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CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM AND ROBERT CHAMBERS, EDITORS OF " CHAMBERS'S INFORMATION FOR THE PEOPLE,”
“ CHAMBERS'S EDUCATIONAL COURSE,” &c.
SATURDAY, DECEMBER 10, 1842.
About her neck, in manner of a chain,
her any chance of being followed by the bulk of manMONEY. Torn diadems and broken sceptres hung;
kind : which, again, is quite at issue with an assertion We shall suppose a young man of the style of the
If any on her steadfastly did lean,
of our James Thomson
Them to the ground despitefully she flung ; young men of the last-century essayists, who were And in this posture, as she passed along,
" the generous pride of virtue assailed of a morning, as they walked forth into the
She bags of gold out of her bosom drew,
Disdains to weigh too nicely the returns country, by the two contending goddesses of virtue Which she to sots and arrant idiots threw."
Her bounty meets with-like the liberal gods, and vice, each alike eager to secure him as a subject. Thus was she allegorised by our own Drayton. One
From her own gracious nature she bestows,
Nor stoops to ask reward." He is a respectable and well-meaning young man as might almost suppose that the chief reason why these may be, and having as yet no knowledge of the world, literary people despised her, was her so-dismal want of Juvenal tells us, that “ the loss of money is deplored he is anxious to learn the best maxims upon some of the discrimination. Their spite at “ the wealthy fool” has with real tears," and that “ poverty must ever be ill principal concernments of his race, and particularly stood from the days of Juvenal down to those of to bear, because it makes men ridiculous.” “ Valour, upon that of money. This he endeavours to do by Burns and O'Keefe, and will probably be kept up for Peace, Virtue, Faith, and Concord,” he adds, “ have consulting books and men, his papa and his tutor a few ages to come. Talent, or even mere virtue, are
their temples ; but Gold, though it has none, is, noverbeing included amongst the latter. Our object is to in their eyes infinitely to be preferred. “The praise theless, the greatest divinity of them all.” Clearly, Juconvey some sort of idea of what he learns from these of riches and beauty," says Sallust, “ is frail and tran- venal might as well have not said a word on the subject, various sources upon the subject in question. sitory : virtue alone is clear and eternal.”
for any light that our young man is to derive from On consulting the oracles of ancient wisdom, he Our young man will find, from a number of other him. It is the same with them all. For every panefinds a general inclination to pronounce a moderate expressions scattered up and down the books of remote syric upon moderation and poverty, there might be amount of worldly goods to be quite enough. “Nature and recent times, that money will not stay the hand adduced an aspiration after wealth, and an assertion furnishes what nature absolutely needs,” says Seneca. of death, or even alleviate pain ; that there are many
of the power which it gives and the pleasure which it “ That man is not poor,” says Horace," who has the diseases which it cannot cure ; and that it cannot be purchases. Anacreon, an excellent authority on suclı use of necessary things.” “Men live best upon a carried beyond the grave. He will learn that it ex. a point, makes gold the best friend of love. “Vain is little,” says Claudian; “nature has granted to all to poses to envy, that it tempts to extravagance and noble birth (younger brothers !), vain worth and wit be happy, if the use of her gifts be but known." vice, and corrupts and destroys the souls of men.
[poor-devil authors !], in forwarding the lover's suit; Juvenal is clear that "the care of a large estate is an Prosperity, he will find, often obscures good qualities, so be he wants the glittering metal.” Horace himunpleasant thing.”. Even to be quite penniless is which adversity developes.* He will hear Virgil self, who wished to go naked to the tents of the virthought not amiss by some of these sages
. “ Naked,” exclaiming, “Oh, cursed love of gold, to what dost tuous poor, admits that it has more than the thunder's says the Sabinian bard—what a pretty figure he must thou not compel the human breast !” and Seneca force ; that it makes its way through wakeful guards have cut if he had done literally what he says, remarking, with the look of one giving a warning and even solid walls, and tames the most savage men. “ naked I seek the camp of those who covet nothing : against mortal danger, that poison is generally drunk
“ He who has coin,” says Petronius Arbiter, “ may those who require much are ever much in want.” out of gold. The respectable young man, it will be sail securely; he will get the fairest maid to wife ; his And Juvenal does not fail to tell us that “the tra- thought, must begin to be much staggered by all this
, verses will be thought beautiful ; his pleadings in the veller without a purse laughs in the face of the robber.” and must incline to retire into some wilderness where courts will be irresistible ; his every wish will be graThe same gentleman adds, rather snappishly (of course the filthy lucre was never heard of. But not so fast. tified ; in short, he who has gold, has Jove himself he was poor himself), “ We do not commonly find men
He will discover, in the course of his researches, fully enclosed in his chest.” “Wealth gets honour and of common sense amongst those of the highest for as many testimonies to the value and importance of friends,” says Ovid ; but “friends are always distant tune.” And he at once assumes, that only wealthy money, albeit sometimes expressed with a slight shade from the unfortunate,” adds Seneca. “ The smell of ignoramuses ever ridicule the worn and torn doublet, of ironical humour. Let us see.
gain is good, from whatever it proceeds," said Vespathe greasy gown, and rent and patched shoe, of the
That very same Augustan minstrel who spoke sian, when his son Titus reproached him for a tax poor man of talents. These gentlemen are also very boldly of going naked to the camp of those who desire upon a somewhat mean commodity. Even the simple severe upon avarice. The miser they hold to be poor nothing, tells us, elsewhere, to make a fortune by happy time which the poets dream of as having once amidst the greatest wealth. He wants as much what honest means if possible, but by all means to make a
blessed the earth-what name do they give it but he has as what he has not. And his vice is constantly fortune ; that money is to be sought in the first place, the golden age? Gold, says Shakspeare by the mouth on the increase from its gratification. In fact, the and virtue after money; and that all divine and
of Timon, ultra rich and careful are a good deal pitied by authors human affairs-virtue, fame, and honour-obey the in general, as being a class of men who have no proper alluring influence of riches. “Both birth and good
Black, white; foul, fair ; wrong, right ; enjoyment of life. La Bruyere remarks, that in conduct,” he says, "unless sustained by wealth, are
Base, noble; old, young; cowards, valiant;
bless the accursed, youth they lay up for age ; in age, for death. And more worthless than tangle.” “He is' ready to do Make the boar leprosy adored ; place thieves, Cowley calls out
whatever you wish, who has lost his purse.” “Venus And give them title, knee, and approbation, “ Why dost thou hoard up wealth, which thou must quit, and the goddess of eloquence conspire to deck out the
With senators on the bench." Or, what is worse, be left by it? * *
monied swain.” He speaks of the shame of being Hitherto, our young man has chiefly seen the posiThou dost thyself wise and industrious deem ;
poor, and more than insinuates that it is a condition tive part of the subject treated, while the negative has A mighty husband thou wouldst seem.
which induces meanness of conduct. How our young only been glanced at. Let us now follow him in his Fond man ! like a bought slave, thou all the while man is to reconcile all this with our former quotations, direct investigations as to poverty. Poverty is geneDost but for others sweat and toil."
we do not well see. The one remark as to the man rally well spoken of in books. Burns vociferously Only Horace has the candour to suppose that the who has lost his purse, seems directly to the opposite asks_ boarder has any pleasure in hoarding. He makes one purpose of that of Juvenal respecting the happiness
“ Is there for honest poverty, say, “ The people hiss me, but I applaud myself at of not having a purse at all. But there are more
Wha hangs his head, and a' that ?
