priests in England, the first sound heard on the morning of themselves with their backs against the walls on the took an image of the crucifix, which they carried Good Friday is the cry of “ Hot Cross Buns !", uttered outside, taking hold of each other's hands, until so with doleful hymns round the altar. Then stripping by great numbers of people of an humble order, who many were assembled that they formed a complete the figure of its coat, they laid it down before the parade the streets with baskets containing a plentiful cincture round the exterior of the building - the steps of the altar, upon Turkey carpets, and with stock of the article, wrapped up in flannel and linen people looking on, and shouting joyfully. pillows to support the head. They and the people to keep it warm. The cry, which is rather musical, is The viands appropriate to Easter day in the old then crept along the ground in succession towards strictly

times were, first and above all, eggs, then bacon, tansy the crucifix, where they kissed the feet of the image,

pudding, and bread and cheese. The origin of the with marks of the greatest tenderness and devotion,

One a-penny, buns—two a-penny, buns ;

connexion of eggs with Easter is lost in the mists of many shedding tears. This was called “Creeping to

One a penny, two a-penny-hot cross buns !

remote antiquity. They are as rife this day in Russia the Cross.” An old book containing the cereinonials Hucksters of all kinds, and many persons who attempt as in England. There it is customary to go about observed by the English monarchs, directs the usher no traffic at any other time, enter into the business of with a quantity, and to give one to each friend one to lay a carpet on this day for the king “to creepe to supplying buns on Good Friday morning. They make meets, saying, “ Jesus Christ is risen,” to which the the crosse upon.” The queen and her ladies were

a stir on the streets, which lasts till church time, and other replies, “ Yes, he is risen,” or, “ It is so of a also to creep to the cross. On the same day, the king it is resumed in the afternoon. About a century ago, truth.” The Pope formerly blessed eggs to be distrihallowed rings to be distributed amongst the people, there was a baker's shop at Chelsea, so famous for its buted throughout the Christian world for use on as a preservative against cramp and falling sickness. manufacture of excellent buns, that crowds of waiting Easter day. In Germany, instead of the egg itself, This was a custom which took its rise in the supposed customers clustered under its porch during a great the people offer a print of it, with some lines inscribed. virtue of a ring which had been given by King Ed- part of the day. The buns were brought up from the Formerly, the King of England had hundreds preward I. to a poor person who asked him alms for the

oven on small black tin trays, and so given out to the pared to give to his household : in a roll of the exlove of St John the Evangelist, and which, having people. The king himself had stopped at the door to penses of Edward I., there occurs, in the accounts of found its way to Palestine, was afterwards brought purchase hot cross buns, and hence the shop took the Easter Sunday, in the eighteenth year of his reign, back to the king by some persons returning from

name of the Royal Bun-House. As always happens “ Four hundred and a half of eggs, eighteenpence." that country: On account of the healing power be in London when any thing original and successful is The custom is supposed to have been originally Jewish. lieved to reside in it, it was kept for centuries in struck out, the royal bun-house soon obtained a rival, At this day, the Easter eggs used in England are Westminster Abbey with great veneration ; and the and was obliged to advertise as the Old Original Royal boiled hard in water containing a dye, so that they king was presumed to be able to impart its virtue to Bun-House. The wars of these two houses, like those come out coloured. In some instances, this colouring other rings, by means of the ceremony of consecration. of York and Lancaster, have long since been hushed is variegated or figured, by tracing over the egg with These were called cramp-rings, and received and sent

to rest, and we find it stated in a recent work* that a candle end. The boys take these eggs, and make a abroad with an implicit faith in their power to cure

neither of them is now distinguished for this article kind of game, either by throwing them to a distauce fits. In some parts of England, the common people above the other bakers’ shops of Chelsea.

on the green sward, he who throws oftenest without are still found to put some faith in what they call small consecrated loaves which are distributed by the against each other in their respective hands, in which

