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tunity, he is once more on the road, sometimes riding, silence being observed, he stood up before the red em- night-caps, and some half-dozen old Indians in blanand at others sallying on foot after game. The next bers of the fire, dropped his blanket from his shoulders kets ; he carried his cudgel like a pike ; ' It looks well

, halting place is Prairieville, where he finds the public round his loins, and raising his right hand, spoke in a at least, said my uncle Toby'. Frequently halting his house crammed full of emigrants and residents, great deep, yet clear and somewhat sonorous voice, without men in front of the Council Lodge, he would inspect politicians and great wranglers. In this place, and, stopping, for at least half an hour, my friend, the bluff them with great severity, give them speeches upon indeed, all along the little Fox River, the fever and Frenchman, interpreting wł he said me from military discipline, read what he called the order of ague may be traced.

Breakfast upon the game we time to time. The speech, from first to last, was in the day, which was the old declaration of independence ; brought in ourselves, and pursue our journey through the declamatory style, and against whisky. He said then putting himself at their head, march round the a densely-wooded country. We have left the pure air he had seen many barrels lying in the reeds, waiting whisky barrels as if they were the trophies

or spoils of of the prairie behind us, and now we progress very to be broached when the payment was made ; but he war, followed by a mob of drunken half-breeds and slowly over the worst road I have ever travelled ; in would set his face against any such underhand pro- whooping Indians. But at last the whisky was given fact, the trees have been just cut down and pulled ceedings. Fire-water (iscodaywabo) was the secret up, and I saw the poor major, flat as a flounder, his aside, and the stumps, rocks, and ruts, render it almost poison—the knife with which the Shemookmen (the occupation gone, his band dispersed, and in a hoarse impossible for the horses to tug the waggon along: American, or long knife) destroyed his young men. voice he exclaimed against the ingratitude of the This being Sunday, we have put up our guns and He would set his face against this fire-water; he traders, who had not rewarded him for his zeal even rifles, and walk before the waggon, perspiring at every would tell the agent (or money-carrier) that he would with a letter of thanks.” pore, and panting for breath. From time to time we rather see all his money thrown into the river than Next morning was pay-day. “The whole village pass groups of Norwegians, who have emigrated from lose a single warrior by drunkenness and brawling. He was up and stirring ; flags and streamers were hoisted their own forests to locate themselves in the only then reverted to wha occurred at the last payment: in front of the traders' lodges. One man, to attract difficult and impracticable belt of woods in Wiscon- 'a man, goaded to madness with fire-water, killed notice, had taken advantage of a dead tree in front of sin. At last we catch a glimpse of the blue waters two women, and fired at a man; the band to which his lodge, and covered its branches with strips of red of Lake Michigan, at the end of the long avenue of the women belonged rose to a man, and rushed upon calico, blue ribbons, and gew-gaws; another boisted dismal woods and infamous roads through which we the drunken madman ; what they did you all witnessed, a dozen striped shirts, another à red blanket, another have been wending our way for hours from Prairie- and, I shame to say, I witnessed also,' said the chief. a green blanket, and the traders strode backwards and ville to Milwaukee. Even in that short route of fifteen They threw him on the great council fire, and he was forwards in front of the goods, bawling as loud as their miles, I suffered more from heat and fatigue than I burnt. The white men fled—the pale faces were lungs could bellow. While the Indians and their have yet experienced in America ; for what with the filled with fear ; it is not right they should bring squaws surrounded the Council Lodge in groups, the closeness of the air, absence of water, and—but here away such evil reports. I am resolved to preserve squaws for once dressed in all their finery, and the we are at last, crossing a good wooden bridge into order in the camp, and set my face against the whisky- young men vying with each other who could show quite a gay-looking town, white stoops, sign boards traders.'

most vermilion, yellow ochre, and indigo on their over stores, houses and villas perched on high banks The speech of Osh Cosh met with a loud and ap- cheeks, and feathers-red, horse, and moose hair-on and cheerful aspects, our waggon proudly drawn up at proving grunt ; but we shall immediately see how his their heads, wampum and beads, bracelets and gorgets, the door of the Milwaukee House."