The coward slave, we pass him by, home when I contemplate my shiners in the chest.” puzzling things still
, for Juvenal is not consistent with
And dare be poor for a' that." Then wealth always appears to our verse-making himself. He tells, that whence you have wealth is of philosophers so extremely uncertain a possession. no consequence, but it is most important for you to Cowper addresses the inmates of a poor cottage“Fortune,” according to Seneca, “ keeps faith with have it. “Every man's credit and consequence is “ I praise ye much, ye meek and patient pair, no one.” “Delighted with her cruel occupation," measured exactly by the cash in his chest. The oath For ye are worthy; choosing rather far says Horace," and eager to play her insolent game,
of a poor man is not taken, because he is believed to A dry but independent crust, hard-earned, she is constantly changing honours from head to have no sense of religion, and to be unknown to the And eaten with a sigh, than to endure head, and her more solid gifts from hand to hand.” gods themselves.” “Those rise with difficulty,” he
The rugged frowns and insolent rebuffs says, “whose virtues and talents are depressed by Here special cases are in question ; it is honest poverty
Of knaves in office." " Fortune as blind as he whom she did lead, Changing her feature often in an hour,
poverty.” Nay, more—“ who,” he says, “ will emFantastically carrying her head, brace even virtue herself, if you take away her re
in the one, and independent poverty in the other. Soon would she smile, and suddenly would lour ;
wards ?” meaning that good incomes, benefices, places, But throughout the whole of literature, there are seen And with one breath her words were sweet and sour :
and pensions, need to go with virtue, in order to give leanings to the proposition, that virtue generally Upon stark fools she amorously would glance,
dwells in humble scenes, and that the frugal hardAnd upon wise men coyly look askance.
working life of the poor man is not merely upon the
.“ will make
And sweeter too ;
whole, but absolutely and in all respects, the happiest. is dreadful to give up the mind to the pursuit of cribing to it, they might have reckoned, with perfect An old English poet puts the case in very sweet verse: wealth, and there will be a general echo of the senti- seriousness, that of transforming men from the slave, “Ah, what is love? It is a little thing,
ment of Beau Tibbs, that something nice and a little who thinks only of selfish and present gratifications, As sweet unto a shepherd as a king,
is best ; but the compulsion of human necessities is into the free, independent; and reflecting being, who,
upon the moralists and preachers themselves, who, in the very increase of his own wants, finds that he For kings have cares that wait upon a crown,
having wives requiring dresses, and children clamorous can be more generous to his fellow-creatures. For And cares can make the sweetest loves to frown: Ah then, ah then,
of bread and butter, and finding, further, that philo- this reason, there is no revolution in the history of an If country loves such sweet desires gain,
sophy forms no excuse from the payment of Christmas individual so important, if not in itself, at least in its What lady would not love a shepherd swain?
bills, are eager for money at the very moment when consequences, as that which takes place at the moJIis flooks are folded, he comes home at night,
they are theoretically declaiming against it. Almost ment of the first saving. The commencement of a deAs merry as a king in his delight,
all men of thought and feeling speak highly of vir- posit in a savings-bank is the crisis of many a moral And merrier too ; For kings bethink them what their state require,
tuous poverty : it is delightful to the human heart to destiny; and this is simply because, from that moWhere shepherds careless carol by the fire ;
think of happiness and content in simple circum- ment, the individual ceases to be the slavish dependAh ihen, ah then, &c.
stances, as those of the shepherd, and hence the charment, looking upward, and having no self-respect, and He kisseth first, then sits as blithe to eat
of much' pastoral poetry. But while all are willing, becomes the independent man, free from all bondage Ilis cream and curd, as doth the king his meat,
theoretically, to praise poverty, none are willing to but that of kindness to his fellows, of which he now, And blither too ;
descend into it. All, on the contrary, are eager to for the first time, possesses the means. For kings have often fears when they sup, Where shepherds dread no poison in their cup;
escape from it, as if the chief good lay in the opposite. Our young man will now see that money, while Ah then, ah then, &c.
And there is not a merchant who, in arranging the the possession of it is liable to abuse, and the want of Upon his couch of straw he sleeps as sound
salaries of his clerks, does not recognise the principle it often is the accompaniment of virtue, while it is As doth the king upon his bed of down,
that the larger sum purchases the superior morality possible to attain it at too great a sacrifice, and while More sounder too;
as well as the superior talent. Is it possible to draw it is declaredly powerless to avert many evils, yet is, For cares cause kings full oft their sleep to spill,
for our young man anything like reason out of all this upon the whole, that desirable thing which mankind Where weary shepherds lie and snort their fill; Ah then, ah then, &c.
mass of confusion? We shall humbly make the at have practically, in all ages, confessed it to be, notThus with his wife he spends his year as blithe tempt.
withstanding the proclamations of a thousand sages As doth the king at every tide or syth,
It is quite true that little is absolutely necessary to the contrary. He will think it strange that And blither too ;
for our wants, as the sages have so often said ; mean there should be such importance, and particularly 50 For kings have wars and broils to take in hand,
ing thereby our primary wants, or what tends barely much moral importance, attached to the “filthy When shepherds laugh and love upon the land ;
to support life. But a great mistake is made in con- lucre," " the dross,” “the base dust of the earth, Ah then, ah then, If country loves such sweet desires gain,
sidering these as the whole range of wants. Besides but here he will be only perplexed by words. If he What lady would not love a shepherd swain ?"
the food and external comfort essential to bare exist regards it in its true light, as an accredited represenCollate this, however, with a passage from.“ Nature's ence, the, mental faculties have an endless range of tative of the materials of God's world, as elaborated sternest painter, but the best".
desires, the gratification of which is so much added and refined by man's labour for man's use, according
to the enjoyment of life; as, for instance, the taste for to the decrees of a benevolent and all-wise Creator, " sce them rising with the sun,
elegances of all kinds, the appetite for instruction, he will be at no loss to see how it is as it is, eren Through a long course of daily toil to run; See them beneath the dogstar's raging heat,
the delight in exercising influence over, and even in while the fact stares him in the face, that it has also When the knees tremble and the temples beat ;
succouring and relieving, one's fellow-creatures. The been, in all ages, connected with the grossest selfish. Behold them leaning on their scythes, look o'er desire of making fair and pleasing appearances in his nesses and vices of mankind. The labour past, and toils to come explore;
person, his home, and all that is his, is one of which See them alternate suns and showers engage,
the gratification is less important, but it is as natural And hoard up aches and anguish for their age; Through fens and marshy moors their steps pursue, a want of man's heart as the appetite for food itself.
JOTTINGS FROM THE SANATORY
REPORTS. When the warm pores imbibe the evening dew.