Hot cross buns appear to be identical with the breaking his eggs being the victor, or hitting them cramp-rings. Another of the strange religious rites practised on

church in Catholic countries to those who, from any case the owner of the hardiest or last surviving egg Good Friday was a representation of the burial of impediment, could not obtain the host. These loaves gains the day. Even in Scotland, where holidays and Christ. A figure representing the dead Christ, wrapt are made of the dough whence the host is taken, are holiday observances are almost unknown, Paste (that in grave clothes, was carried along amidst the accla- marked with a cross, and are kissed before they are is, Pasch) eggs are regularly prepared by the boys, and mations of the people, who knelt and beat their eaten. It is remarkable that the bread of the Greeks thrown in the manner here described, but generally breasts before it, and deposited in a receptacle de

was marked by a cross on the upper surface, and that on the Saturday before Easter Sunday. When tho signed to represent the sepulchre, where it was allowed they gave such loaves as offerings to the gods, under a eggs are broken, the children make a feast of the conto rest till Easter day. The service called Tenebrae name which in the accusative case is Bor (boun). The tents, keenness of digestion making up, it is to be prophet Jeremiah also speaks of cakes used in Pagan supposed, for the hardness to which they have been

boiled. * Good Friday occurs, this year, on the 25th of March.

worship. Two small loaves, marked with a cross on † In Ireland, many of the common people eat only a crust of the top, were found in Herculaneum.

It was customary to have a gammon of bacon this brew on Good Friday, and, in some places, sucking infants are

day, and to eat it all up, in signification of abhorrence withheld from their ordinary sustenance.

* Ilone's Every-Day Book, i. 404.

of Judaism. The tansy seems to have been introduced

Hot cross buns

into Easter feasts, as a successor to the bitter herbs The White Tower was originally built by William fair representation of the appearance of one of those used by the Jews at their passover. It was usually the Conqueror about 1078, and was, for several cen strange military enthusiasts who sought to redeene. presented well sugared. Aubrey tells us that, in his turies subsequent to its erection, used, along with some the Loly Land from Bagan domination. After Edtime (the seventeenth century) the first dish brought other buildings now pulled down, as a royal residence ward there is a gap till the middle of the fifteenth upon table at Oxford on Easter Sunday was “a red ---the unsettled state of the nation rendering security century, by which time the plate armour or mail had herring riding away upon horseback," that is, a her- indispensable for crowned heads; and even with such come into fashion. As specimens of the armour of ring placed somewhat after the manner of a man upon precautions as were resorted to for protection, the that age, we have, first, the imbecile llenry VI., next horseback, in a corn salad. Throughout England, the said heads were not always allowed to repose on the his overthrower Edward IV.--the first being furnished fire was allowed to go out on Easter Sunday, after shoulders of their kingly owners. How little, my dear with a curious saddle of bone work, and the horses of which the chimney and fireplace were completely Jane, are we, who live in blessed peaceful times, able both arrayed in housings of velvet, richly embroidered. cleaned, and the fire once more lighted.

to estimate the amount of human suffering, physical The next in order is Henry VII. (1505), in a tilting It was a custom in the thirteenth century to seize and mental, which has been endured within these suit of steel, enveloping the entire figure, rendering all ecclesiastics found walking abroad between Easter walls ! How many of the wise and good, of the gay the wearer, one would suppose, invulnerable. The and Pentecost, and make them purchase their liberty and beautiful, have been here confounded with the horse, too, is equipped in a kind of mail. Ile is with money. This was an acting of the seizure of the actually vicious, terminating perhaps years of hope followed by his son llenry VIII. (1509), wearing an apostles after Christ's passion. We have still what less imprisonment by violent disgraceful deaths or by entire suit, with breastplates, and backplates, armappears to be a relic of this fashion in a custom which secret assassination !