tee-total principles were acted upon. Paddling in round their arms and necks. The sun shone out gloMilwaukee is seven years old, and from a single canoes up Wolf River, the party, including our voya- riously, and the coup d’æil was most enlivening ; sevefarm-house and a few Indian wigwams, is now a regu. geur, reaches the place of assemblage. The first ral Indians had brought up their horses, and rode lar town, the hotel, as usual, being the great centre of thing that occurs is a meeting of all the traders in about at a break-neck rate over the stumps and logs. attraction. “Many of the store-keepers, clerks, and front of a large round wigwam, styled the Council | The Council Lodge had been metamorphosed into a single-men lodgers, editors of newspapers, and clericos, Lodge, and here "one and all signed a paper, or mu- pay-office ; a door opened on each side, through which board at our house ; certes, the charge for bedroom, tual agreement, not to sell whisky to the Indians till the Indians were to pass, and receive their pay from board, breakfast, dinner, tea, and supper is not very the payment has been made, and then they may all the agents at a long counter, upon which the contents exorbitant, only six York shillings a-day, and every start fair. Osh Cosh and the Grignons are the prime of the money boxes, some twenty-seven thousand dol. thing in very good style. Finding my host civil, though movers of this good measure ; and the better to carry lars, was piled up in goodly rows. Some of the traders, not at all communicative, I resolved to stay a few days it into effect, all the whisky barrels are to be stored in especially the Grignons, beset the door of egress, and at Milwaukee, to watch the progress of men and things the bush at the other side of the river, and every drop as every Indian passed out, received the amount he in this singular place. It is no easy matter to pick seized on this, or the Indian side, is to thrown into owed for goods received on time. Thus it frequently information out of the denizens here ; in other coun the river."

happened that an Indian came away from the lodge tries, a man may pick up some knowledge, even at a The accommodations in the Council Lodge were not as empty-handed as he entered it, the squaws alone table-d’hóte; but here every man seems wide awake, first-rate, and the night was bitter cold. “The keen hesitating, and frequently refusing to part with the all eyes and ears, and hands and mouth full of his frosty air whistled freely through the chinks in the dollars at once. own affairs ; his meals are dispatched with impatient frail sides of our lodge; the dogs frequently broke The moment the last dollar was paid, down went haste, bordering on voracity ; after meals, he swingeth through the mats at the door, and prowled about us. the American flag, and the agent and his men rushed upon his chair, squirting tobacco-juice, hands thrust The Indians also kept up a perpetual howling, sing to their boat, plied their oars, and sheered off from the deeply in pockets, or whittling toothpicks ; he swal- ing, and flute-blowing, round the embers of the fire in scene of action. Then the whisky sellers took the lows a gin-sling, and flings out of the doorhe's gone front of the wigwam. The agent, poor man, was

field. The young Indians clubbed together, and like a streak of oiled lightning. Whosoever thinks grievously disturbed by this noise ; and frequently bought barrels of fire-water, knocked in their heads he receives information from one of these slick gentle- during the night he started up from his bed, blankets, with their clubs and tomahawks, and helped their men, I say, has been, to use their own singular ex. and sheets (which he had taken the wise precaution to friends all round to bowls and cups of the spirit, above pression, sucked, left clean as an empty egg-shell, for bring long with the money boxes), and thrusting his proof-real fire-water. the rule is to 'gammon a stranger' who persists in head out of the lodge, he would roar at the Indians, The result may be anticipated : the whole village asking questions, telling him something awfully Tell them to stop that noise ! make less noise there !' became a scene of riot and debauchery. I retreated musical,' and receiving as much of his plain history Then groping his way back to bed again, he sometimes to my friendly trader's lodge, and found him expostuand adventures as he is ass enough to communicate.” stumbled over the snoring clerk, who would awake in lating with a few young Indians upon the folly and

Our hero having heard that there was to be a a great fright, and halloo, Thieves ! mind the boxes ! wickedness of getting drunk. Indeed, this good man's meeting of Indians to receive an annual payment from murder !' &c.' It was next to impossible to sleep for words and example seemed to have considerable effect an agent of the United States government, he deter- an hour without being routed up by some vile noise on his hearers ; he begged of them to quit the village, mines to be present, though he must perform a most either within or without, and in the morning I rose bag and baggage, now they were paid. Several foltedious and fatiguing journey across prairies, through up far from being refreshed with my first night's lowed his advice at once, and others began to remove marshes, up rivers, and so on. One day he loses his bivouac on Indian ground.