It is no wonder, then, that the maxim as to the sufThere you may see the youth of slender frame
ficiency of a very little has never received the least The Poor-Law Commissioners have published two Contend with weakness, weariness, and shame;
practical regard from man. He goes on ever eager to volumes of local reports from medical and other authoYet urged along, and proudly loath to yield, He strives to join his fellows in the field;
acquire, because, generally speaking, each new step in rities respecting the circumstances affecting public Till long-contending nature droops at last,
acquisition tends to gratify a newly-developed want health in England and Scotland, being, as we appreDeclining health rejects the poor repast;
of his nature. His acquisitions will not, it is true, hend, part of the basis on which Mr Chadwick founded His cheerless spouse the coming danger sees, And mutual murmurs urge the slow disease.
many of the evils of life, or stay the fell that singular work on public health to which we lately Yet grant them health, 'tis not for us to tell,
hand of death, or accompany him beyond the grave; directed attention. These local reports are in general Though the head droops not, that the heart is well ; but they will not the less, on that account, obtain harmonious with the views enforced so powerfully Or will you praise that homely healthy fare,
many advantages to the healthy living possessor who by Mr Chadwick, or rather by the facts which he Plenteous and plain, that happy peasants share ? knows how to make a good use of them; and this all mosaiced (so to speak) into his book. Everywhere we Oh! trifle not with wants you cannot feel, Nor mock the misery of a stinted meal ;
men feel in their inner nature, though men who set see the health of large districts affected by wretched Homely, not wholesome, plain, yet plenteous, such
down their thoughts in writing speak generally in a filthy confined habitations, unpaved filth-covered As you uho praise would never deign to touch.
different manner. The sneers and sarcasms at the streets, open drains, &c., and classes of labouring people Ye gentle souls who dream of rural ease,
wealthy, unless where they are really directed against made wretched or happy, according as they choose to Whom the smooth stream and smoother sonnet please the abuses of wealth, must only be regarded as escapes spend their earnings on the means of intemperance or Go, if the peaceful cot your praises share, Go look within, and ask if peace be there;
of bitter feeling on the part of the less fortunate. otherwise. We can only hope, from such a confused If peace be his--that drooping weary sire;
Riches, in themselves, derogate from no one. It is mass of information, to select a few bits which, from Or theirs, that offspring round the feeble fire
only when they harden or ensnare the heart, or are their peculiar pithiness, may be expected to be perused Or hers, that matron pale, whose trembling hand attended by the insanity of miserliness, that they are with some degree of interest. Turns on the wretched learth the expiring brand."
to be justiy made a subject of ridicule or censure. Against those who, with Dr Alison of Edinburgh, Or, if suspicion be entertained of anything in ragged That evil results, in many instances, from wealth, affirm that contagious fever is not engendered by lines, read certain statistical epics prepared by certain is sufficiently manifest; but it is not certain, on this tainted atmosphere, we think we have never seen commissions, snatches of which we have from time to account, that virtue is only safe in the midst of fact more confounding than one adduced by Dr Baker time adopted into these pages.
penury, or even in moderate circumstances. Nor, in the report on Derby. There is in the outskirts of So much for what has been said about money: let because the wealthy are often miserable, is it certain that town a street called Litchurch Street, occupied us just inquire, for a moment, how the thing itself that happiness dwells chiefly with the humble. It by working people, and consisting of fifty-four unihas acted in history. Ask the sage and the poet, and may be quite true, that no elevation such as riches formly-built houses on the north side. In the six adthey will tell you of states, like individuals, existing bring about, insures perfect purity and amiableness joining houses in the middle of this row, in the win. in a simple and uncorrupted state, secure by virtue of of character, and that content is found nowhere ; and ter of 1837–8, sixteen persons had typhus fever, of their having no wealth to tempt the spoiler ; but was yet there may be a more steady connexion between whom five died, while the families in the remaining it in the wealthiest times of England that she suffered virtue and easy circumstances, and also between con- forty-eight houses were comparatively healthy. Here from the predacious Dane ? Rome was corrupted by tent and easy circumstances, than between the same was a striking instance of the localised virulence of wealth, and fell ; but is Turkey falling through that things and poverty. The poor escape many tempta- fever; and it became important to ascertain the cause? We hear of poor patriots, who nobly defend tions and many cares which beset the rich ; but, alas! causes. It was found that, at the back of the houses, their country almost without money. American inde- have they not others of a fiercer kind proper to their a ditch ran along through the gardens, being that pendence was secured with little cash ; and France own grade? Let the statistician make answer. It which was formerly used for the natural moisture of fought like a wild cat in 1793, while her assignats is only, indeed, to be expected, that an increasing the ground. Behind all the houses, but the six in were depreciated as low, almost as copper is below ease of circumstances should be, upon the whole, question, this ditch was covered ; behind the six, it was gold. But money is, after all, the only sinews of war favourable to moral progress, for it is what industry open. The other forty-eight houses bad all of them that can be very certainly depended on. In the con- tends to; and industry is a favoured ordination of regular sinks and drains connecting with a proper test which Spain carried on in the sixteenth century heaven, if ever anything on earth could be pronounced sewer. The six had not, but sent their refuse of all for the re-subjugation of the Netherlands, it is acknow- to be such.
kinds into the open ditch, which was full of stagnant ledged that the king, though he had the new-disco A little careful examination will show how the fact nastiness. Could there be any doubt, in such a case, vered Indies at his back, yet chiefly lost ground for is so. In narrow circumstances, the more immediately as to cause and effect ! want of money. His troops often mutinied for pay selfish feelings are almost unavoidably called into When James VI. of Scotland was about to return ment of arrears ; parties of them would break away strong play, and the very means of exercising the from Denmark with his young wife to Edinburgh, he altogether, seize upon some strong place as their head- more generous feelings are wanting. The improve wrote a most pathetic letter to the magistrates of that qnarters, and plunder the country for their subsis- ment which is to be derived from a high cultivation city, intreating that they would have the “middings" tence, paralysing their commander not merely by of intellect and taste is almost completely denied. cleared away from the principal street, that the queen their absence, but the uncertainty, if active steps were Easy circumstances naturally tend, with the great and her friends might not contract a mean idea of the taken, how many of the troops who yet nominally majority of mankind, to the exactly opposite effects country in which she was henceforth to live. We adhered to him would remain. Upon one occasion, and consequences. It is true that the poor are often believe he added some other requests ; but still, the from wrath at want of pay, the garrison of a town, as remarkable for genuine kindness to each other as one great subject was uppermost in his mind, and be which was the key of a series of future operations, for the constancy and fortitude with which they sub-concluded with a renewed intreaty that they would abandoned it to the enemy. On the other hand, thé mit to their many privations; but it would be pre- attend to the various topics of his letter, “but partiDutch troops, having comparatively regular pay, or, posterous to expect from them either the will or the cularly the middings.”. We look back to this as only at least, confidence in the anxiety of their employers power to exercise the benevolence which finds play a good joke against ancient times ; but, strange to say, to settle accounts honestly, never failed in their duty. / in so many various shapes amongst the affluent. A there are still many hundreds of streets in Great There were great principles involved in the contest ; few candid confessions from men who have passed Britain nearly as much defiled with refuse of all kinds but gold gained the victory.
