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an increased degree of intimacy between Rose and Not one unkind or intemperate word escaped poor

It was after one of these distressing conversaticns Ellen, but to the deep regret of the former, she per- Rose's lips ; not one word that could be construed that Rose Hamilton, with more determination than ceived that the growing regard which she acknow- into regret at her engagement, or hesitation at her had been expected from her, promised that, whatever ledged for . Ellen was a perpetual source of irritation approaching marriage ; but she confessed how sensible) the struggle might be, she would give up all thoughts

of to Newton Grey. It was this cireumstance, too evi- she was of Newton's faults of temper, and of the for- “ But it must be done at once, dear father," sheer. dent to escape observation, which first startled the bearance that would be necessary on her part ; she claimed ; " and—and—do not leave me ; Newton is light-hearted girl with the fear that there might be lamented, in touching language, the strange aversion coming in an hour, and your presence will give me some truth in the reports she had heard of his un- he had taken to her cousin and Ellen, even while she courage. The distress of mind I have endured, and governed temper. Hitherto, her young life had passed spoke of her hope, that by and by she should be able the pain I have suffered, have made me weak and her in the sunshine of affection and prosperity, without a to renew their former intimacy. This led naturally indeed-indeed, dear father, I am happier now that 1 cloud to cast its shadow and dull the flow of her na- to the conjecture, how far the influence of “ a wife” have decided.”. Yet she burst into tears as she spoke. turally joyous spirits. So bright and happy had her inight control her wayward husband, and Rose con- It was a trying interview which decided the fate of life been, that she seemed scarcely to have had time fessed she had already learned the bitter lesson, that each, and one for which Newton Grey was totally tupra to think deeply or judge of life correctly. Returning to avoid outbreaks of passion, she must conceal from pared. For a while his best friends believed that its com

sequences would prove to him a lesson for life ; and fully the love that Newton really bore her, their en- him such passing events as she thought likely to crushed was he for a time by Rose's decision, that there gagement sanctioned and approved by both families, annoy him. This was the greatest trial to her open really did appear some prospect of amendment. But and in fortune his equal, it seemed that the “course candid nature ; and to feel that the unlimited confi- stead of repenting of his misconduct, he shortly went of their true love” was to falsify the proverb, and“ run dence for which she yearned must be for ever re- abroad, and in three months he returned with–a vile! smoothly.” Now, however, poor Rose saw the cloud strained, was a perpetual care to her. In short, she Yes, a wife is easily obtained, provided people are upon the horizon, and felt that it was growing had discovered, that to Newton Grey belonged the one not too particular. The heart of Newton Grey had darker and more threatening every hour of her ex- marked characteristic of ill-tempered people.; namely, than the world was inclined to believe, for a bad-ten istence. Many feelings contended in her mind. On he never owned himself in the wrong, and would never pered man is not necessarily an unfeeling one. Ile het the one hand, she felt that she already owed to New- listen to reason, when reason was opposed to his own determined on a tour through part of France and Gier ton so much of the deference of a wife, as should in- view of the case.

many, solely with the hope that a change of scene would

work beneficially on his mind, though certainly not with duce her to yield to his wishes in the choice of her asso- Something of all this, though spoken in sorrow, not the idea of finding any one to supplant Rose in his after ciates ; but, on the other hand, she could not blind her. in anger, and interrupted more than once by tears

, tions. A marriage so hasty as that of Newton Grey mouse self to the fact, that the husband would be very likely was Rose's confession to her friend ; though, when he was engaged a little more than a week," he had not to prove an absolute tyrant, since the lover, without Newton Grey, pale with passion, entered the room, known the lady two months when he made her his site one plausible reason, exerted a degree of influence, how much or how little he had overheard, neither of It is possible that he took soine pains to curb, his temper which verged very nearly on authority, to withdraw them ever knew. The truth was, that he had left fiery steed too tightly

held, it appeared afterwards, we her from the society of a relative with whom she had home to keep his appointment with Rose, before her the reins were loosened, beyond all control. Neither iad been on sisterly terms since infancy, and from a friend messenger, who had probably loitered on his way, ar- he strong affection to act as a check, for to his ott whose companionship was becoming every day more rived, and had entered by the garden-gate, as he fre- heart he confessed that he had married entirely from dear to her, and whose advice and friendship she knew quently did, unannounced. lle had proceeded to the but the proverb concerning good intentions is somewhat

pique. Still, he intended to prove a good husband: to be most precious. Naturally of a truthful disposi- next drawing-room, where Rose usually sat, and which trite. The lady was one of those commonplace, etara tion, she shrunk from the thought of deceiving him, was only separated

by folding doors from that in which terless mortals, whose destiny entirely depends on the and yet had not the courage to meet those bursts of she and her friend were conversing. It is probable and good principle as might, in a union with a man pasa anger--not, it is true, precisely directed against her that, with all his faults, he would not have conde-sessing good sense and decision, have been raised abere self-—with which he usually received all mention of scended to play the eaves'-dropper longer than the few the general standard; but she was lamentably deitiest their names ; and yet her heart told her that he had moments during which his quickly kindled indigna- liave influenced the infirmity, or counteracted the enl no right to demand from her that she should act with tion might irresistibly have detained him; indeed, effects of her husband's temper. They returned to unkindness and ingratitude. The natural result of the abrupt manner in which he broke in upon their England, and only a few months were necessary to pro this indecision was, that she learned to temporise. conference, was a sufficient proof that he was no in- claim to the world that they were a miserable coupie Without promising to give up their society, or definitely tentional listener.

Wlien the world makes a discovery of this kind, it is a

proof that matters have arrived at a sad pitch; for the intending to do so, she avoided all conversation likely

“I fear, ladies, I am an intruder,” he exclaimed, in bonds of propriety must be often strained and warped to lead to the dangerous subject. But, alas! when one & voice of suppressed rage, in which there was also a reveal to a stranger's eye the source of disunion. Oh, tha

by private disagreement before they burst asunder, and topic is in this manner shunned or interdicted, it in

tone of irony; "but as I seem the subject of your wretchedness of that home-made infelicity of which volves so many petty concealments, that the sweet discourse, I may have some right to the benefit of temper is the cause ! A wretchedness more insidious in solace of confidence is perfectly destroyed. your remarks."

its approaches, and really more disastrous in its ravages

, Keenly did Rose Hamilton feel this truth ; and so They were all standing, and Rose laid her hand unstained, unbegotten by guilt) enlist virtuous sympaths,

than those great calamities which (provided they are perceptibly were her spirits depressed by it, that as imploringly on his arm. Though the contact was and have a dignity which supports. But temper is a secret the day appointed for her marriage drew near, the but momentary, she felt that be trembled with pås- pared, and by repeated petty stings, wears away happi

and treacherous foe, which comes on you when least pro friends most anxious for her welfare began to fear she sion, and hissing forth, rather than uttering, the one

ness even as the perpetual dropping of water wears away had repented of her choice. Extreme hilarity might word annoyance,” he raised his own arm hastily to a stone. And, what is the worst, it has a corruptis have seemed unsuitable for the occasion, but there is throw back the proffered hand. Let it not be sup- power; for experience shows that a really good tempore a quiet sort of trusting happiness which is very un- | posed for a moment that he intended to strike or hurt exposed to the constant irritation of a decidedly bad eue,

loses, in the course of time, its own amiability. likely to be mistaken for regret. In part, however, they her; he would not then, in early life, have raised his

What, then, must have been the influence of Nextor were mistaken, for she had loved with all the faith hand against a woman, far less against the woman he Grey's temper on the character of his weak, half-ednosted and fervour of a womanly heart, and she had the really loved, even in his wildest anger: but Rose, wife? She had been inclined to look up to her bastante womanly weakness to cling to the object of her choice, almost fainting with apprehension already, and thrown dignified in bursts of anger about trifling matters that notwithstanding she had learned to see his faults. back with soine force by his arm, caught her foot in neither man nor woman in whom they are discovered