the mats, &c., from their lodges ; while the Indians track, and climbing a tree, “ I looked round for miles Got some savoury stew for breakfast this morning, who lived in his vicinity lodged their money for safe in every direction; not a living thing seemed within down town, at the sign of the Striped Apron,' which keeping in his hands. One old trapper actually deposight or hearing. 'Oh, solitude! where are thy charms? floated gracefully above six wigwams thrown into one, sited forty dollars with him, but would not go home I muttered, as I resumed my march. Five miles by a spirited New England pedlar from the bay. He -no, he preferred plunging into the midst of the riot further on, I halted again besidê a clear running has got together sundry cooking utensils, and a barrel and revelry. Next morning I hardly knew him, as he stream, prostrate by the side of which I enjoyed a of flour, some pork, and, strange to say, coffee. He sneaked up, all covered with dirt and blood, to ask for delicious draught of the pure and unadulterated in thinks he will clear his expenses, and perhaps a little his bundle. a very primitive manner. But in the very act of more, as he charges half-a-dollar a meal. The long That evening the rain came down in torrents ; my swigging up the clear water, I was not a little startled wigwam is the rendezvous of all the traders and loafers host stood at the door of his lodge, and endeavoured to contemplate the grim visage of an Indian reflected in the place, though the Indians seldom pass the to prevail on the Indians to pass on, and go home, but in the flood ; and starting up, lo and behold, two threshold.”

their drunken friends soon found them out. They gaunt fierce-looking old Indians stood beside me. Several days are spent in preliminary business, such came with kettles and cans full of whisky, which they How the deuce they could have glided up so noiselessly as taking down names, settling qualifications, and insisted we should taste. My host obstinately refused, I could not divine--for even the snapping of a dry other matters, while hunting and gambling go on and the result was, that a good deal of whisky was stick could be heard half a mile off. But the saluta- among the more unconcerned spectators. Osh Cosh's spilt, the Indians forcing cans of it against our lips, tion, ' Bo jou, bo jou ! showed they were friendly." excise laws are, till this stage of affairs, pretty rigor- while we evaded the torrent ; this was the most disFollowing these Indians, he is conducted to the house ously enforced. "" A negro barber from the bay has been agreeable part of the entertainment. of Monsieur Grignon, a half-breed, and a successful detected selling whisky to the Indians ; in his lodge At night we barricaded the door with empty bartrader in those parts. At this establishment he is he had several barrels of whisky concealed, and the rels and logs, but the Indians still came begging for well received, and meets with a large party going to appointed mixed force of traders and sage Indians, money to buy more whisky, and the rain entered the " the payment,” headed by Osh Cosh, chief of the who have endeavoured most laudably to keep the roof and sides of our lodge. My blanket was satuMenomenees. Osh Cosh has not an imposing appear- peace, and prevent the sale of whisky, have seized upon rated ; and at midnight I sat up, finding it impossible ance; he is “a dirty mean-looking little Indian, with this nigger's illicit store of the baneful fire-water, and to close an eye amidst the wild howling, terrific shouts, a large mouth, bandy legs, a quick eye, and mean- the barrels having been rolled up in front of the Council screams, love and war songs, of the drunken savages looking brow," little better than a worshipful chim Lodge, the agent and Osh Cosh are called on to decide without. As my host observed, it was worse than ney-sweeper in an old dirty blanket. Observing that as to its fate. Meantime the nigger goes about ex- bedlam broke loose -- it was like hell upon earth. his coarse black hair hung down over his face, and his citing the pestilent half-breeds and profligate Indians Crowds of unhappy children crawled round our own cheeks were covered with dirt, I inquired if any acci- to rescue his whisky, using the most abusive language, lodge, crying bitterly; some of them contrived to dent had befallen his excellency, or royal high- saying he will get up a big fight for his whisky, wish- creep into the empty barrels at our door, and that

The answer was brief: The chief is in decent ing he had his bowie knife, and, in short, provoking barrier was broken down before morning with a loud mourning for one of his sons lately deceased.? I thought some hardy pioneer to thrash him.”

crash. of the ancient custom of the Jews_how David humbled Several other seizures are made in gallant style ; but The grey morning dawned heavily upon the Wolf himself in sackcloth and ashes, &c.” Osh Cosh, we the regulators of morals are not proof against the River; as I went forth and looked around, not a are informed, was in a bad humour ; he did not ap- temptation of so much liquor. “ In the midst of their third of the tents, lodges, and wigwams was standing i prove of the mode of taking the census of his tribe, seizures they could not help tasting, and from tasting all was misery and wretchedness. The ground was and paying each individually; he wished the chiefs to went on to swigging, from swigging to tippling, and at covered with drunken savages, stripped of their finery, receive the money, and divide it as they thought pro- last they cut a most ludicrous figure, marching about torn and tangled with filth and briars. The halfper. A rude sort of entertaintment being served up from lodge to lodge, and from tent to tent, in quest of breed whisky-sellers plied their vile vocations, deterin the hut,“ Osh Cosh declined sitting at the table. He whisky, inveighing against the fire-water, while they mined to sell every drop of liquor they brought to the was served with wild-duck stew, tea, and cakes, on a were hardly able to stand ; indeed, the major who ground. All the respectable traders had huddled up stool in the chimney-corner. Tea over, Osh Cosh sig. commanded seemed to think he commanded a regi- their goods and retreated, or prepared to start away nified his intention to make a speech, and profound ment, instead of a dozen boosy traders in red and grey / in canoes. I was not a little surprised to see the old

ness.