from the one condition to the other, would, we believe, as the “Hie Gait" of our northern capital was at the Verily, the soul of our young man must now be a set this question at rest in a moment. Perhaps in end of the sixteenth century: In Manchester, there good deal astonished at the various reports from the wish which is naturally felt to think gently of the are many unpaved undrained streets, upon which the various, and even from the same, quarters-from talk humbler portion of the community, the moral impor- inhabitants throw out slops, offal, and filth, and which and from fact—with regard to riches and poverty, tance of money has never been fully considered. Yet no scavenger ever enters, except the pig and dog, whose and also moderation. Nor will his understanding of it might be well for that class itself, if this point were services are here gratefully acknowledged by Dr Lyon. the subject be much cleared by anything he can learn made a little more clear. The moral importance of These are but samples of others in the larger towns, from his father, tutor, and the living world around money is, in reality, very great; and, amongst the particularly those which contain factories. The older him. Moralisers and preachers will tell liim that it wonderful powers which the poets are so fond of as- | and denser places are imperfectly drained from of old,
and ill-scavengered apparently from indifference. The ments of labour requiring greater skill, and implying nature may have endowed them with in such a way newer streets have rushed up
as building speculations, more confidence in their integrity and industry, and as to raise them from their existing grade.” But in without any system of draining and paving being en- they attain a position in society of comparative inde- Kilmarnock, “ we continually see enterprising clever forced. Thus both classes of streets are bad. pendence.
journeymen saving a little money, forming partnerThe reporter from Manchester, Dr R. B. Howard, I have selected an extreme case, to show more fully ships, entering upon small manufacturing businesses expresses, however, his belief, that the "human miasms" the advantages derived from improved cottages, and on their own account, and not only raising themselves generated in over-crowded and ill-ventilated rooms, the immoral effeets of inferior dwellings, unfortunately to respectable positions in society, but, by their exare a more frequent and efficient cause of fever than too numerous in this union.”
ample, affording such inducements to others to industhe malaria arising from collections of refuse and want Cleaning, draining, cottage-building, are objects for try, sobriety, and carefulness, that the whole class of of drainage. “ I have been led,” he says, “ to this society, or benevolent and attluent persons. But the the manufacturing population is elerated to a hiyher conclusion, from having remarked that fever has ge- poor are shown to have much in their own power also. status than in Ayr. Besides rendering themselves nerally prevailed more extensively in those houses The colliers of East and Mid-Lothian, with compara- expert in the manual operations of their trades, they where the greatest numbers are crowded together, tively large wages, are described in several reports as acquire a knowledge of the mechanical and chemical and where ventilation was most deficient, although the generally living in very wretched filthy dwellings, principles of the manufacturing processes in which streets in which they are situated may be well-paved, while the agricultural labourers of the same counties, they are engaged, and the modes of transacting genedrained, and tolerably free from filth, than in those with much less gains (never exceeding L.25 per an- ral business ; so that, with a little money and a liberal where there was less crowding, notwithstanding their num), have clean smiling cottages, which it is a plea- credit, they experience no difficulty in conducting being placed in the midst of nuisances giving rise to ma- sure to enter. The difference lies in the moral and similar works for themselves. The operatives of Aye laria." On this point, we should like to ascertain if the domestic habits of the two classes, the colliers being are decidedly their inferiors in intelligence, enterprise, latter were not the more free from destitution ; for it is too often given to liquor, and their wives lazy and im- and ambition; and I attribute this inferiority to the pretty well made out, that sufficient food and exercise provident, while the farm labourers are the very want of local manufacturing establishments. In Kil. fortify, to some extent, against the effects of impure reverse. Dr S. Alison, who practised at Tranent, says marnock, the poorest operative, and the most opulent air, while a deficiency in these respects form predis- that he never got fees from the well-paid colliers, but manufacturer, are linked together by an uninterrupted posers to those diseases of which the impure air is, in always from the poorly-paid farm servants. He adds, chain. A constant intercourse is kept up amongst our opinion, the proximate or most immediate cause. that at Pencaitland collieries, where no liquor is the several classes of society; and whilst the increased On the subject of over-crowding, many facts are pre- allowed to be sold, the men are strikingly superior in intelligence and cultivation that obtain amongst the sented in these volumes. For instance, an Irishman conduct, and have better dwellings and better ap- operatives are, no doubt, met by a lower state of reemployed as watchman at Mr Walker's silk-mill at pointed families. Mr Twisleton says—“ The cleanli- finement, and less fastidiousness in the manners and Patricroft, near Manchester, and who had a house of ness of a cottage bears no direct proportion to the tastes of their superiors, than in more aristocratic three small rooms, was asked by his master if he could earnings of the inmates. The earnings of a family communities, even this is not without its advantages; give a temporary lodging to a few new hands. Paddy may amount to 178. or 188. a-week ; but if the man is because, when a mechanic raises himself by successful regretted that he had not room, and added, “ Faith, a drunkard, or the wife has slovenly and tawdry habits, enterprise to an equality with his hitherto more opuI turned out thirty of them to the mills this morn- the children look neglected and dirty, and their oot- lent townsmen, he finds that there is no great barrier, ing!” The reporter from Norfolk and Suffolk, Mr tage presents the most repulsive aspect.” This gentle- from difference of education and habits, to prevent an Twisleton, describes four classes of cottages as pre- man states, that in his district (Norfolk and Suffolk) unrestrained intercourse with the social circle of which vailing among the rural labouring people. The first some of the dwellings of even “ the paupers with small he has now become a member. At the same time, are of one apartment, generally occupied by not more allowances are exquisitely clean and neat. "Sir,' said common feelings and interests still connect him with than two persons. The second, which are a very ex a pauper of this class to me, when I was praising her his quondam fellow-operatives, amongst whom are to tensive class among labourers, consist of two rooms, for the neatness of her cottage, “if I had not a morsel be found his nearest relatives ; and whilst they receive one above the other, the lower being a kitchen and of bread to eat, as long as I can move about, I will from him their daily wages, their histories, circumparlour, the upper a bed-room for the whole family, keep my house sweet and clean. It is easily under- stances, characters, habits, and wants, are familiarly a system of things of which it is unnecessary to par- stood that such instances are not very numerous, but known to him. Hence, when distress assails a labourticularise the evil results. The next, or third class, still they occur sufficiently often to prove that dirt ing family, they are not merely regarded as objects of have the addition of a small out-house behind, where and filth are not the necessary companions of poverty, compassion, from being fellow-oreatures in affliction, washing and some other domestic duties are performed, and they may tend to put benevolent persons on their but they receive the full flow of sympathy due to and which of course tends to make the front low room guard, who might be inclined to infer unmerited pri- brothers and friends, who are only separated from more clean and decent. The fourth class havetwo rooms vation and suffering from the neglected and squalid their more fortunate neiglıbours by events of recent below and two above, which may be considered ample appearance of a dwelling.” To this we can add a occurrence, and capable of being easily traced.” In accommodation, unless where the family is unusually somewhat remarkable illustration of the same point, Ayr this pleasing condition of things does not exist, large. There are instances where labouring families, which has just come under our notice. At a recent though it is acknowledged that the attluent classes in no way superior to their neighbours, occupy the better distribution of prizes by a society in Edinburgh, for that town are remarkably bountiful to the poor. sort of cottages ; but, generally, it is found that hav. | the tidiest and cleanest houses among the humbler ing a tolerable house accommodation is favourable to classes, the first prize was awarded to a poor blind lethe moral condition of that class of people. Mr Lowe, male, who sits in George Street playing upon a small
THE GOSSIP-A TALE. of Marston, Stafford, draws this contrast, which is hand organ for her bread.