How triting an event often guides us to the most the fringe of a footstool, and fell with violence to the can be really respected. When esteem passed aFire important steps in our life, and how thankful we ground. Calmed in some measure by such an accident, love a love based only on the sandy foundation of en

ternals-soon crumbled away also. Then, instead of ought to be, when, distracted by indecision, an acci- he raised her almost with tenderness; but Ellen Saville

mere outbreaks on his side, came downright quarrels

, in dent induces us to turn the scale-wisely! The wed- afterwards remembered that Rose appeared to shrink, which her temper, also, had fall play. Reproaches ding day was fixed—the wedding guests invited. It as if instinctively, from his touch. The noise of ler criminations, deception followed, weaving an inextricable was a bright autumnal morning, and Rose had pro- fall quickly brought servants to the room; and as it re-united ostensibly for the sake only of two clima

web of discord. Disgraced by frequent separatious

, sani mised that she would take her last ride with Newton was soon discovered that her ankle was injured, a which had been born to them, years passed ou. The Grey as Rose Hamilton. She had named twelve surgeon was immediately sent for. It proved to be heart of youth, to which belong such bright hopes and o'clock as the hour she would be in readiness, but an only a very violent sprain, which, however, confined lofty aspirations, rotted away in the viie atmosphere and early visit from Ellen Saville induced her to send a her to the sofa for several weeks.

bring more solid satisfaction, did not even open to the message to Newton, whose home was not half a mile The one misfortune of Rose's life was, that from husband and wife a vista of future liappiness. distant, to beg he would call for her at two o'clock infancy she had been motherless, otherwise she might wonder that they became a source of trouble to their instead. Although it was not formally so named, she have required less severe schooling than that which parents rather than a blessing. Treated only with capri felt it was a farewell visit from her friend, whose “good had at last taught her the precarious tenure on which cious fits of fondness, and reproved not in proportion to sense” had acquitted poor Rose of all blame in one or happiness in a union with Newton Grey was likely either parent

, they never even understood the body two recent slights which had been passed upon her. Each was sorrowful, and each felt that there was a marriage, and this necessary delay gave her time for to strife, they felt its horrors

. Pitiable are the morning subject on which they had not yet spoken without re- reflection and decision. A shudder had passed through to whom -- liome” has not a sweet sound, to set

Rose IIamilton had not dared to invite Ellen her frame when Newton Grey lifted her from the danghter of Newton Grey were of that sad numberede to be present at her marriage, and yet her heart ground, for at that moment came the conviction, that they grew up, cacim year strengthened their ardent de prompted her to offer an apology for this seeming now

his temper was, and henceforth would be, to her, 1 to be free from the galling yoke to which they did het neglect. She began some set phrases ; but nature was as well as the rest of the world, ungoverned; but she too powerful, and she burst into tears. Ellen was was a loving girl, and not without pain could she eren

fected by their household demon of ill-temper, but their silent, though the briny drops sparkled in her own listen to the judicious arguments of her father and / Grey's estates were entailed, so that his son must til oyes, and the kiss she imprinted on Rose's cheek was friends, who, taking advantage of the impression on very eloquent. They sat for a few minutes clasped her mind which leis violence had already made, wisely its bus tehdas fathe probudilisten to no intresties om die

son to study for a profession, and in hand in hand, but that gush of feeling had broken the strengthened it, by pointing out the inevitable misery subjet

, and instead of at least speaking reasonable in ice of reserve, and they soon spoke freely. Rose's which would result from such a marriage, and impler secret sorrow was revealed, if that could be called ing her, while there was yet time, to dissolve the ensecret which her friend lad long suspected. gagement.

than ever : is there any wonder that he left it?

Poor Rose (she had been named after her father's

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sane ravings of passion. His lome was more intolerable

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early love), bereft of her brother, was more wretched fast friend, but in passion he liad cast him off; he are usually placed under the shelter of the branches of
than ever though people did say she knew his plans, and had been blessed with the love of a true-hearted and some overhanging tree in the most retired part of the
from time to time the progress of his fortunes. Poor high-minded woman, but he lost his promised bride forest, and differ considerably in size. The base con-
girl, if her pale cheek and tearful eyes were any criterion, from the same cause ; from pique he had married one in sists of an extensive and rather convex platform of
they could not have been very promising. But a new no respect likely to make him happy, and after leading sticks, firmly interwoven, on the centre of which the
page was opening on her existence; the

great era of a for years a life of discord, he was deserted by his child. bower itself is built ; this, like the platform on which
woman's life-love-was approaching. Before she was
twenty, her heart had found its mate. It is true that contributed to his comfort ; and on his deathbed he could it is placed, and with which it is interwoven, is formed
he on whom she had fixed her affections was one to make no dearer reparation for their sufferings, than be of sticks and twigs, but of a more slender and flexible
whom her parents would never have given her, for he was stowing on them their just inheritance. Yea, premature description. The tips of the twigs being so arranged
poor, and belonged also to a family they disliked. In death was but the last and crowning evil in a catalogue

as to curve inwards, and nearly meet at the top ; in
the earlier stages of the intimacy, the attachment might of miseries which proceeded from BAD TEMPER ! the interior of the bower, the materials are so placed
easily have been checked, but they had neglected to win

that the forks of the twigs are always presented outin childhood their daughter's confidence, and they did

wards, by which arrangement not the slightest obnot meet with it now. And even when at last the fiat THE BOWER-BIRD OF AUSTRALIA.

struction is offered to the passage of the birds. The
went forth that the lovers were to part, she might have It has been often observed, that all the productions interest of this curious bower is much enhanced by
of kindness, had she respected and loved her parents, of Australia have a strange, and what may almost be the manner in which it is decorated at and near the
had her home been happy. But tones of anger, and the called an eccentric, character. The plants, the animals, can be collected, such as the Blue tail-feathers of the

entrance with the most gaily-coloured articles that
upbraiding of passion, contrasted dangerously for their and the fishes, have all something peculiar about them, Rose-hill and Pennantian parrots, bleached bones, the
influence with the soft whisperings of affection.
too, left the paternal roof, and as the wife of lim

her which distinguishes them from similar objects in the shells of snails, &c. ; some of the feathers are stuck in
father disapproved, was an outcast from it. And now Old World ; and it now appears that some of the amongst the twigs; while others, with the bones and
when there are the fairest excuses for them, always least quite as distinct in their habits. One in par- any attractive object is so well known to the natives,
the parent's hearth was lonely. Such marriages, even birds, though not so remarkable in their forms, are at shells, are strewed about near the entrances. The

propensity of these birds to pick up and fly off with consider four years of privation and penury, which chased ticular, called the Bower-Bird (Ptilonorynchus Holo- that they always search the runs for any small missaway the bloom of life, sufficient retribution for the fault sericeus), appears to have pursuits of its own, and ing article, as the bowl of a pipe, &c., that may have of Rose Grey.

apparently to take trouble, and display taste, in the been aocidentally dropped in the brush. I myself The scene is shifted, though still we are telling of lovers construction of a bower, destined only as a place of found at the entrance of one of them a small neatly the bells are ringing. The mansion where the wedding recreation. The following extracts from Mr Gould's length, together with some slips of blue cotton rags, guests are assembled is not half so stately as that of splendid work, “The Birds of Australia,"

,* will give which the birds had doubtless picked up at a deserted
Newton Grey, but what happy beings it contains ! A

this singular animal :- encampment of the natives.
daughter of George Hamilton weds one who is not only some idea of the habits
her heart's own choice, but the approved of her parents,

5 Although this species has been long known to For what purpose these curious bowers are made,
the already beloved of her family.
smooth brow and truthful eye; she knows discord and South Wales, its habits, which in many respects are
Look at her fair ornithologists, and is familiar to the colonists of New is not yet, perhaps, fully understood ; they are cer-

tainly not used as a nest, but as a place of resort for
deceit only by name; can she carry into another family

many individuals of both sexes, which, when there aught but blessings and peace ? And trustingly does the most extraordinary, have hitherto escaped attention; assembled, run through and around the bower in a bridegroom feel that he is blessed beyond the common or, if not entirely so, have never been brought before sportive and playful manner, and that so frequently, lot of men. He cannot even regret the drops that fall the scientific world. It is, therefore, a source of high that it is seldom entirely deserted,

The proceedings of these birds have not been suffilingers for another and another farewell kiss; and lie gratification to myself to be the first to place them on

ciently watched to render it certain whether the runs listens to the father's empbatic blessing on the child record.

are frequented throughout the whole year or not; but
* to whom he had never cause to say one harsh word.” One point to which I more particularly allude-a it is highly probable that they are merely resorted to
He could not wish, he would not ask, her to quit without point of no ordinary interest both to the naturalist as a rendezvous, or playing-ground, at the pairing time,
emotion the home endeared to her by the holiest and

und during the period of incubation. was at this
happiest associations, the home which had fostered the and the general admirer of nature—is the formation
rare flower he was taking away-a home where he fondly of a bower-like structure by this bird, for the purpose from the internal indications of those I dissected, that

season, as I judged from the state of the plumage, and
pictured her, but with a matron's dignity, as henceforth of a playing-ground, or hall of assembly, a circumstance I visited these localities. The bowers, 1 found, had been
the most welcome guest.