plates, gauntlets and braces, all inlaid with gold, and exists in various parts of England. A band of young The apartments appropriated to the use of state cri- authentic as being the armour of Henry. The next is men goes abroad, and whatever female they meet they minals are principally confined to this quadrangular the Duke of Suffolk (1520), in a suit of plate armour; take hold of her, and pull off her shoes, which are only building; and here, in 1305, William Wallace was im- followed by the Earl of Lincoln (1535), in a suit very returned to her upon her paying some trifling forfeit. prisoned previous to his execution. In the following richly gilt. In Durham, it is done by boys, who, on meeting any reign, David of Scotland and several lords of his court Early in the sixteenth century, defensive armour is woman, accost her with, “ Pay for your shoes, if you were confined here ; followed, in 1359, John King of considered as having attained its perfection, both as please." The trifling sums which they thus collect France and his son. From that period the Tower was to ornament and strength. There were instances in are spent in a feast at night. At Ripon, celebrated the scene of many of those dark tragedies consequent that age of battles between small but well mailed for its manufacture of spurs, travellers riding through on the struggles amongst the various branches of armies, which would last a long day, and be attended the town are stripped of those articles, which in like the Plantagenet family for the supreme power. A by scarcely any bloodshed or damage of any kind, manner they have to redeem. On Easter Monday, gloomy, long-arched gateway thrown across the walk except a vast deal of fatigue to the metal-covered the women make a return by going abroad in groups, which leads to the inner ward or court, is called the knights, and perhaps a few deaths by suffocation. and causing the men to redeem their shoes.

entrance to the Bloody Tower ; and in a room over this We thus become prepared for the elegant and very “ Lifting at Easter is another old custom, which entrance it is said the young princes Edward V. and complete specimens afforded by the figures of Edward may be presumed to have originated in a design of his brother, the Duke of York, were murdered ; but VI. (1552), the Earl of Huntingdon (1555), the Earl dramatising the events connected with Christ's passion. this cannot be authenticated. However, at the bottom of Leicester (1560), Sir Harry Lee, champion of Eng. It consisted in hoisting individuals up into the air, of a staircase which leads into this arch, a quantity of land (1570), and Elizabeth's favourite hero, the Earl either in a chair or otherwise, until they relieved them- human bones were found in the time of Charles II., of Essex (1585). After this period, armour became selves by a forfeit. A curious record makes us aware who had them collected, placed in an urn, and deposited more ornamental, or a matter of dandyism, than usethat, on Easter day, in the eighteenth year of the in Westminster Abbey, under the impression that ful; and such is the character of a few of the next reign of Edward I., seven ladies of the queen's house they were the remains of those hapless children. ensuing figures, including the gentle King James hold went into the king's chamber, and listed him, for Anne Boleyn, Lady Jane Grey, and her equally himselt, who, you know, is said to have been unable which fourteen pounds appears to have been disbursed unfortunate husband; Sir Thomas More, and Sir to bear the sight of a drawn sword. The finest speas a forfeit. The men lifted the women on Easter | Walter Raleigh; were successively sacrificed here, be- cimen of this age is presented in the figure of Henry Monday, and the women claimed the privilege of lift- sides many victims, more or less distinguished, if not Prince of Wales (1612), son of James, in a splendid ing the men on the ensuing day. Three hoists were in their lives, at least by the manner of their deaths. suit of highly finished mail, engraved and gilt in the always given, attended by loud huzzas. A gentleman Queen Elizabeth, before she acceded to the throne, and most elaborate manner. He is followed by the court named Loggan thus described the ceremony, as per- while she was an object of dread to her sister Mary, favourite of the period, George Duke of Buckingham formed in his own case 1799 :“ I was sitting alone suffered imprisonment in one of the towers. The (1618), in a plain suit; next to whom is Charles l'rince last Easter Tuesday, at breakfast in the Talbot in council-chamber and chapel, and several of the apart- of Wales (1620), in a rich suit of armour, engraved Shrewsbury, when I was surprised by the entrance of ments, are now used as offices for records and state and gilt ; this figure is that of a youth, apparently of all the female servants of the house handing in an papers ; but none of these rooms, nor those formerly twelve or fourteen years of age. Next to him is the arm-chair, lined with white, and decorated with rib- occupied by prisoners, are now shown. Queen Eliza- Earl of Strafford ; and then comes Charles again, as bons and favours of different colours. I asked them beth's apartment is now the governor's wine cellar. king (1640), in a suit of gilt armour presented to him what they wanted. Their answer was, they came to Visiters wishing to be shown through the various by the city of London. He is succeeded by his son keate me. It was the custom of the place on that places open for inspection, must make their way to a James II. (1655), whose armour is only partial, there moming, and they hoped I would take a seat in their kind of office or chamber guarded by yeomen in scarlet- being now little worn but breast and back plates. chair. It was impossible not to comply with a request laced coats ; and here they wait until a certain number This is the last in the centre row; but in a recess on Fery modestly made, and to a set of nymphs in their assemble, when, escorted by one of the yeomen as a the opposite side of the room is another representabest apparel, and several of them under twenty. I guide, they are conducted first to the Horse Armoury, tion of fienry VIII., which, I would say, is by far wished to see all the ceremony, and seated myself ac which I was surprised to find a comparatively recent the most superb figure in the room.