MRS THOMPSON was a widow lady “ without incumsufficiently instructive :
.The report from Kent and Sussex touches upon a brance.” At the death of her husband, who had “ If we follow the agricultural labourer into his certain want of proper feeling, which we do not re- been a funotionary in a public office, she was left miserable dwelling, we shall find it consisting of two member seeing adverted to before, though we have with nothing save a small annuity, resulting from rooms only; the day-room, in addition to the family, known many instances of it. It is attributed by the her husband's carefulness. On this pittance she contains the cooking utensils, the washing apparatus, reporter to the effects of the old poor-law, but such contrived to exist, renting a small house in the outagricultural implements, and dirty clothes, the win- things exist where that law never prevailed.“ I have skirts of the town, and keeping up an acquaintance dows broken and stuffed full of rags... In the sleeping seen,” says he," an old man come with tottering steps with those families who had known her in better cirapartment, the parents and their children, boys and before a board of guardians petitioning for relief, cumstances during the life of her husband. girls, are indiscriminately mixed, and frequently a whose grandson was at that moment mayor of one of Her house-rent and clothes absorbed the greater Todger sleeping in the same and the only room; gene the largest towns in the south of England. I have portion of her small income, and, for the rest, she leant rally no window; the openings in the half-thatched seen a chairman of a board produce a note from a lady considerably on her friends, the greater number of roof admit light, and expose the family to every vicis- living in a handsome house in the union, and enjoying whom received her at their table or fireside, more from situde of the weather; the liability of the children so an income of L.400 a-year, which note was to induce sympathy and benevolence than from personal regard. situated to contagious maladies, frequently plunges him to use his intluence with the guardians to allow She nevertheless endeavoured to make herself agreethe family into the greatest misery. The husband, her brother, aged 70, a weekly allowance from the able and acceptable, by recounting whatever occurred enjoying but little comfort under his own roof, resorts rates. I have seen an aged woman, in the extremest to her in her peregrinations from house to house ; and to the beer-shop, neglects the cultivation of his garden, destitution, having lived several nights in barns, the day of Mrs Thompson's visit to those who favoured and impoverishes his family. The children are brought brought before the guardians ; yet she had at that her with a general inritation, was looked upon as a day up, without any regard to decency of behaviour, to moment two unmarried sons, one earning 168. a-week, to be set apart fora general and perhaps amusing gossip. habits of foresight, or self-restraint. They make in- and the other Ll: 1s., both of whom had refused to It was never supposed by those who entertained different servants; the girls become the mothers of contribute anything to her support. I remember a Mrs Thompson, that, in the indulgence of her gossipbastards, and return home a burden to their parents farmer, who rented 180 acres of land, coming before ping propensities, she had any desire or intention to or to the parish, and fill the workhouse. The boys a bench of magistrates to be excused poor's rates, on injure those whose conduct was the subject of her spend the Christmas week's holiday, and their year's the ground that the guardians had insisted that he animadversion ; but going about as she did, day after wages, in the beer-shop, and enter upon their new situ- should keep his aged mother, who, under the old sys- day, she found it necessary to have something to say, ation in rags. Soon tired of the restraint imposed tem, had been supported out of the rates. He seemed and if that something was of a nature calculated to upon them under the roof of their master, they leave to have no idea that it was his duty to do so, but excite surprise, so much the better ; her visit was then his service before the termination of the year's engage thought that the keeping his mother should be fairly more likely to go off with eclat, and she had a greater ment, seek employment as day-labourers, not with a considered as a set-off to his rates. In another union, certainty of being well received on a future occasion. view of improving their condition, but with a desire an aged couple had a son earning 20s. a-week, and The opening of our story finds Mrs Thompson at to receive and spend their earnings weekly in the beer. who was ascertained to be in possession of L.500, get the house of Mrs Darsie, one of those whose house shop; associating with the worst of characters, they he refused to give a farthing to his parents, and and table were at all times open to the “ widow and become the worst of labourers, resort to poaching, resisted to the utmost a magisterial order to pay them such as are oppressed,” and from whom Mrs Thompcommit petty thefts, and add to the county rates by 28. a-week. I remember another case of an old woman, son had received many benefits. After a day well commitments and prosecutions.
past 80, seeking refuge in a work-house, whose son was spent in that kind of conversation for which Mrs On the contrary, on entering an improved cottage, a farmer living in another part of the county, to whom Thompson had a peculiar gift, she felt nearly exconsisting, on the ground-floor, of a room for the fa- the guardians wrote, requesting him to support his hausted, and feared she would be under the necessity mily, a wash-house, and a pantry, and three sleeping- mother; the answer was, ' I received your letter, and of taking leave, when a new chord was happily struck, rooms over, with a neat and well-cultivated garden, am sorry to hear of my mother's distress. He then by her addressing herself to Mrs Darsie, and asking, in which the leisure-bours of the husband being both refused to do as requested, but at the conclusion of the as if by the bye, whether she had seen Miss Halling pleasantly and profitably employed, he has no desire letter, as if seized by a sudden impulse of affection, who had come to town for the purpose of getting to frequent the beer-shop, or spend his evenings from adds, when I see her, I am not against giving her a * her things” for her approaching wedding: home; the children are trained to labour, to habits and shilling.' She, however, died in a few days, and thus “Oh yes,” replied Mrs Darsie; “I called to see her feelings of independence, and taught to connect hap: released him from a burden he was so unwilling to yesterday, at her aunt's.". piness with industry, and to shrink from idleness and bear.”
“ And what do you think of her ?" again inquired immorality. The girls make good servants, obtain Amongst the other points of a novel nature brought Mrs Thompson ; "I hear various accounts of herthe confidence of their employer, and get promoted out in these reports, we find one of a striking nature some say she is very pretty, while others again call to the best situations. The boys, at the termination in that from Ayr. This town, we may premise, is her rather plain in appearance." of the year's engagement, spend the Christmas week's one of about 18,000 inhabitants: it is a genteel county “ I think," answered Mrs Darsie, “that bers is a holiday comfortably under the roof of their parents ; town, without native manufactures, but a large la- countenance depending greatly upon expression for clothes suitable for the next year's service are pro- bouring class, mainly composed of colliers and its beauty. It will depend very much upon the vided, and the residue of wages is deposited in the weavers. Kilmarnock, twelve miles off, bas as many humour she may be in at the moment whether she be saving's bank ; a system of frugality is engrafted with inhabitants, but is eminently a manufacturing town. thought pretty or otherwise. To me she appeared to the first deposit, increasing with every addition to the In the one place, the working-people “hare scarcely possess great sweetness of disposition, and a gentlefund. They are gradually employed in those depart. I any means of applying those mental qualities which ness of manner which is extremely pleasing ; but I
remember her mother too well not to have made com- however, appeared to be perused in anything but a not contemplated the possibility of such serious re parisons between her and her daughter, which I con- friendly humour, for, in a paroxysm of irrepressible sults following the information she had given at the fess were not altogether flattering
to the latter.” passion, he tore it across; then, as if all at once recol- table of Mrs Hewitt; and it was with share and con“Oh, by the bye, Mrs Halling was a friend of lecting himself, he looked over it once more, and sit- fusion she referred Mr Hamilton to Mrs Darsie, who yours, I think, before you were married,” said Mrs ting down at his desk, exerted his ingenuity in patch- had been, she said, her informant. To Mrs Darsie Thompson.
ing the paper together again ; and, folding it up Mr Hamilton immediately proceeded, wondering, as “ Yes, she and I were most affectionate companions carefully, he placed it in his pocket-book, seized his he went, where this was to end ; for the more he at school, and our intimacy continued until she was bat, and walked out.