But Ellen did not leave her parents alone. Two other in its economy which adds another to the many ano- recently renewed ; it was, however, evident, from the
fair daughters, and two noble-hearted sons, remained to malies connected with the Fauna of Australia.

appearance of a portion of the accumulated mass of
gladden their hearth with their presence. On this joyful The localities favourable to the habits of the Satin sticks, &c., that the same spot had been used as a place
occasion, there was present, amongst other friends, a Bower-bird, are the luxuriant and thickly-foliaged me, that, after having destroyed one of these bowers,

of resort for many years. Mr Charles Coxen informed
of all
, and who left a costly
jewel upon the bride's finger

, brushes, stretching along the coast from Port Philip and secreted himself, he had the satisfaction of seeing
as she tore herself from home. That lady was Rose to Moreton Bay, the cedar brushes of the Liverpool it partially re-constructed ; the birds engaged in this
Hamilton. To her friends it seemed unaccountable--and range, and most of the gullies of the great mountain- task, he added, were females. With much care and
we do not pretend to clear up the mystery that with chain separating the colony from the interior. So far trouble, I succeeded in bringing to England two fine

,
she had never married ; but so it was; and though she as is at present known, it is restricted to New South specimens of these bowers, one of which I presented

to the British Museum, and the other to the collection
had lost something of the high spirits for which in early Wales ; certainly it is not found so far to the west- at Leyden, where they may be seen by all those who
life she had been remarkable, she was considered one of ward as South Australia ; and I am not aware of its take an interest in the subject.”
the most estimable and agreeable people in the world.

Another species, called the spotted bower-bird
It was to her that, a few minutes after the bride and having been seen on the north coast ; but its range in
bridegroom had departed, a letter was delivered, the that direction can only be determined by future re- (Chlamydera maculata), appears to have nearly the
perusal of which drew tears from her eyes, far different search.

same habits :-"In many of its actions, and in the
in their source from those which had just sprung from It is a stationary species, but appears to range from between this species and the Satin Bower-bird, parti-

greater part of its economy, much similarity exists
such joyful emotions. It was a hurried epistle from the
daughter of Newton Grey. to her benefactress ; for Rose of varying the nature, or of obtaining a more abun- ficial bower, or playing-ground. I was so far fortunate

one part of a district to another, either for the purpose cularly in the curious habit of constructing an arti-
Hamilton had lately discovered Rose Grey in poverty
and sickness, and had, by kindly sympathy and gene-

dant supply, of food. Judging from the contents of as to discover several of these bowers during my jour-
rous bounty, relieved her misery: It was a letter im- the stomachs of the many specimens I dissected, it ney to the interior, the finest of which I succeeded in
ploring Miss Hamilton's presence in the house of mourn | would seem that it is altogether granivorous and bringing to England, and it is now in the British
ing; whither the writer had been summoned at her frugivorous ; or, if not exclusively so, that insects form Museum. The situations of these runs, or bowers, are

much varied ; I found them both on the plains studded

Independently of nu-
but attired in the gala dress sie had assumed in compli- | but a small portion of its diet.
ment to her dear cousin, Rose Hamilton departed imme- merous berry-bearing plants and shrubs, the brushes and in the brushes clothing the lower hills. They are

with myalls (Acacia pendula) and other small trees,
diately, using for her journey, which was only one of a it inhabits are studded with enormous fig-trees, some considerably longer and more avenue-like than those
few miles, one of the carriages that had conveyed the of them towering to the height of two hundred feet. of the Satin Bower-bird, being in many instances three
life present ! And surely scenes so opposite as those in Among the lofty branches of these giants of the forest, feet in length. They are outwardly built of twigs,
which Rose Hamilton that day participated would have the Satin Bower-bird, and several species of pigeons, and beautifully lined with tall grasses, so disposed, that
affected minds far less susceptible of receiving impres- find in the small wild fig, with which the branches their heads nearly meet; the decorations are very pro-
sions than her gentle nature had ever been !

are loaded, an abundant supply of a favourite food. fuse, and consist of bivalve shells, crania of small mam-
Yes, Newton Grey was dying; and before his once be- This species also commits considerable depredation on malia, and other bones. Evident and beautiful indica-
loved Rose reached the house, his erring spirit had fied. any ripening corn near the localities it frequents. It tions of design are manifest throughout the whole of
In a fit of ignoble anger at some trivial domestic annoy: appears to have particular times in the day for feed- the bower and decorations formed by this species,
ance, he had ruptured a blood vessel, and though the best ing; and when thus engaged among the low shrub- particularly in the manner in which the stones are
medical advice was immediately summoned, it proved like trees, I have approached within a few feet without placed within the bower, apparently to keep the
unavailing. Speechless almost from the moment of liis creating alarm; but at other times I have found this grasses with which it is lined fixed firmly in their
seizure, he yet lingered for a few hours, during which bird extremely shy and watchful, especially the old places. These stones diverge from the mouth of the
time, it would seem that his heart relented towards his males, which not unfrequently perch on the topmost
offending daughter, for he, with some difficulty, expressed branch or dead limb of the loftiest tree in the forest, immense collection of decorative materials, bones,

run on each side, so as to form little paths; while the
his desire that she should be sent

for. None ever knew whence they can survey all around, and watch the shells, &c., are placed in a heap before the entrance of probable that the discarded daughter told who had been movements of the females and young in the brush be- the avenue, this arrangement being the same at both her greatest and truest friend, and it was very natural that, low. In the autumn, they associate in small flocks, ends. In some of the larger bowers, which had eviin the

grief and bewilderment of such a shock, she should and may often be seen on the ground near the sides dently been resorted to for many years, I have seen
seek the counsel and presence of Miss Hamilton. Mrs of rivers, particularly when the brush descends in a nearly half a bushel of bones, shells, &c., at each of the
Grey, although long since something more than indifferent steep bank to the water's edge.

entrances. In some instances, small bowers, composed
to her husband, seemed stunned by the blow which The extraordinary bower-like structure, alluded to almost entirely of grasses, apparently the commence-
had become so infected by his, and her mind so frittered museum of which place an example had been
changed so materially her position; but her own temper above, first came under my notice at Sidney, to the ment of a new place of rendezvous, were observable.

pre- frequently found these structures at a considerable
away by frequent and degrading contentions, that she sented by Mr Charles Coxen, as the work of the Satin distance from the rivers, from the borders of which
was utterly incapable of directing and advising, as was at Bower-bird. I at once determined to leave no means they could alone have procured the shells and small
once her right and dut yet still, her daughter had to bear untried for ascertaining

every particular relating to round pebbly stones ; their collection and transportation an imbecile child than anything else, but which, however, this peculiar feature in the bird's economy; and, on must therefore be a task of great labour and difficulty. distressing and annoying, were, from their inconsistency visiting the cedar brushes of the Liverpool range, I dis- As these birds feed almost entirely on seeds and fruits, and the weakness of her character, otherwise powerless covered several of these bowers, or playing places. They the shells and bones cannot have been collected for Of course the absent heir appeared, wiser perhaps for the

any other purpose than ornament; besides, it is only world's rough usage ; but if so, it had been a bitter school-containing seventeen plates, beautifully coloured. The drawings

* This splendid work is published in numbers, folio, each those that have been bleached perfectly white in the ing, and his wisdom dearly purchased.

sun, or such as have been roasted by the natives, and And now let us pause for a moment. It had been by her. The numbers are three guineas

euch, and are published ! by this means whitened, that attract their attention. the lot of Newton Grey to have a warm and stead-'by Mr Gyuld, Broad Street, Golden Square.