The armour, cordingly. The group then lifted me from the ground, erection, though close under the White Tower. It which is said to weigh 112 lbs., was a present from turned the chair about, and I had the felicity of a may be described as a museum of ancient arms and the Emperor Maximilian I., on the occasion of the salute from each. I told them I supposed there was armour, in which character it throws a light on the marriage of Henry with his first wife, Catherine of a fee due upon the occasion, and was answered in the middle periods of English history. Formerly, the Arragon. affirmative; and having satisfied the damsels in this ideas that prevailed about arinour were very confused. Near to this, in the same recess, is a small figure in respect, they withdrew to heare others.”

A painter forty years ago, representing a Norman a full suit of armour, said to be that of Charles Prince knight of the army of William the Conqueror, would of Wales, when three years old. I presume it was ne

have clad him in plates of steel, though no such thing cessary to accustom the body to the use and weight of LETTERS FROM A LADY IN LONDON TO HER existed for ages after. A hundred years ago, Dutch mail from the period of early youth, at least occasionNIECE IN THE COUNTRY.

painters, depicting scenes in the life of Christ, thought ally, otherwise the enormous weight must have been it quite proper to invest the Roman soldiers of Herod insupportable.

in the armour of the sixteenth century. All this In a different part of the gallery there is another MY DEAR JANE,- In my last letter I mentioned some is now reformed, in consequence of careful inquiries equestrian figure in a suit of chain mail, said to have of those places which appeared to me particularly in into the history of armour, a branch of antiquarian been worn in the time of Stephen, 1140. This is exteresting in passing through the city; and now I wish knowledge in which there is none more eminent than tremely curious ; and from its great age, it is now to conduct you along with me on a visit to the Tower, Dr Meyrick, who has published a splendid work on almost black in appearance. But we have all this a large government establishment on the bank of the the subject. Now, you must understand that the time been so much taken up with these gentlemen of Thames, at some distance eastward from London armour in the Tower was till lately arranged without the olden times, that scarcely a look has been bestowed Bridge, and in the midst of that great line of wharfs the least regard to historical truth. Figures of cer upon the room itself, which is well worthy of notice, and shipping which distinguish this as the commercial tain kings were made up in armour which did not being decorated in the most tasteful and curious manend of the town.