sought to find the origin of his misery, the farther married; but she went to reside, you know, in a re Miss Halling sat at the window of her aunt's did he seem to be from tracing it to its source. mote part of the country, and we gradually ceased to drawing-room, every now and then looking at her On entering the drawing-room of Mrs Darsie, he hear much of each other, and latterly we have been watch, and wondering what had become of her lover, found that lady alone; and it was with no small deentirely estranged; but when I heard of the daugh- who had promised to be with her very early in the gree of perturbation that he asked her if she had ever ter of my old friend coming to town on an occasion forenoon, that they might walk out together for the made any remarks derogatory to the character of Miss so interesting, I was most happy to call and offer my purpose of selecting some important articles of furni- Halling. The truth all at once flashed on the mind congratulations."
ture for their new home. It was now one o'clock, of Mrs Darsie, from the associations called up at the “And was Mrs Halling really so good-looking as a and still he had not arrived, and she determined to mention of the word character ; and she at once regirl ?" pursued Mrs Thompson.
punish him for his apparent neglect, by exhibiting a peated the conversation which had occurred in pre“She was, in my opinion, the finest looking woman little anger, when she all at once heard the welcome sence of Mrs Thompson, adding, that she had no doubt I ever saw-I mean the handsomest in person, and sound of his voice in the lobby below, and the petu- whatever that that had been the fabric from which the most distinguished in features and general ap- lance she had tried to assume was entirely forgotten.
the whole had been raised. She deeply regretted that pearance : there was a grandeur in her look, if I may With the solicitude which ever accompanies true she had not taken more pains to make her application so express it, that I have never seen equalled.” affection, Miss Halling, on looking upon the face of of the important word character clearly understood
"Then the daughter does not resemble the mother?” her lover, at once detected that something had occurred by the simple woman with whom she was conversing; said Mrs Thompson.
to discompose him; and with the most earnest anxiety but yet it seemed, as even Mr Hamilton acknowleged, “Oh no," replied her hostess, warming as she con- she besought him to tell her what had happened to most unlikely that her real meaning could have been tinued to speak of the chosen friend of her youth : him since they parted the evening before, when he was mistaken. On learning the sad condition to which the “ There was a dignity of manner, a character, about her all cheerfulness and animation.
young lady had been reduced, nothing could exceed her mother, which Miss Halling decidedly wants." “ I see, Eliza,” he replied, “ I am a bad hypocrite. distress, and she
flew to make what reparation she could "My dear, take care what you say," jocularly inter. I would fain have concealed from you the cause of my by the humblest apologies, to the friend of her youth, posed Mr Darsie, who was sitting quietly by the win. present annoyance, but it has pressed so heavily upon Mrs Halling. Meanwhile, the fever of poor Eliza apdow reading the paper, and whose ear caught the last me, that I find I cannot all at once shake it off. Here proached the crisis which was to favour or blast for sentence uttered by his wife. "It is not safe to speak is a letter," he continued, taking the anonymous ever the hopes of her anxious and affectionate friends, of ladies wanting characters.”
epistle from his pocket,“ which I received this morn- who watched every movement and every respiration "Oh, you know in what sense I mean the word to ing ; but, before you read it, I beg to satisfy you thus of the unconscious sufferer with an eagerness and apply to Miss Halling,” answered Mrs Darsie. “I far, that í do not believe one word of its contents, and anxiety, which testified how deeply they were interepeat, there was a something about Mrs Halling, a would have treated it with the scorn which all such rested in the result. Though she was at length dedistinction, which I can call by no other name than communications deserve. My indignation alone, not clared out of danger, it was soon apparent that the character, and I am sure her daughter has no claim my suspicion, has been roused, and could I only get shock had been too great for one so gently formed by to the title; but she is an amiable, gentle girl, and I hold of the villain who thus dares to slander you, i nature. Instead of bending to the blow, her mental am sure I wish her all manner of happiness in her fancy I should make him repent of having subscribed energies had been prostrated at once and for ever ; new position, both for her own sake and for that of himself“ my friend.'”
she recovered only her bodily health ; in mind, she had her good mother."
The contents of this precious letter it is unneces become a helpless, hopeless, though harmless inbecile ! The subject of Miss Halling, after a few other re sary to repeat ; its tenor will at once be understood Who shall presume to describe the affliction caused marks, soon died away, and Mrs Thompson found as bearing upon the character of Miss Halling, who by this event through a wide circle of sorrowing herself at last obliged to take leave of her kind friend sat with it in her hands, as if she did not fully compre- friends! Her father and mother wept in silent anguish Mrs Darsie.
hend what had been but now said with reference to over the wreck of the cherished idol of their home Time, which is, or which should be, considered the its contents.
and affections ; while the grief of the bereaved lorer wealth of the poor, was of no further consequence to While her eye wandered from line to line, the ex. spent itself in alternate bursts of sorrow for his lcss Mrs Thompson, excepting that it required some de pression of her sweet face underwent a thousand and indignation against those by whom it had been gree of tact and management as to its disposal in a changes, and her beautiful swan-like throat became caused ; and bitterly did he reproach himself for his social point of view, so that she might not go too often suddenly distended with the violence of an internal want of caution, in having allowed his gentle mistress to the same house ; so she determined to spend the next emotion, which she apparently could neither utter nor to gain a knowledge of the contents of the letter which day with Mrs Hewitt, a widow lady, with whom she suppress; all at once it broke forth in a fit of wild had proved so destructive to her happiness and peace had been long on terms of intimacy, and who had a hysterical sobbing, every heave of which seemed of of mind. family of grown-up sons, fine young men, who were itself sufficient to rend asunder a frame which was by Mr and Mrs Halling returned with their helpless all doing well in the world. nature extremely fragile.
charge to the home which had, until then, been When the young gentlemen came home to dinner, Her unhappy lover, whose distress was more than cheered and gladdened by, her presence; but what George, the eldest, who was head clerk in an insurance ever apparent, though now it proceeded from a
a change had been produced on her, the object of their office in town, laughingly addressing his mother, said, different cause, stood with the agitated girl in his fondest solicitude, during the short interval of her " Mother, I deserve an extra allowance of the good arms, endeavouring, by every soothing and endearing absence ! She had left them an amiable intelligent things to-day, for I have been doing double duty at term, to arrest the extraordinary violence of her grief, woman, animated by the prospects of happiness which the office, and I am sadly worn out; Mr Hamilton, but her mind seemed incapable of receiving any con were opening up to her. She returned externally the our manager, has been absent, and I have been in solation ; in this state she was conveyed to bed, where same; but the intelligence was gone; instead of a terim manager, besides clerk.”
she lay for several hours under the influence of this source of perpetual pleasure, she had become a living “Oh,” cried William Hewitt, one of the younger excited state of feeling. Feverishness came on during sorrow, though one in which all who knew her were lads,“ Í saw him two or three times to-day with Miss the night, and next morning the envied, pretty, gentle deeply interested. Halling; I suppose they had been shopping. What Miss Halling, was labouring under an attack of brain Mr Hamilton never married; and it was his custom a nice mild-looking girl she is, and what a luck she fever of the most virulent kind, the victim of false once every year to visit
his gentle mistress, who always has had in getting such a match as Mr Hamilton." uitness,
appeared gratified by his presence, though she other“ Ay, he's a fine fellow,” said George ; " and, from How sudden and painful are the reverses to which
wise manifested no consciousness of the relation which all I hear of his choice, she seems deserving of such a even the purest and best of God's creatures are every they had once borne towards each other; nor was it husband."