! I fully ascertained that these runs, like those of the

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SECOND ARTICLE.

upon this

Satin Bower-bird, formed the rendezvous of many in- satisfaction of passing his hand up the back, and rub- and eddied, and awoke the echoes, being troubled yet, dividuals ; for, after secreting myself for a short space bing it the wrong way.”

far down beneath the surface, by its giant leap; to of time near one of them, I killed two males, which I But the inquisitive gentleman, it seems, was not have Niagara before me, lighted by the sun and by had previously seen running through the avenue.” more odd than another character on board. The boat the moon, red in the day's decline, and grey as evening

getting unduly crammed with passengers, all the ori- slowly fell upon it ; to look upon it every day, and DICKENS'S NOTES ON AMERICA.

ginal inmates grumbled except our tourist, who, being wake up in the night, and hear its ceaseless voice : this a foreigner, held his peace. Not so a gentleman from was enough. I think in every quiet season now, still

the forests of the Mississippi, who, walking to and fro do those waters roll and leap, and roar and tumble, all Mr DICKENS's second volume is, on the whole, more on deck, and without addressing anybody whomsoever, day long; still are the rainbows spanning them, & lively, and contains a few more sketches of character soliloquised as follows :-—"This may suit you, this hundred feet below. Still, when the sun is on them, than the first, besides presenting the author's general may, but it don't suit ine. This may be all very well do they shine and glow like molten gold. Still, when remarks on the Americans and their institutions. At with Down Easters and men of Boston raising, but it the day is gloomy, do they fall like snow, or seem to the opening of the volume, we find him in a night. won't suit my figure no how; and no two ways about crumble away like the front of a great chalk cliff, or steamer on the Potomac, bound from Washington on that; and so I tell you. Now! I'm from the brown roll adown the rock like dense white smoke. But an excursion towards the southern states. The scene forests of the Mississippi, I am ; and when the sun always does the mighty stream appear to die as it on board the boat, a kind of Noah's ark, is described shines on me, it does shine-a little. It don't glimmer comes down, and always from its unfathomable grave with the author's usual drollery.

where I live; the sun don't. No. I'm a brown forester, arises that tremendous ghost of spray and mist which The cabin—"to my horror and amazement, it is full I am. I an't a Johnny Cake. There are no smooth is never laid—which has haunted this place with the of sleepers in every stage, shape, attitude, and variety skins where I live. We're rough men there. Rather. same dread solemnity since darkness brooded on the of slumber : in the berths, on the chairs, on the floors, If Down Easters and men of Boston raising like this, deep, and that first flood before the deluge-lighton the tables, and particularly round the stove, my I'm glad of it, but I'm none of that raising nor of that came rushing on creation at the word of God." detested enemy. As the chairs are all occupied, and breed. No. This company wants a little fixing, it Travelling through Canada, he is pleased to find there is nothing else to put my clothes on, I deposit does. I'm the wrong sort of man for 'em, I am. They that noble country at length in the way of advancethem upon the ground : not without soiling my hands, won't like me, they won't. This is piling of it up, a ment. In a vessel from Quebec to Montreal, many Engfor it is in the same condition as the carpets in the little too moũntainoŭs, this is. At the end of every lish emigrants were on board, and “it was wonderful Capitol, and from the same cause. Having but par one of these short sentences he turned upon his heel, to see how clean the children had been kept, and how tially undressed, I clamber on my shelf, and hold the and walked the other way; checking himself abruptly untiring in their love and self-denial all the poor curtain open for a few minutes, while I look round on when he had finished another short sentence, and turn- parents were.” The sentiments which such a specall my fellow-travellers again. That done, I let it fall ing back again. It is impossible for me to say what tacle of enterprise struggling with poverty excites, on them, and on the world : turn round: and go to terrific meaning was hidden in the words of this brown come warm from the heart. How much harder, he sleep. I wake, of course, when we get under weigh, forester; but I know that the other passengers looked observes, is it for the poor to be virtuous than the for there is a good deal of noise. The day is then just on in a sort of admiring horror, and that presently the rich. Bring the wealthy man here, “ breaking. Everybody wakes at the same time. Some boat was put back to the wharf, and as many of the crowded deck. Strip from his fair young wife her are self-possessed directly, and some are much per- Pioneers as could be coaxed or bullied into going away, silken dress and jewels

, unbind her braided hair, plexed to make out where they are, until they have were got rid of. When we started again, some of the stamp early wrinkles on her brow, pinch her pale rubbed their eyes, and leaning upon one elbow, looked boldest spirits on board made bold to say to the ob- cheek with care and much privation, array her faded about them. Some yawn, some groan, nearly all spit, vious occasion of this improvement in our prospects, form in coarsely-patched attire, let there be nothing and a few get up. I am among the risers : for it is. Much obliged to you, sir ;' whereunto the brown but his love to set her forth or deck her out, and you easy to feel, without going into the fresh air, that the forester (waving his hand, and still walking up and shall put it to the proof indeed. So change his station atmosphere of the cabin is vile in the last degree. I down as before) replied, “No you an't. You're none o' in the world, that he shall see in those young things huddle on my clothes, go down into the fore-cabin, my raising. You may act for yourselves, you may. I who climb about his knee—not records of his wealth get shaved by the barber, and wash myself

. The have pinted out the way. Down Easters and Johnny and name—but little wrestlers with him for his daily washing and dressing apparatus for the passengers, Cakes can follow if they please. I an't a Johnny bread ; so many poachers on his scanty meal ; 80 generally, consists of two jack-towels, three small Cake, I an't. I am from the brown forests of the many units to divide his every sum of comfort, and wooden basins, a keg of water, and a ladle to serve it Mississippi, I am'—and so on, as before. He was farther to reduce its small amount. In lieu of the out with, six square inches of looking-glass, two ditto unanimously voted one of the tables for his bed at endearments of childhood in its sweetest aspect, heap ditto of yellow soap, a comb and brush for the head, night-there is a great contest for the tables--in con upon him all its pains and wants, its sicknesses and and nothing for the teeth. Everybody uses the comb sideration of his public services; and he had the ills, its fretfulness, caprice, and querulous endurance ; and brush, except myself. Everybody stares to see warmest corner by the stove throughout the rest of let its prattle be, not of engaging infant fancies, but me using my own; and two or three gentlemen are the journey. But I'never could find out that he did any of cold, and thirst, and hunger; and if his fatherly strongly disposed to banter me on my prejudices, but thing except sit there ; nor did I hear him speak again, affection outlive all thiş, and he be patient, watchful, don't. When I have made my toilet, I go upon the until

, in the midst of the bustle and turmoil of getting tender-careful of his children's lives, and mindful hurricane-deck, and set in for two hours of hard walk- the luggage ashore in the dark at Pittsburg, I stumbled always of their joys and sorrows—then send him back ing up and down. The sun is rising brilliantly ; we over him as he sat smoking a cigar on the cabin steps, to parliament, and pulpit, and to quarter sessions, are passing Mount Vernon, where Washington lies and heard him muttering to himself, with a short and when he hears fine talk of the depravity of those buried; the river is wide and rapid ; and its banks laugh of defiance, 'I an't a Johnny Cake, I an't. I'm who live from hand to mouth, and labour hard to do are beautiful. All the glory and splendour of the day from the brown forests of the Mississippi, I am. I it, let him speak up, as one who knows, and tell those are coming on, and growing brighter every minute." am inclined to argue from this, that he had never left holders forth that they, by parallel with such a class,

Proceeding to Richmond, the author has there an off saying so; but I could not make affidavit of that should be high angels in their daily lives, and lay but opportunity of observing slavery in its naked defor- part of the story, if required to do so by my queen humble siege to heaven at last.”. mity, with which he is heartily shocked, and then and country.”.