VINCENT DE PAUL.

squaws gliding about with rifles, war-clubs, and toma- | niacs into peaceful and resigned penitents. All men Vincent de Paul had already done some good, having hawks, under their arms ; in fact, they are the only marvelled at the change effected by the unwearied had provision made for many of them, in various efficient police, carrying off their husbands' weapons zeal of a solitary individual, and the king was so much quarters, were about to be abandoned to their before a carouse, to prevent bloodshed if possible.” struck by the spectacle that he appointed Vincent de former misery for want of funds and sympathy.

We have seen enough of this horrible picture, and Paul, in 1619, almoner-general of the convict galleys Vincent, who allowed no obstacles or toils to stop here, with our author, close these sketches of doings of France, in which office it was in his power to ex him in the cause of humanity, made exertions for in the “ far west."

tend greatly the range of his benefactions. He was the assembling of the women of Paris, of higher and also intrusted with the government of the first con lower rank ; and, when they were met, addressed vent of the Visitation at Paris.

them in the most moving terms in behalf of the BIOGRAPHIC SKETCHES.

The year 1622 was remarkable for one of the poor innocents, whom their unhappy or unnatural

noblest acts which Christian charity ever prompted a parents left to the mercy of chance and the pity of The name of Vincent de Paul is almost unknown to ted his duties in Paris in order to satisfy himself

, with he cried, “ will live if you bestow on them your cha

human being to perform. Vincent de Paul had quit- strangers. “These unfortunate and guiltless children,” the general public of Britain. The case is very dif- his own eyes, of the condition and mode of manage- ritable cares ; death is their inevitable portion if you ferent, however, as respects France, the land of his ment of the convicts in the galleys at Marseilles. 10 abandon them." His language so moved his auditory, nativity. There he holds the same rank which the prevent prepared exhibitions, he went without warn that an instant subscription of forty thousand livres Howards hold in our own country; and, like these ing, and unknown. In passing from rank to rank of took place ; and, ere long, an annual income of the individuals, he deserves to be known wherever bene the convicts, he came to one poor young man, who same amount was insured for this benevolent end.

appeared far more desolate and despairing than the The king granted a building for the reception of the volence is honoured and genius admired.

others. Vincent inquired into his case. He had been foundlings, and their comfortable maintenance was Vincent de Paul was born at Ranquines, a hamlet condemned to three years of the galleys for smuggling, placed beyond the effects of chance or change. In in the department of the Landes, on the 24th of April and the cause of his deep sorrow was the miserable this instance, the effect of De Paul's efforts may be of 1576. His parents were not wealthy, and in boyhood condition to which his wife and children must have a doubtful nature ; but the excellence of his motives he was intrusted with the humble office of tending been reduced by his absence. Touched to the soul by cannot be disputed. their sheep. At the age of twelve he was placed the tears of the convict, Vincent took a resolution Besides all these acts of benevolence, Vincent under the cordeliers of Acqs, in order to receive his which few men could have taken. In alleviating the de Paul obtained numerous benefactions for existeducation. He made rapid progress in his studies; them the necessity that existed for bowing to the their condition. His personal influence with courts

sufferings of the condemned, he ever impressed upon ing, charities in France, and otherwise improved and, at sixteen, had qualified himself for becoming laws; and he would not, even in this case, teach and nobles became latterly very great ; but his deeds tutor to a respectable family, in which he acquired an opposite lesson by applying for a reprieve, but of charity were effected chiefly by personal exertions, sufficient means to recompense his parents for their gave the laws a victim in his own person, and sus- in which neither danger nor ridicule could make him past outlay, and complete his course of training for tained their dignity. With consent of the superin-pause. His manner was gentle and attractive, and the priesthood. In 1596 he received the tonsure ; and, tendant, the young man was freed, and Vincent took his eloquence of that kind that alike touched the for the next seven years, supported himself by teach- his place. For eight months he endured all the hard heart and convinced the judgment. In early days, ing, preferring to continue the while his theological ships of the galleys, working daily with a chain around indeed, the repulses which he encountered had made studies rather than accept a curacy, for which he con

his leg, which left a weakness never effaced during him harsh and rough in his address ; but he detected

his life. Nor was this done in ostentation. So dif- the fault, and, by a strong effort, permanently cast it ceived himself not fully qualified. A considerable ferent was the case, that, though the fact was proved off. Vincent de Paul died at Paris in September sum was left to him in 1605, soon after which event, on his posthumous canonisation, the probation was 1660, at the age of eighty-five. He received the while sailing with a friend to Narbonne, he was taken rendered difficult by his never having been known to honours of canonisation, the highest of his church, in prisoner by a Turkish corsair and carried to Tunis. talk of it during his life, even to his most intimate 1737, from Pope Clement XII. There he was sold as a slave, and for two years en friends.