perhaps exist for a hundred years after their time. A ner with weapons and arms of all sorts. On emerging from some confined streets, and de- few years ago, Dr Meyrick gratuitously undertook to The ceiling is divided into compartments, bordered scending a little towards the river, we come upon an arrange it correctly, so that it now illustrates our his- with muskets, pistols, cutlasses, pikes, &c., arranged open space called Tower-hill, in the midst of which tory with some degree of distinctness. Imagine an with the utmost order and precision ; the walls also the Tower is situated, on the north bank of the apartment a hundred and fifty feet in length and be are graced with similar devices, and gracefully disThames, from which it is separated by a broad plat-tween thirty and forty feet in breadth, with a division posed groups of ancient weapons occupy other parts form or quay, communicating with thoroughfares lead. down the centre, formed by graceful Gothic arches of the room. We were next conducted from this by ing past each end of the building. A moat or ditch or stalls, divided each from the other by a single a staircase through one or two outer rooms to a part surrounds the entire area, which comprehends a space pillar. Each of these stalls is occupied by a mailed of the White Tower, where we were shown a long of upwards of 12 acres ; the ditch measuring nearly figure on horseback, representing several of the kings apartment filled with all kinds of interesting objects 140 yards in circumference, and in some parts extend of England in the costumes of the respective periods in the shape of weapons, instruments of torture, &c. ing to the width of nearly 50 yards. The appearance of their reigns, each surmounted by a banner, bearing It was exceedingly curious to notice the ingenious of this moat, at the time of my visit, forcibly convinced the name and date of the supposed figure. Amongst devices practised by mankind for the destruction or me of the state of desuetude to which this once formid- these chivalrous knights-twenty-two in number-are annoyance of their fellow-creatures ; and I could not able place of defence had been reduced, by the happy many names which occupy a conspicuous place in the help feeling, that, had the same degree of labour and and peaceful times in which we live; but I fancied records of past ages; and in contemplating the ob- skill been applied in the promotion of objects of prothat an enemy would still find it a fearful slough of jects before me, I could not help giving way to the fessed utility, we should have been much farther addespond, being a deposit of mud, &c., left by the eva- feeling that I was in the actual presence of those per- vanced in civilisation and happiness than we even now poration of the water; but by opening sluices in con- sonages whose virtues or crimes had rendered them are. We had in this room an opportunity of obserrnexion with the river, the water can be supplied at a distinguished. I learned, however, that only one half ing the progressive improvements in arms, offensive minute's notice. Crossing this moat by a stone bridge, of the number of suits were really worn by the parties and defensive; and could not repress astonishment at we entered through four different gates on the west named, the rest being a selection, arranged as nearly the muscular strength of our ancestors, in the facility side, this being the principal entrance ; and instead of as possible in accordance with the known period as with which they wielded swords, lances, &c., which a a tower, I imagined myself entering, a small fortified signed them in this collection.

modern fine gentleman would fail to move.

Tho town, so spacious are the walks and so numerous the The first figure is that of Edward I., bearing date small wicked-looking instruments of torture, called houses all around.

1272, and exhibiting a specimen of the chain armour the thumbikins, are here shown, as also a ring for enThe principal object in the vast cluster of buildings which had till then been prevalent, namely, a kind of closing the neck, which, being moved by means of a is the White Tower or Keep, a large edifice of a shirt composed of metal rings, capable of resisting the screw, may be supposed to have produced the most square form, 115 feet long by 96 feet in width, and blow or thrust of a sword. Edward, you will remem- exquisite torture. The block and axe used at the upwards of '90 feet in height, consisting of three dis- ber, distinguished himself at that early period of his execution of the unhappy Anne Boleyn, are objects of tinct storeys, surmounted by battlements, and each life in Palestine—so that, on the authority of Dr Mey- painful interest, from which we gladly turn to a kind corner finished by a round tower and vane.

rick, we may look with some confidence on this as a l of theatrical representation Queen Elizabeth on

THE TOWER.

horseback, in a fac-simile of the dress worn by her presented by the city of Exeter to one of the monarchs | dimly, lighted by Perforations in the dome above; when she made a progress to St Paul's to return of England, and is used on state occasions as a salt under this was a stone platform, inclining from the thanks for the defeat of the Spanish Armada. This celler, the tops of the towers opening for the reception centre downwards, which, as well as the pavement dress is embroidered with tinsel beads &c., very much of the salt. It is said to be worth eight thousand generally, was intersected by pieces of coloured martarnished by time. pounds.

bles, evidently of great antiquity. On this platform On the right-hand side of this room, a small dark The royal christening font was also here, the queen the bathers, as they entered, lay down, placing a apartment is shown, said to have been the sleeping- being the last royal infant christened from it, a new towel under their heads. Certainly there was nothing room of Sir Walter Raleigh ; this, I suppose, is doubt one having been made for the princess-royal. This very luxurious in this couch ; on it, however, they ful; but only a few years ago his handwriting was was a large vessel of gold, beautifully chased. A underwent the process of shampooing, a ceremony I visible on the walls, but it has since been obliterated small golden eagle, and vessel for the anointing oil, dispensed with, having tried it many years before in by whitewash.