We must hasten to shut this pleasing book, and proceeds on his intended journey to the western From Pittsburg, Mr Dickens went down the Ohio leave the reader to peruse it entire, having now, we territories on the Ohio and Mississippi. The most to Cincinnati, which, like other tourists, he describes hope, given him a sufficiently copious specimen of its amusing part of the trip was that performed in a canal as a beautiful city; cheerful, thriving, and animated, contents. We close with a few of the author's conboat on the route to Pittsburg, and which Boz hits off and with society intelligent and courteous. Proceed- cluding observations on the American character. in the same graphic and good-humoured way as the ing onward, he steams up the Mississippi as far as St After denouncing that hideous social feature, slavery, scene on the Potomac. One of the passengers was an Louis, to take a view of that noble but very muddy prevalent in some of the states, he sums up the qualioddity.

river, and have a peep at a prairie, neither of which ties of the people as follows :-" They are, by nature, “There was a man on board this boat, with a light are very satisfactory. Afterwards returning to Cincin- frank, brave, cordial, hospitable, and affectionate. fresh-coloured face, and a pepper-and-salt suit of nati, he stages it northward to Lake Erie. The Falls Cultivation and refinement seem but to enhance their clothes, who was the most inquisitive fellow that can of Niagara, a main object in the journey, call forth warmth of heart and ardent enthusiasm ; and it is possibly be imagined. He never spoke otherwise than exclamations of the deepest piety and enthusiasm. the possession of these latter qualities in a most reinterrogatively. He was an embodied inquiry. Sit- The front view of the torrent was stunning, and it markable degree, which renders an educated American ting down or standing up, still or moving, walking the was not till he reached Table Rock, and looked on one of the most endearing and most generous of deck or taking his meals, there he was, with a great the vast bright-green mass of water, that it came upon friends. I never was so won upon as by this class ; note of interrogation in each eye, two in his cocked him in full majesty.

never yielded up my full confidence and esteem so ears, two more in his turned-up nose and chin, at least “Then, when I felt how near to my Creator I was readily and pleasurably as to them ; never can shake half a dozen more about the corners of his mouth, and standing, the first effect, and the enduring one-in- again, in half a year, so many friends for whom I the largest one of all in his hair, which was brushed stant and lasting—of the tremendous spectacle, was seem to entertain the regard of half a life. These pertly off his forehead in a flaxen clump. Every but- peace. Peace of mind-tranquillity-calm recollec: qualities are natural, I implicitly believe, to the whole ton in his clothes said, ' Eh? What's that? Did you tions of the dead-great thoughts of eternal rest and people. That they are, however, sadly sapped and speak? Say that again, will you?' He was always happiness—nothing of gloom or terror. Niagara was blighted in their growth among the mass, and that wide awake, like the enchanted bride who drove her at once stamped upon my heart, an image of beauty; there are influences at work which endanger them husband frantic ; always restless ; always thirsting to remain there, changeless and indelible, until its still more, and give but little present promise of their for answers ; perpetually seeking and never finding. pulses cease to beat, for ever. Oh, how the strife and healthy restoration, is a truth that ought to be told. There never was such a curious man. I wore a fur trouble of our daily life receded from my view, and It is an essential part of every national character to great-coat at that time, and before we were well clear lessened in the distance, during the ten memorable pique itself mightily upon its faults, and to deduce of the wharf, he questioned me concerning it, and its days we passed on that enchanted ground! What tokens of its virtue or its wisdom from their very ex: price, and where I bought it, and when, and what fur voices spoke from out the thundering water ! what aggeration. One great blemish in the popular mind it was, and what it weighed, and what it cost. Then faces, faded from the earth, looked out upon me from of America, and the prolific parent of an innumerable he took notice of my watch, and asked what that cost, its gleaming depths ! what heavenly promise glistened brood of evils, is universal distrust. Yet, the Ameand whether it was a French watch, and where I got in those angels' tears, the drops of many hues, that rican citizen plumes himself upon this spirit, even it, and how I got it, and whether I bought it or had showered around, and twined themselves about the when he is sufficiently dispassionate to perceive the it given me, and how it went, and where the keyhole gorgeous arches which the changing rainbows made ! ruin it works ; and will often adduce it, in spite of was, and when I wound it, every night or every morn- I never stirred in all that time from the Canadian his own reason, as an instance of the great sagacity ing, and whether I ever forgot to wind it at all, and side, whither I had gone at first. I never crossed the and acuteness of the people, and their superior shrewdif I did, what then? Where had I been to last, and river again ; for I knew there were people on the ness and independence. where was I going next, and where was I going after other shore, and in such a place it is natural to shun Another prominent feature is the love of 'smart' that, and had I seen the president, and what did he strange company. To wander to and fro all day, and dealing, which gilds over many a swindle and gross say, and what did I say, and what did he say when I see the cataracts from all points of view; to stand breach of trust; many a defalcation, public and prihad said that? Eh ?°Lor now! do tell! Finding upon the edge of the Great Horse-Shoe Fall

, marking vate; and enables many a knave to hold his head up that nothing would satisfy him, I evaded his questions the hurried water gathering strength as it approached with the best, who well deserves a halter, though it after the first score or two, and in particular pleaded the verge, yet seeming, too, to pause before it shot has not been without its retributive operation ; for this ignorance respecting the name of the fur whereof the into the gulf below; to gaze from the river's level up smartness has done more in a few years to impair the coat was made. I am unable to say whether this was at the torrent as it came streaming down; to climb public credit, and to cripple the public resources, than the reason, but that coat fascinated him ever after the neighbouring heights, and watch it through the dull honesty, however rash, could have effected in a wards ;

he usually kept close behind me as I walked, trees, and see the wreathing water in the rapids hurry- century. T'he merits of a broken speculation, or a and moved as I moved, that he might look at it the ing on to take its fearful plunge ; to linger in the bankruptcy, or of a successful scoundrel, are not better; and he frequently dived into narrow places shadow of the solemn rocks three miles below; watch- gauged by its or his observance of the golden rule, after me at the risk of his life, that he might have the ing the river as, stirred by no visible cause, it heaved, I Do as you would be done by,' but are considered with

reference to their smartness. I recollect, on both oc her pocket, she set out for the village of her native family, for, of course, in Peney's idea, they must now casions of our passing that ill-fated Cairo on the Mis- parish to commence business as a baker.

become common servants. " Quite a mistake,” said sissippi, remarking on the bad effects such gross deceits It was considered a strange speculation for a fe- the other ; “ I have arranged about that also ; they must have when they exploded, in generating a want male ; but Peney thought nothing of this. She had may do many things with my assistance which they of confidence abroad, and discouraging foreign invest-previously fixed her mind upon a shop. It was a could not do without it, and I only regret we ment; but I was given to understand that this was a house that had once been good, but for many years had not thought of all this eighteen months ago ; it very smart scheme by which a deal of money had been deserted in consequence of the failure of heirs, and of would have saved me some hundred pounds direct, bemade ; and that its smartest feature was, that they which she had obtained a perpetual lease from the sides the risk of re-letting this unfortunate little place." forgot these things abroad in a very short time, and proprietor of the village, almost in the nature of a Peney said, everything had been so well selected, and speculated again as freely as ever.”