moment liable in this world, where all is mutable ! ever apparent that she had any recollection of the Mrs Thompson's face all at once became as it were Here was an amiable, innocent woman, reduced, in a
reverses which had befallen her. condensed, and every feature seemed to perk out with few hours, from a state of happiness as perfect as one
Mrs Thompson, who, from no evil purpose compathe importance of what she had to communicate, but could desire, to a condition of abject, helpless imbeci- rable to the event, but merely through a culpable she was evidently at a loss how to bring it forth.' An lity, involving not only her own safety, but the peace love of gossip, had wrought all this woe, met with opportunity soon occurred, by one of the young men and comfort of all those who regarded her with affec- what was to her a severe punishment; for the tragedy asking her whether she knew Miss Halling.
tion and respect. And from what cause reduced ? By of Eliza Halling closed many doors against her, and “No, indeed !" she exclaimed ; "I have never seen no fault of hers either in word or deed. She had done she was thenceforth obliged to spend most of her days her, but I have heard a good deal about her; only nothing to bring about her own destruction ; nor
at home, where, we will hope, a proper spirit of reyesterday, I heard a lady remark that she was some could it be said that she was the victim of any malig- pentance mingled with the vexation arising from the how or other not altogether a person of character." nant or vindictive passion in others. She fell a prey to loss of her friends.
“A person of character !" repeated all the lads at a chain of circumstances having their origin in ignoonce ; " surely, Mrs Thompson, you are mistaken as rance, and that love of telling something wonderful, to the lady of whom we are speaking ; you must mean which forms so conspicuous a feature of common dis
DR TURNBULL'S TREATMENT OF THE EYE some other Miss Halling, surely."
course, especially among those who have little occu- A Few weeks ago, an extract from the Literary Ga" I don't think I can be mistaken as to the person," pation of a proper kind for their minds.
zette gave our readers a brief notice of some interestpersisted Mrs Thompson, “ seeing that the lady who The illness of Miss Halling assumed so alarming ing experiments of Dr Turnbull for the cure of blindspoke of her to me had been at one time the most in an aspect, that it was deemed necessary to summon ness, the agent employed being the vapour of hydrotimate friend of Miss Halling's mother; perhaps I her parents from the country, and to them Mr cyanic or prussic acid applied to the defective organ am wrong in saying anything about it; but of this I Hamilton reluctantly confided the story of his griefs.of vision. Since that time, Dr T., it appears from am certain, that Miss Halling-the Miss Halling you The vigorous mind of Mrs Halling immediately the following communication to the Lancet, has mean--was spoken of as being decidedly a person of suggested the propriety of adopting means to discover, been engaged in investigating the action of bisuldoubtful character."
if possible, the writer of the letter which had produced phuret of carbon, not only for the cure of blindness, This appeared conclusive testimony to the young effects so baneful to the health and peace of her be- but as a remedy for deafness. It will be undermen, whose wonder was excited in no small degree by loved daughter. Mr Hamilton had already tried stood, that we present no opinion on the reality or the statement of Mrs Thompson; and it is needless to every method he could think of to find out the origin value of the alleged discoveries, but simply do a state, that before many hours had elapsed, at least a of all his sufferings; but his mind had been in a mea- duty to the public in laying before them the letter of dozen of their young acquaintances had been made sure paralysed ever since he had witnessed the dis- Dr Turnbull in the form in which it has appeared in aware that Mr Hamilton was about to marry a young tressing scene with Miss Halling, above related. the Lancet and other medical works. lady of doubtful character.
Backed, however, and roused from this state of tor SIR-In October 1841, I gave an account of the Some mornings afterwards, Mr Hamilton was sitting pidity by the energetic suggestions of Eliza's mother, action of the vapour of hydrocyanic acid upon diseases in his lodgings at breakfast, when the postman's knock he set about his task with a resolute spirit, and after of the eye. Since that period, I have been engaged was heard at the door, and a letter was handed in the most painful investigations, which it is unneces- in investigating the action of various other bodies on He broke the seal, and commenced reading ; but before sary to follow, he succeeded in tracing the letter to a the same organ, and under the same form. he had got half way through the first page, his hand- young man, a friend of William Hewitt, from whom One reason why I did not rest satisfied with the some face glowed with indignation, and then became he had had the information, and he, in his turn, re- great effects produced by the hydrocyanic acid was, deadly pale: he glanced at the foot of the second ferred the unhappy lover to Mrs Thompson. The that its action, like that of all other medicines, dopage, but the epistle was nameless, save that it pur- consternation and dismay of this person, when Mr creased in power by continued application, thereby ported to have come from “a jriend;" the contents, | Hamilton called upon her, was extreme. She had rendering it necessary to have occasional recourse to
other medicines, in order to insure a more speedy re- | in those parts of the body to which arterial blood, and expressed the greatest joy in finding him of so
The first medicines to which I shall refer, and temperature of the animal body, or, as it may be clan had served Montrose throughout the whole of
kind, whether soluble or insoluble in water, possess against a neighbour, Macdonald of Keppoch, to comThe action of these medicines is very different from the property of permeating animal tissues, as water pel the payment of an annuity due on a mortgage, that of the hydrocyanic acid, in as far as they both permeates unsized paper."
and another against the Chief of Glengarry, to enforce stimulate the eye, and produce much greater warmth Does not the action of medicines containing so large and irritation, with less dilatation of the pupil. Few, a proportion of carbon, which can be brought into
some arrears of feu-duty, or ground rent, long refused however, can bear the chlorocyanic acid to be applied contact with the whole external surface of the body,
to weaker claims. These gentlemen soon became longer to the eye than half a minute, though, in a and thereby capable of being easily disengaged, sug
aware that Locheil, though only about eighteen years minute after
its application, all irritation is removed, gest a method of relieving pulmonary disease likely to of age, was not a person to be trifled with. Keppoch and the eye feels perfectly at ease.
be attended with no ordinary success, by calling into The next medicine which I have employed in the greater activity the action of the skin, and thereby ters to be pushed to an extremity;" and the other dis
“thought it wiser to do him justice than allow matform of vapour was the chloruret of iodine. This materially lightening the labour of the lungs? Are medicine produces very little warmth or uneasiness we not the more encouraged to expect such remedial pute“ ended in a treaty, which Glengarry observed so to the eye, if continued for the space of two minutes influence in diseases of the lungs, from the fact of its well, that Locheil was never thereafter put to further or upwards; but a sensation of irritation, accompanied great power in removing indurated glands, which are trouble on that account.” with a flow of tears, takes place on its' removal. It so common accompaniments of consumption? There contracts the pupil, and in no case have I seen it can be no doubt of the usefulness of bisulphuret of
When, after the battle of Worcester, Cromwell's dilate it. Its vapour rises very readily, and does not carbon in skin diseases.