used at the coronation, were also exhibited ; and in a India ; it consists in squeezing every muscle of the Descending again, and passing through the Horse case below, covered with glass, were the sceptres, orbs, body, and making every joint crack. A barber, whose Armoury, we were conducted towards the Grand &c., which all bear a conspicuous part on occasions of assistance I required, now made his appearance ; and Storehouse, or Small Arms Armoury. This forms state ceremonial. Beside them lay the gold staff of such was the excessive perspiration, that he relieved part of what is called the Inner Ward, which consists Edward the Confessor, which weighs upwards of nine me of my beard without the aid of soap, in a very of rows of buildings or offices on the north and east pounds of solid gold.

expeditious and agreeable manner. The operation sides of the spacious court, the White Tower conspi I have thought it necessary, my dear Jane, to put over, he and my attendant disappeared, and I was left cuously occupying the centre. The Grand Storehouse all that relates to the description of the Grand Store- to my own observations. These were pleasant enough, is a long brick building of handsome construction, house and the Jewel Tower in the past tense, these for every one appeared to be enjoying himself; and as faced with white stone, and surmounted by a clock- being the places recently destroyed by fire, my visit the laugh and more subdued song were re-echoed tower rising in the middle of the roof. Its erection having been only a few days previous to this sad from the lofty dome, all apprehensions regarding the was begun by James II. and completed by William III., event. The jewels, however, were removed in safety hair-glove vanished. for the purpose of storing arms available in the ser while the fire was raging, and deposited with Messrs I was now stuck up against the wall, in a recess vice.

Rundell and Bridge, in whose strong room I have which contained a stone basin, receiving both hot and On entering, a new scene opened up. The large since seen them. The loss of arms, by the destruc- cold water, and the assistant, aided in his operations apartment on the ground floor was filled with can tion of the armoury, has been immense, amounting, it by the hair-glove, began to remove two or three layers non, some of them of very peculiar construction; two is supposed, to a quarter of a million sterling ; yet, of what a Turk considers superfluous skin, but which or three pieces raised from the wreck of the Royal great as this is in a pecuniary point of view, í I, having worn it for some thirty years, looked upon George attracted special notice. The wooden carriage should have regretted much more the loss of the more in no such light. The fellow, however, effected this of one of them was perfectly entire, but the cannon ancient parts of the building, these possessing a value excoriating process in so very humane a manner, that and the other carriages were very much decayed by as objects of antiquity which could not be estimated the most strenuous supporter of Martin's act might their long immersion in the water. There were nume- by pounds, shillings, and pence. Before leaving this have stood by without the slightest annoyance to his rous curious pieces of ordnance, which have figured in interesting place, we were shown an open space on the feelings. During each pause of the glove, I was their day; and some interesting remains of vessels, right-hand side, where executions formerly took place ; drenched with very hot water; and when it was amongst others, part of Nelson's ship the Victory-the and in the centre of this Anne Boleyn and many finally laid down, I thought I was a pretty good exsteering-wheel, I think.

other noble personages were put to death. The traitors' ample of a modern Marsyas. The repeated sousings From this we ascended by a staircase, branching off gate, a low entrance, opens out on the south of the which followed, got the steam up on me to such a to the right and left from the first landing, to the White Tower, towards the Thames. Through this gate height, that I felt it was a case of high pressure, and Small Arms Arinoury, a magnificent room, 354 feet prisoners were conveyed by water to Westminster, rushing into the adjoining room, as to a safety-valve, long, the floor occupied from the base to the ceiling by where their trials usually took place. I shall con I threw myself down on the ground, gasping like a square kind of racks, all detached one from the other clude by hoping that the trials of all such unhappy fish out of water. The change in the temperature with passages between, and sustaining muskets to the victims of cruelty, bigotry, and oppression, have passed soon relieved me, for though this room felt oppressive number of nearly 200,000; some of these were of infe- away for ever; and that the Tower may never enjoy as I passed through it on my way to the one I had just rior value, not having the latest improvements which celebrity otherwise than in connexion with the dark left, it now felt equally cold. But the operation was have been made on fire-arms, but they were gradually and tragic scenes of past ages.