gift. Peney made good the roof, walls, and windows, got on the best terms.“ To be sure,” it was answered, It would be well, he observes, if the Americans in the meantime, and in the one end of the lower but who ever heard of a displenishing without loss ? loved the “real less and the ideal more ;" but all gene- part established a bakery, in the other a flour-store “And what is it supposed must be the loss ?" asked ral efforts at social improvement will utterly fail- and grocery, in case for a time the bakery should not Peney. The inventory was laid on the table ; and, education, temperance, churches, everything while entirely occupy her. Even this first touch astonished after mutual consideration, it was agreed that, beone grand foul abuse is suffered to go on unchecked : her neighbours ; for here she had obtained one of the tween the loss on the stock, and a year's rent to the this is the “ newspaper press,” a monster of depravity, best houses in the village to begin with, almost for a landlord for cancelling the lease, the damage could which leads and rules public opinion, and before which song. The bread she furnished being excellent, and of not be under L.300. intellect and character must bow down and worship, honest weight, the bakery not only very soon occupied Peney’s colour came and went repeatedly ; and the ere they can expect public distinction. “While that her own time, but she required assistance; and in this gentleman felt for her, for he thought she was regretpress has its evil eye in every house, and its black also Peney showed her judgment. She employed no ting this loss as of her causing. But she was thinking hand in every appointment in the state, from a presi- man, to be rebelling against her, idling, and perhaps of other things also. She had become attached to dent to a postman ; while, with ribald slander for its injuring her character ; she entered into an agreement the farm. She was sure it might be made to yield only stock in trade, it is the standard literature of an with a humble maiden, anxious, like herself, to escape wheat, and it could give such a deal of offal for fowls enormous class, who must find their reading in a ordinary servitude, and Peney and “her man Jane" and pigs ! At last she said, “ Would you give me L.200 newspaper, or they will not read at all; so long must as the neighbours chose to have it) were patterns of to free you of the farm !" “ With all my heart,” its odium be upon the country's head, and so long quiet and successful industry.

answered the gentleman, “but that I should not like must the evil it works be plainly visible in the re For twelve years this state of things continued, if, to injure you." “ I have considered everything,” she public.”

with an every day increasing business, continuance is said, “and think I may run the risk.” Without If only half of all this be true, we thank heaven a proper expression. The expenses of conducting the further reasoning, the bargain was struck. Peney rethat we live in a land in which, whatever may be business were the least possible ; for, as Peney's money ceived an order for her money, and gave a missive, its faults, the sanctuary of private life remains in. was paid the moment anything purchased by her was freeing the gentleman of the lease ; and after dining violate, and where the press is properly kept as the delivered, flour, butter, eggs, barley, whatever she re with the family, returned home, tenant of the farm servant of, not the domineering tyrant over, public quired for her business, were poured in upon her as of Cauld-Shonthers ! opinion.

she needed them, of the best description, and on the Pope has said, that after contracting to translate the

lowest terms ; and, on the other hand, her bread was “Iliad,” he felt, when lying in bed, as if a rope were about PENEY GLENDINNING.

so excellent, that it was called for from all quarters, his neck ! and the feelings of Peney Glendinning were

and the money paid down, and Peney's only difficulty precisely similar when she thought of being saddled A CHARACTER IN REAL LIFE.

was in meeting the demand. Meanwhile, in her do with a farm for twenty years, and at a rent of nearly PENEY GLENDINNING was one of a large family left in mestic arrangements, she had equally shown her good two hundred pounds. She endeavoured to think, their mother's hands by the death of their father, a sense. She waited till she saw how her business was however, that the loss could not be complete ; next, village artisan in the north of Scotland, while the likely to prosper, before expending anything on the that it might not be very considerable ; and lastly, whole of them were mere children. Having no other house that could be avoided ; and when she at last that, with good management, there might even be a resource, the widow retired to the house of her father, repaired it, she did so, not merely as her own circum- profit ; although this last was a view of the subject who was what is called a crofter, that is, tenant of a stances seemed to suggest, but in the best style suit- she hardly dared to take. It was with a very doubtfew acres. It is astonishing what this class of persons able to the house ; that if she herself had left it on the ful mind that she first broke the subject to her brosometimes do with their small means. Upon the li- morrow, the money might not be thrown away. In ther. His first look was very discouraging, for it seemed mited territory rented by her father, did this poor short, Peney had shown, that, though homely in her to say, as plainly as possible, that she had ruined herwoman rear her three sons and five daughters till person, she was strongly rational ; and her mother, self. Ilis next emotion was to laugh at the oddity they were able to go into the world and do for them. instead of now laughing with her or at her, as in of the thing, and Peney joined him, but with a tear selves, which some of them did under creditable cir- former times, as her plainest lass and a predestined in her eye." He thus saw the necessity of settling cumstances, considering their rank in life. The eldest old maid, had long respected her as the most sensible down into graver consideration of the subject ; and son received such an education that he might have of her generally sensible and well-doing family, and when he saw what Peney had really done, he could commenced study for the church, if he had so inclined; never spoke of her or met her without feelings of not but applaud her sagacity and talent. The order but he preferred a business career. The second took respect and gratitude.

she had received from his master more than paid his to husbandry: the third became a skilled mechanic. We have shown that Peney had not only felt no own claims upon the farm (for she had already made Several of the daughters, being handsome and neat- need of male assistance in her business, but steadily some advances for him), and he admitted, that if she handed, became nursery-governesses and ladies’-maids, rejected it. She had also rejected all overtures of a could manage the farm as successfully as she had as these offices are known in rural districts in Scotland. matrimonial kind. Many young farmers, seeing her managed her other business, she was richer by the Peney had no turn for any of these occupations. continually happy and prospering, now thought her transaction by at least L.400. She entered not only Her disposition seemed always more to the use of the exceedingly comely; and as they stepped up to her to a farm, stocked to her hand in the best manner, hands than that of the head. Besides, being the plain parlour occasionally to receive their money, and saw and at a reduced price, but to a growing crop at the est of the family, she had always said herself that she the quiet and comfort reigning there, were not slack expense of seed and labour. was only fit for drudgery, and, consequently, that edu- in complimenting her ; but she never gave any en When at length the time came for her taking poscation would be thrown away upon her. She could couragement to pursuing the subject. She had seen, session, she saw many things even more doubtfully read and write, however, and knew something in her own family, that matrimony was not always than at first ; yet, as the die was cast, she determined counts; but beyond that she would not go. Her another name for happiness; she reflected that she to go boldly on. Her very first operations showed an mother, who was a woman of singular clearness of had always managed for herself with great ease and original mind, as well as a firm spirit. What had head, as well as goodness of heart, and always encou- pleasure, and she did not know how long this might been done on the farm had been done well, but as raged her children to give their opinions, was amused continue were she joined to another, and so she usual, a good deal in the rough. Head and end ridges, by a trait of Peney_namely, that she always talked steadily resisted the idea of making a change. She spots for turnings, and for dung-heaps, had been disof the others as “the children,” though she was her would gladly, however, have had the society of some regarded ; and from time immemorial, the dykes* had self nearly the youngest, and pressed for their being of her brothers for her mother and herself ; and a been approached no nearer than horses might conset out in life in utter disregard of her own interests. farm in the neighbourhood becoming vacant, which veniently go. Peney considered all this as waste. At last, her youngest sister having grown up, so as to she thought might suit her second brother, who was She saw that in many cases these spots were, from be able to assist her mother, Peney, greatly to her pa- at the time steward to a gentleman in an adjoining long rest and other circumstances, the most valuable rent's annoyance, went to be washer and dresser to a county, she, with his consent, offered for it in his parts of the farm, and that putting them together gentleman's family, there being, as she said, enow in name, and her offer was accepted.