deputy, General Monk, reduced the Lowland parts of leave the yellow disagreeable colouring on the skin I have submitted these observations under the con- Scotland, the Highlands remained obstinately opposed produced by the vapour of iodine, when uncombined, viction that they embody principles which may be to his power, and maintained a partisan warfare of which is a great drawback in the use of iodine in dis- carried out, and made of great utility to mankind.eases of the eye.
the most sanguinary kind against his troops. Our I am, Sir, your obedient servant-A. TURNBULL, M.D. The last medicine which I have employed is the
young chief now found excellent opportunities of bisulphuret of carbon, which is so volatile, that the
Oct. 20th, 1842, 48, Russell Square.
showing his valour. He joined the Earl of Glencairn, application of it to the eye, when the bottle is held in
who acted as commander, with seven hundred Camea warm hand for a few seconds, is as much as can be A HIGHLAND CHIEF OF THE SEVENTEENTH
rons, and soon became remarkable for taking the lead borne, in consequence of the intense pricking heat and
CENTURY. flow of tears which it occasions. Owing to this fact, The Abbotsford Club, an association of gentlemen 1652, when Glencairn lay at Tullich, in Braemar, the
in every dangerous enterprise. Towards the end of I generally use it by causing the patient to shut the eyelid during its application, which can then be con- who print for their own private use old manuscripts Camerons held a post at a little distance, between the tinued for a minute or two with the same beneficial illustrative of our national history, have within the royalists and the republican troops. The latter adeffect upon the eye, and without inconvenience to the last few weeks completed the impression of one of an vanced to give a surprise, but were warmly received patient. It generally contracts the pupil, and very unique nature—a memoir, to wit, of Sir Ewen Came- by Locheil, who defended the pass against them, until seldom dilates it. I used to employ iodine by putting it into the same
ron of Locheil, a distinguished Highland chief of the Glencairn had drawn off to a place of safety. In the bottles, and immersing it in hot water, and in its state seventeenth century. We call it unique, because no hurry of retreat, the earl forgot to give any orders for of vapour applying it to the eye ; but I now find it Highland chief of past time ever had the honour of so the retirement of Locheil's people, who accordingly, answers much better when dissolved in the bisulphu- extensive a biography. The work was composed, it with blind devotion to duty, stood opposed for hours ret of carbon.
It is my intention, shortly, to give a full account of is believed, about the year 1740, by John Drummond to the whole advancing force, and, but for the advan-
history, it is a highly curious production, and it throws of 1653 and 1654, Locheil took an equally conspicuous
The chief beheld with rage a great colony of Sassewere so great when its vapour was confined to the eye, hundred years ago, the fact is, that Sir Ewen Cameron nach soldiers planted near his domains, and prowled I was led to apply it in the form of vapour, and by was a man of very admirable character. In majesty round it for some days, but was unable to make an means of glass bottles similar to those I have described. of personal appearance, he is said to have coped with attack. He had dismissed all his men to their homes, By these means, I excluded the action of the medicine his contemporary Louis XIV. Some of his exploits excepting about thirty-five, most of whom were from the external air, and thereby prevented its speedy evaporation. When it had been applied about in the resistance to Cromwell call up the recollection dunny-wassels, or gentlemen, when two vessels conone minute, the patient felt the part very cold, but of Wallace, Tell, and Kosciusko. And throughout taining large detachments of the garrison were obimmediately after a gradual heat, accompanied with a life of ninety years, though he might often have served sailing into Loch Eil, their design being to great prickling—the heat increasing the longer the been called rebel, no one could ever attribute to him gather wood and provisions on the hostile lands. One could no longer be endured. On removing the glass, what would pass before a jury of candid men as a of the vessels discharged its company on the side where the part was red to an extent two or three times dishonourable action. Indeed he was a remarkable Cameron was stationed, and he determined on attackgreater than the part enclosed. In a few days the instance of the concentration of the finest qualities ing them, though they were four or five times his numchange in the size of the glands was very great ; and that belong to the peculiar rank and state of society ber. Some of his friends, men who had been accusby its daily repetition, a complete and speedy removal in which his lot was cast.
tomed to the intrepid doings of Montrose, objected to of the disease was effected. I also find that its action upon diseased glands is more decided if the surface of
The Camerons occupy a considerable territory in the rashness of the scheme, but were persuaded to the skin is well moistened with water previous to the the district of Lochaber, in Inverness-shire, and were, join in it nevertheless, only demanding that Locheil application of the bottle to the part.
in the time of Charles I., a clan capable of sending and his brother Allan should remain apart, as the The water, in fact, not only prevents the escape of from seven hundred to a thousand armed men into the hopes of the clan depended entirely on them. Locheil the vapour between the glass and the skin, but assists field. Ewen Cameron, born in 1629 to the unquestioned agreed as to his brother, but not as to himself, and the the imbibition of the carbon ; a point of the highest importance, inasmuch as all its action on the part rule of this tribe, was brought up under the care of young man was accordingly bound to a tree, to make depends upon the exclusion of the atmosphere from the Marquis of Argyle, the chief of the anti-royalist sure that he would not engage ; yet he, after all, prethe vapour. I may here observe, that these applica-party in Scotland throughout the civil war. He re- vailed on a boy to cut his bonds, and went off to join tions occasion no injury whatever to the skin.
ceived little school learning, but much instruction the fight, where he arrived just in time to save his I have also found the bisulphuret of carbon and the from the conversation of men, and became a proficient brother's life, by shooting an English soldier who was chlorocyanic acid valuable medicines in the removal of deafness, depending upon a want of nervous energy in all manly and warlike exercises. Never was master taking aim at him. and deficiency of wax. "The mode of its application less successful in impressing his mind upon a pupil The English soldiers met the assault not unpreis substantially the same as that which I employ in than was Argyle with young Locheil. All the effect paredly, and with the greatest firmness, but in their diseases of the eye, with this difference only, that the of the example and tutelage of years was effaced by arms and mode of fighting, they were no fair match bottle is formed with a small neck and stopper adapted
one conversation which the youth obtained clandes- for the Flighlanders, who, having first poured in upon to the size of the orifice of the ear, and held close to the organ until a considerable degree of warmth is tinely with the royalist Sir Robert Spottiswood, the them a destructive fire of musketry, and then taking produced
day before his execution. Sir Robert gave him such a to their broadswords, put them at once upon the deThe action of these medicines, which contain so
view of the politics of the period, that he became, fensive. To save themselves from the blows of the large a share of carbon, arises from the carbon in the from that hour, a steady royalist, notwithstanding all broadsword, they held their muskets across their forevapour permeating the cuticle, and coming in contact with the oxygen in the vessels, which is conveyed the opposite arguments of his tutor. Little did the heads ; the Camerons then struck below. Some took
to their swords, but these the Highlanders warded off through every part of the frame by inspiration and venerable Spottiswood think what a weapon he was otherwise, and thereby forming carbonic acid gas, leaving for the revenge of his death upon the party with their targets. Some thrust with the bayonet; which evolves heat in the ratio of the quantity con- who ordered it. Not long after this event, Came- but, the point once received in the Ilighland target, sumed by the oxygen. The following quotations from Professor Liebig, in ron, succeeding by the death of his grandfather both musket and bayonet were useless. Their ranks
were soon thinned, but still they fought with resoluin his work on " Organic Chemistry,” sufficiently to the chiefship, went home to his people, who met prove the correctness of this position :-—" It is only him at the distance of a day's journey on the way, I tion, and when they did retire, it was with regularity.