not yet over, for my scrubber soon re-appeared with undergoing repair, and a great proportion of them

a pewter basin full of lather, which he laid over my were in first-rate order, with percussion barrels, caps, « NOTES OF A IIALF-PAY IN SEARCH OF swab on a small scale : the effect was delightful after

person with a piece of hemp, very much like a ship's &c. The sides and ends of this noble apartment were ornamented in all imaginable shapes and forms with

HEALTH.”*

the glove, and removed all irritation. Another drenchevery variety of weapons, forming suns, stars, scrolls, CAPTAIN JESSE, the writer of this agreeable sketchy ing followed; and having thus been flayed, parboiled, serpents, &c., arranged with as much elegance and production, tells us that he found himself at a mess- and steamed, half-drowned and half-suffocated, Í taste as if the materials had been perfectly flexible. table in India, when only sixteen years of age ; and put on dry things and retreated to a seat in the unOpposite the door, an open space is reserved, supported that the natural result of the style of living which he dressing-room, as quickly as my pattens would allow on pillars, twisted round with a wreathing composed there found to prevail

, was two or three fevers, cholera, me. Ilere my hot linen was again changed, and my of pistols

, daggers, &c., the capitals formed also of and ultimately a very tormenting dyspepsia, with head wrapped in cloths, arranged, no doubt, in a turpistols, both ends standing out in relief. The centre nerves and spirits gone. Knocked up in body and ban, like those already alluded to ; I was then furof this space was occupied by a very beautiful piece mind, home he came to recruit; was recommended by nished with a chibouque, and I sunk back in my of cannon, which our guide informed us was a present a London physician to throw physic to the dogs, and fauteuil, thinking what Pipes would have given for from the Pope to Napoleon, and taken from the amuse himself by travelling. With his wife as a such a bath for the gipsy. The expense of all this French in the last war. This elegant piece of ord companion, he travelled accordingly, and now gives was seven piastres, about eighteenpence, including nance was of elaborate workmanship; the wheels of the world 'the benefit of his observations and reflec- coffee and lemonade, both exquisite, the latter being the carriage on which it rested represented the sun. tions. The captain's excursions took the direction of iced. In fact, it was only when sipping them, and In a glass-case near this was shown the sword-belt Greece and Russia, and, though both are now well. smoking the sultana, that I found myself in a position and sash of the late Duke of York, presented by the beaten tracks, he has contrived, by means of well- to be called luxurious ; and I left the Hummums, late king. In the staircase the greatest degree of directed observation, to pick up a variety of amusing though rather sore, much gratified with my visit. ingenuity was exhibited; the rails and balustrades particulars. We propose to induce readers to peruse The Turks only pay one piastre and a half, but, the being entirely composed of fire-arms of various de- the entire work, by offering a few short extracts as a pipe excepted, without refreshment." scriptions, and above the first landing was a splendid specimen of the contents.

Captain Jesse spent a considerable time at Odessa, military device, formed with swords, cutlasses, &c.; in Going to Constantinople, he could not, as an old from which he proposed to travel through the Crimea, this the kettle-drums taken by the Duke of Ņlarl. Indian, avoid taking a bath, according to the Turkish but was delayed and vexed in no ordinary degree by borough at the battle of Blenheim, occupy a prominent method. “The principal Hummums in Stamboul the Russian functionaries, who rule over the passport place, as also the guns taken at Waterloo. The walls are situated in the pipe bazaar, the entrance being on

establishment. We let him describe the scenes which at each side were graced by two enormous stars, also the right in going up the street ; but there is nothing occurred on this occasion. “ The following day I was inade up of arms. These ornaments were all the work to indicate the approach to so large an establishment. again at my post. My papers lay duly arranged upon of Mr Stacey, queen’s decorator. The undressing-room, about twenty paces square, was