they made many acres. Peney resolved that they the family besides to fill all the genteel places. Peney He took possession, and being in the immediate should lie waste no longer; and wherever the plough laboured in this humble vocation several years, equally neighbourhood, Peney began to feel as if the family would not go, she determined to employ the spade. happy and respected ; and, though only eighteen, was might yet be reunited under her auspices. But the Her hind+ remonstrated, and said they should be considered so sedate and trustworthy, that her mis- hopes of mortals are vain ; and especially liable to laughed at; but Peney only thought of one thing, tress, being about to leave home for a time, would have disappointment are the hopes of good-natured old making the most of everything. She said every apronconferred on her the entire charge of her family and maids. The farm was only about seventy acres, and breadth, nay, foot and inch, was paid for, and she saw servants in her absence, with a handsome addition to her brother, as manager for another, had been accus no reason why it should not be made to pay. In the her income. But Peney had other views : she had tomed to rule over seven hundred acres. His master, mean time, she kept an account of the expense of saved a little money, and had resolved on educating too, a considerable proprietor, who had tried to act trenching, and had the produce valued ; and as the herself as a pastry-cook, with the view of either becom. as manager of his own property, found the charge too new land produced by far the heaviest crops, the ing a cook and housekeeper, or taking charge of a troublesome, and he persuaded Peney's brother to balance was greatly in her favour, and she had no shop; and so she could only oblige her mistress by return to his employment, under the inducement of more opposition upon this point. By cultivating these slecping in the house, and taking charge of the expen- relieving him from his farm ; in short, selling all off, odds and ends, draining and filling up a pond or two, diture, for which duty her salary was continued. and paying all damages.

which had been open beyond memory, but without Meantime her mother, being now without a family This was a sad blow to Peney. She had set her any visible object, and filling up and cropping several of her own, had moved into the village of the parish, heart on the little farm, which would not only have open drains, Peney, during the first and second years where there was a considerable school, with the view been a home to her brother's family, but she was sure of her incumbency, added six or eight acres to the of taking charge of the children of others sent thither would have paid well, as, having been grievously mis- productive power of her holding, and these, it was for education ; in short, kept a boarding house of a managed by the previous tenant, it had been leased at admitted, the most valuable on the farm. Having humble but most useful kind, namely, a boarding a really moderate rent. But there was no help for it : once proved the benefit of such management, she carhouse for schoolboys; and Peney sometimes visited an inventory of everything had been made ; and the ried her arms into every quarter. Every useless dyke her. This village had neither a baker nor a butcher, beautiful ploughs and carts, and the pretty animals was thrown down and ploughed over; whins and nor, till that period, much use for them; for the inha- of every description, selected with such care, and for stones that had stood untouched since the creation, bitants had not indulged much in either butcher-meat which, as belonging to her brother, Peney had con were now grubbed out and dislodged without mercy, or wheaten-bread. But this last article, in particular, tracted an affection (for the heart will love something), and the ground on which they stood subjected to the began now to be much in request, both in the village were about to be sold for very probably half their plough. Plashy meadows were drained and wholly and neighbourhood, and of this Peney became aware. value, and Peney was miserable.

altered in their character, and, in short, rendered She remarked, also, that even her own mother required At last, one morning Peney rose in more than dry and fertile ; and even a small wood, that, being considerable supplies, and received them with diffi. usual bustle, and having arranged her own business planted in a swamp, had refused to grow, was now, culty, and not always of the best quality. Peney's for the day, set out nobody knew whither. It was resolution, therefore, was taken. She had herself edu- for the residence of her brother’s master. She could

* Dykes, in Scotland, are dry stone enclosures ; in Ireland, and eated as a common bread-baker, as well as confectioner; not but respect him for so respecting her brother; perhaps elsewhere, they are ditches. and at the age of nineteen, with fourteen pounds in I but she deplored the blow be was striking against his † Farin-labourer.

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with permission of the proprietor, rooted out, and its pound, she finding the materials; and in due time a There is a remarkable uniformity in the fireside place being drained, turned into a level and fertile very passable gig, placed upon flexible poles, was customs of the night all over the United Kingdom. field. Everybody stood aghast at the untutored vi- formed ; and the pony attached to the bakery being Nuts and apples are everywhere in requisition, and gour of Peney, till her farm being like a garden, the fitted with a neat bridle and reins, and some other consumed to a pretty considerable extent. Indeed the proprietor placed at her disposal, and on her own articles of ornament, for another pound, Peney was night takes its name in the north of England from terms, every acre in her neighbourhood that became mounted. When she first made her appearance in the the prevalence of the former fruit. Goldsmith tells vacant ; and the only female tenant in the district market, there was a great cheer ; but Peney felt the of his Wakefield party, that they “religiously cracked shamed all the males! So sensible was the proprietor comfort and economy of her measure, and disregarded nuts on All Hallow Eve.” As to nuts, they were not of the value of such services to him and to his succes- it. Many came round to look at the phenomenon, and only cracked and eaten, but made the means of vatisors, and of the benefit of such an example, every way among the rest, the surveyor of taxes, and Peney paid cination in love affairs. And here we shall quote considered, that, having breakfasted with her one day, more attention to him than to all the others, though she poetical reporters from all the three kingdoms, by on his own invitation, he left under his plate an order affected it not. For one thing, she called her servant way of showing the universal prevalence of the cuson his banker for a hundred pounds.

to remove her pillion to the inn, in case of rain, and tom. Hear Gay first for England :Of course, instead of loss, Peney was now realising to allow the surveyor to inspect the carriage. He did

Two hazel nuts I threw into the flame, considerable profits. As she herself required the flour, so in all directions, but could see no spring, though, And to cach nut I gave a sweetheart's name: wheat was now raised by her in great quantity where from Peney's motion, he could almost have sworn This with the loudest bounce me sore amazed, it had never been raised before. To keep her ground there was one, and so retired_discomfited. The

That in a flame of brightest colour blazed.

As blazed the nut, so may thy passion grow, in heart, she required large quantities of manure, and spring was in the cushion ! and Peney not only rode

For 'twas thy nut that did so brightiy glow. to make as much of that as possible, on her own pre- at her ease, but what was a great addition to her pleamises, she took to feeding all her grown cattle in the sure, tax-free. She was the first in the district who Then Mr Graydon* for Ireland :stall. This was quite a new mode of keeping cattle in dared to make themselves comfortable without caring These glowing nuts are emblers true

Of what in human life we view; this part of the country; but Peney knew what she about being talked of.

The ill-matched couple fret and fume, was about. A natural sagacity, without the aid of We must not omit to mention that Peney was not

And thus in strife themselves consumo; science, told her that when cattle roam about in the only an advocate for the principle of shelter, but her Or from each other wildly start, fields, they not only waste much pasture, but all their natural sagacity led her to adopt it. When removing And with a noise for ever part. manure disappears, and is as good as lost. By stall- the trees from the bog which we have commemorated,

But see the happy, happy pair,

Of genuine love and truth sincere ; feeding, therefore, she saved provender, and did not she felt unwilling to destroy such as she thought use

With mutual fondness while they burn, allow a particle of the valuable manuring material to ful, and so had them carefully removed and planted Still to each other kindly turn; go to waste. Some people, she observed, from sheer in form of a belt, along the north and east sides of her And as the vital sparks decay, heedlessness, permitted the liquid refuse of their farm, these being the most exposed. By care, they

Together gently sink away;

Till, life's fierce ordeal being past, stables and cow-houses to escape in putrescent streams, survived, and have thriven better in their new than

Their mingied ashes rest at last. and were thus, as it might be said, instrumental in they did in their original situation. Without at all picking their own pockets. But Peney was most deducting from the extent of the farm (for the ground Lastly, Burns for Caledonia :rigorous in her arrangements in this department of being clean where they were planted, and fenced in The auld gudewife's weel-hoordit nits,

Are round and round divided, affairs. All the liquid manures of her farm establish- by a wall, they afford å pasture superior to anything

And mony lads' and lasses' fates ment were led by conduits into tanks, and were that ever grew on the spot before), they form a shelter

Are there that night decided : thence, at proper opportunities, carried away for the so valuable, that when other people's cattle are crouch Some kindle couthie side by side, purpose of irrigating the fields in the neighbourhood. ing with their tails to the blast, and quite incapable

And burn thegither trimly: Peney calculated that she saved twenty pounds a-year of feeding, Peney's (for she still pastures the young)

Some start awa wi' saucy pride,

And jump out owre the chimly, by this very simple and rational kind of economy. are luxuriating in à nook so comfortable that they

Fu' high that night. One thing leads to another in good farming. An are hardly sensible that the storm is abroad : they

Jean slips in twa wi' tenty ee, abundance of manure permitted Peney to raise fine only hear it roaring in the trees, and keep whisking

Wha 'twas she wadna tell; crops of turnips and artificial grasses, with which she and feeding in the coldest day, as if under the influ But this is Jock, and this is me, fed her cattle, and by growing which she was able ence of a mild and gracious one. In short, Peney's

She says in to hersel': to meliorate and clean her land ; for, as everybody farm, though it lies high (as its name imports), will Ile bleezed owre her and she owre him, knows, land cannot be properly improved or kept soon be so surrounded as to seem low. From being the

As they wad never mair part;

Till, fuft! he started up the lum, clear of weeds without a regular system of green cold shoulder of a hill, it will seem a rich and happy

And Jean had een a sair heart cropping. The old method of restoration and cleaning valley.