the table, but the man in green paid no attention to The last place exhibited was the Jewel Room, where lighted by an open lantern in the dome above; a me ; and though many applicants were successful, the a portion of the crown jewels were deposited for secu- fountain played in the centre, and fresco arabesques crowd around him appeared to increase rather than rity. This is called the Jewel Tower, and is on the (though indifferently executed) gave an air of finish diminish. I soon saw how matters stood ; and feeling north-east side of the inner ward. We entered by a to the apartment. A platform, elevated about three certain that, unless I followed the example of those passage to a small vaulted room, lighted with lamps, feet from the ground, and built round the walls, was who had retired, I should again be desired to call there being no access for daylight. The lamps, how- covered by loungers and divans. Though at the early again to-morrow, I put my hand in my pocket, a signever, threw a strong light upon the jewels, which were hour of six in the morning, the place was full of bath- manual which this purveyor of signatures perfectly placed within an iron railing. This recess was lined ers, and I soon found myself sitting next to a sedate- understood, and we effected an amicable exchange. with crimson cloth, the background filled up with the looking Turk, on the platform before mentioned. It Handing me the papers, he pocketed the silver with large gold plate used at the communion, and in front was tenanted by many others, some, like myself, pre- the most perfect sang froid, telling me, as he dropped of these were cups, flagons, &c., richly chased, for the paring for the operation ; others, wrapped in hot linen the 52-copeck pieces into his pocket, that the impesame sacred purposes. The shelves were occupied by --that on their heads being elegantly arranged like a rial salary would not keep him in boots. I was now several crowns, one of which the exhibitor declared turban-were enjoying the greatest luxury of the enabled to pass the sentry who guarded the entrance to have belonged to Anne Boleyn ; but this is very | bath, the pipe and sherbet after it. My inability to

to the sanctum of the Chef de Police. His office, like doubtful. It was very small, and composed only of a converse I found decidedly unpleasant; however, I most other public ones in Russia, consisted of four rim, or fillet of gold, set with precious stones, the cap was soon undressed, and having thrown a cotton towel bare walls, with a brick stove reaching up to the being of crimson velvet. The crown of her present round my loins, and placed my feet in a pair of ceiling in one corner, and was furnished with a deal majesty was the most dazzling object in this valuable wooden pattens, not particularly comfortable, I hob- table and a few chairs. Though a civil functionary collection, and was placed at one side on a revolving bled through a small passage which led me into the I found him in full uniform, and, as usual, radiant stand, so that it could be seen all round. It was made murky atmosphere of the tepidarium. Hlere I saw one with orders. The table was covered with papers, and from the crown of George IV., which was remodelled of the assistants rubbing down an old and bearded in the centre stood the palladium of the place. This from that of Charles II., and is certainly a brilliant descendant of the prophet, with a head like that of extraordinary affair, which is to be seen in the princomposition of all that is rich and rare. The band, Michael Angelo's Roses, and so motionless, that he cipal room of every public office in Russia, is made of or cirehst, is of gold, studded with gems; the front might have been the very statue itself. No jockey copper or iron, gilt, and, though much larger than a being graced by a sapphire of inestimable value, of the ever strapped a hunter with such force ; it was a re- Metronome, and having three sides instead of four, is deepest and most intense blue, two inches long, and peal of the union between the skin and flesh, for every not unlike one; the imperial eagle crowns the apex. one inch in breadth. In the other side of the rim is stroke of the hair-glove brought away a considerable On this singular instrument of office is engraved a the ruby worn by the King

of England at the battle portion of the former. To me this appeared a ciolent variety of instrưctions, addressed to those intrusted of Agincourt, of great size and beauty. The top of the measure, but he submitted very quietly, and I entered with the administration of the laws, and suitable crown is formed by four arches, covered with brilliants the caldarium a little more reconciled to my fate. advice respecting the great sin of bribery and corrup; and pearls, the arches uniting in supporting a ball and There was nothing remarkable in the room

I had left, tion. This public monitor is said to have been devised Maltese cross, composed entirely of diamonds. The but the one I was now in struck me greatly: it was by Peter the Great, whose anxiety on the subject cap is of crimson velvet

. On the opposite side, also circular, and about twenty-five paces in diaineter, appears to have been well founded. The person in on a revolving stand, is a model of the White Tower

the present instance had accumulated a fortune that in gold, ornamentod with precious stones. This was

* London: Madden and Co. 2 volás

his net salary for one hundred years would never have

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