To see't that night. was to give the land a rest, or let it be fallow, and We need not pursue these details further. It is keep ploughing it from time to time. Peney fed and enough to say, that, from a humble girl, Peney Glen- Brand, in his Popular Antiquities, is more particular: pulverised her

fields, but gave them no rest. No sooner dinning has raised herself to be a woman of substance " It is a custom in Ireland, when the young women was one crop off than another was on, the plentiful and reputation. In a state of things that often defies would know if their lovers are faithful, to put three manure keeping the ground sufficiently in heart. The the exertions of men of strong minds and undoubted nuts upon the bars of the grate, naming the puts after landlord gave no play days in his rent, and Peney energy, a female—and why not ?--found the means of the lovers. If a nut cracks or jumps, the lover will gave none to his land.

raising herself in two separate professions. Nobody's prove unfaithful ; if it begins to blaze or burn, he has Nor did Peney thrive by cultivation only. Six or opinions or proceedings are now looked up to with a regard for the person making the trial. If the nuts eight of her handsomest queys were sent early one more respect

where she is known ; and when the sons named after the girl and her lover burn together, they morning, nobody knew where; but they soon re- and daughters of men of substance fear to make the will be married." turned, and people said, Peney had missed her market plunge into life, they are told to think of PENEY GLEN

As to apples—there is an equally universal custom for once. It was not so. They had been visiting an DINNING.

on this merry night, of hanging up a stick hori-. estate at some distance, on which the proprietor had

zontally by a string from the ceiling, and putting a introduced a very handsome breed of cattle (it is be

candle on the one end and an apple on the other. This

POPULAR ENGLISH FESTIVALS. lieved the Teesdale), and in due time Peney was pos

being made to twirl rapidly, the merry-makers in sucsessed of some of the prettiest little calves that had

cession leap up and snatch at the apple with their ever been seen. From humanity, she always gave her ALL HALLOW EVEN, called in Scotland Halloween, bility is, that the candle comes round before they are

teeth (no use of the hands allowed), when the probacalves their milk as their mothers gave it, and she did and in the north of England Nutcrack Night, is the grew apace. Her nursery, as she called it, was be- Day (November 1), a festival of the Catholic church, occasion, of course, abundance of laughter. not break off upon this occasion. Of course her calves last evening of October, being the vigil of All Saints' aware, and scorches them in the face, or anoints them sieged ! As we believe it is a law of nature, that where in commemoration of those of its saints to whom, on worthy of remark, that this amusement is precisely

It is there is plenty of food, females are chiefly produced, account of their number, particular days could not be similar to that of the quintain, which prevailed extennature taking the hint, and sending the prolific ani- allotted in their individual honour. There is perhaps sively in the days of chivalry, consisting of a wooden mal only where there seems room, most of Peney's po night of the year which the popular imagination figure mounted on a pivot, with a flat piece of wood brood were young cows ; and at the proper time she has stamped with a more peculiar character than this, crossing in the situation of the arms, at the one end sold them, so far as she chose to sell, at L.3 or L.4 or which is more widely and uniformly marked by of which a bag of sand was hung. The feat was to a-head more than the ordinary stock of the district certain ceremonies and customs. It is clearly a festi- ride full tilt with a blunted spear at the other end of would bring. Peney, therefore, prospered in every val of ante-christian times, for there is nothing in the the cross piece, and escape the thwack with which the way. She had no outlet for sheep, and therefore had church observance of All Saints' Day to have origi; revolving sand-bag was sure to visit the shoulders of few, except occasionally a score or two to help in con- nated such extraordinary notions as are connected all but dexterous players. Apples are also set afloat suming the turnips, or to furnish wool for blankets ; with it, or such remarkable practices as those by which in a tub of water, which, being placed on the floor, for Peney was one of those who adhered to the old it is distinguished. idea, that anything that could be produced at home The leading idea respecting All Hallow Even, or one with their teeth-a task by no means easy, and

young people take their turn of attempting to catch was saved to home, and so raised both wool and fax Halloween, is, that it is the time, of all others, when which usually is not accomplished without a great for her own purposes, and had them spun as save-alls supernatural influences prevail. It is the night set deal of ducking and bedabbling. This peculiar cereof time. But having plenty of bran and potatoes, and apart for a universal walking abroad and bustling even skim-milk, her pigs were innumerable; and she about of spirits and all sorts of beings not of this mony we suspect to be less general, for it is not men. did not confine them to a miry den, as is the almost world; the night of sure divination; a time when the the many particulars respecting an Hallow Eve coluniversal custom of pig-keepers, but gave them lodg- ideal takes the upper hand of the real everywhere, lected in Ellis's edition of Brand's Antiquities. ings, clean, dry, and airy, and had pleasure in thinking and (to use the language of an early Scottish poet) them the happiest pigs in the kingdom, as they cor

In the rural districts of Scotland, the first ceremony

“ Al is bot ghaists and elritch fantassis." tainly were among the handsomest. Understanding This general character of the night escapes the notice garden. The young people go out hand in hand

of Halloween is the pulling of cabbage stalks in the that it made them fatten faster, to be washed and of writers on our popular antiquities ; but we know it blindfolded, and each must pull the first stalk which brushed, and her cows give more milk to be curried, to be that which rests in the rustic mind in Scotland, he meets with. They then return to the fireside to she would cause her little fellow of all work to amuse and, indeed, this is partly acknowledged by Burns in inspect their prizes. According as the stalk is found himself in that duty every other day, and, for a few pence, had probably maný pounds added to the value thought to be a night when witches, devils, and other or husband of the party to be. The quantity of earth

a note to his poem on Halloween, which, he says, * is big or little, straight or crooked, so is the future wife of her stock. There was yet another peculiarity. People in Scot- ful midnight errands ; particularly those aërial people

, dowry; and the taste of the pith, or castock, indicates

mischief-making beings, are all abroad on their bane- sticking to the root denotes the amount of fortune or land cannot endure to do anything which will cause the fairies, are said on that night to hold a grand an- the temper. Finally, the stalks are placed one after rather prejudice, have avoided, doing many things Ayrshire bard is embodied in a poem of the sixteenth persons who chance thereafter to enter are held in the which it was much their wish and interest to do; and, century, of which he probably never heard-Mont- same succession to indicate those of the individuals on the other hand, continued doing many things they gomery's Flyting against Polwartheartily disliked. Peney despised all this. She had

whom the parties are to marry. The latter part oL

In the hinder end of harvest, on A11. Halloween, found riding to market on horseback uncomfortable, and

this rite is like one celebrated by Gay regarding a waste of clothes ; and if her servant, who necessarily

When our good neighbours does ride, if I read right,
Some buckled on a bin weed, and some on a bean,

peascods : accompanied her, walked, he was fatigued for the day, Aye trotting in troops from the twilight.

As peascods once I plucked, I chanced to see and if he rode, he fatigued and occupied another animal. Many a merry cottage group, holding this evening,

One that was closely filled with three times three; She therefore encouraged a young man, who had a has been arrested by terror when a storm arose, be-,

Which, when I cropped, I safely home conveyed,

And o'er the door the spell in secret laid; turn for neatness in carpentry, to build her a carriage lieving that they heard the infernal troops rattling that would carry them both. The price was to be a along upon the blast.

* Author of a volume of poems published in Dublin, 120.

ALL HALLOW EVEN.

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