The whole career of this estimable character affords dured the hardest fortunes, under successive masters. In 1623, Vincent de Paul established, at Maçon, two a strong proof of what may be done by the indomitable At length he fell into the hands of a Savoyard rene

Fellowships of Charity, one for men and the other for will and untiring energies of one man. gade, one of whose wives was of Greek extraction.

women. The principle of these institutions was, to This woman used to visit the fields where Vincent scribed in the list after inquiry, to give a lodging to give alms and relief daily to certain poor persons in.

CONTINENTAL RAILWAYS. de Paul followed his laborious occupations, and one poor travelling persons for one night, and to send them

[From the Times newspaper.] day she asked him to sing a hymn to that God who on their way next morning with

a small sum of money. The progress of the railway system on the continent is seemed to be so much in his thoughts. With tears Such were the institutions, resembling our Houses of a subject of growing importance with this country, and, flowing from his eyes, he sang to her the song of the Refuge, which Vincent de Paul was the means of indeed, with the whole of Europe ; yet it is one on which,

at present, little accurate information is possessed. A expatriated children of Israel, commemorative of the originating and spreading throughout France. For time when they hung their harps upon the willows by these institutions alone his country owes him a deep work which has just made its appearance in Paris comes Babel's streams. The Greek woman was herself far culties which he had to overcome, the temper of the peen,” and is written by M. Bourgoing. We propose, on

To understand fully the dift- very opportunely to supply this deficiency. It is entitled,

“ Chemins de Fer de l'Allemagne et du Continent Eurofrom home, and the mournful melody went to her age in which he lived must be borne in mind. “When the score of its great utility, to set forth, in a very conheart. She had great influence with her husband ; 1 established the charity at Maçon,” says he, “every densed form, the principal facts contained in this publiand the issue of her representations was, that he not one mocked me. I was pointed at with the finger on cation. only gave the French captives their liberty, but ac the streets; no person believed that I could ever at The first system of railways examined is that of Aus companied them in their fight to Avignon, where he tain my end ; and yet, when the thing was success. tria, where the entire direction of these enterprises has was publicly restored to the bosom of the Christian fully done, many wept for joy, and all combined to of late been taken into the hands of the government, to church.

pay me so much honour that I was constrained to which effect a decree of the emperor was published, proSoon after his return on this occasion, Vincent de leave the town in secrecy to avoid their applauses." viding that all railroads should be divided into roads of Paul accompanied the vice-legate to Rome, and gained Continuing closely occupied with the formation of the state and private roads ; the first to be exclusively so much on the esteem of the Pope, and other high charities and missions, Vincent de Paul, in 1625, car

carried on by the state, while the second is left to the ecclesiastical dignitaries, that he was sent by them ried out the latter object by the establishment of a

management of private companies, the plan of whose on a mission to Henry IV. in the year 1609. His great religious community in the college of the Bons works, however, is to be drawn up by the government. subsequent nomination to the office of almoner to the Enfants at Paris, for the purpose of instructing rural the hands of private companies will nevertheless remain French queen, Marguerite of Valois, exposed him to districts, and training young men to the ministry. so, and the privileges already granted strictly maintained. such temptations that he soon resigned the office, The great object of the founder was to take away All matters relating to railways are referred to the Preand sought repose of conscience in retirement. After from the church the scandal resting on the ignorance sidency of the Convention, under whom a committee is holding a rural curacy for some time, Vincent was and license of the clergy. This institution, called the appointed to decide on the technicalities and details of appointed tutor to the three sons of the Count de Congregation of the Mission, became a noble one, and administration. Joigny, absentee-governor of the convict-galleys at its influence was felt not only over France, and in all The principal Austrian line is that called the Northern, Marseilles ; but pressed again by a tender conscience, parts of the world where they had formed settlements, or Emperor's, road. This road extends from Vienna to he left for a time that household, to undertake the but over all Catholic countries. Its great utility was

Warsaw, with branches to Brunn and Olmutz, where the spiritual charge of Chatillon-les-Dombes, in Bresse. acknowledged by the popes, and by Louis XIV., who part completed at present ends. The remainder is in This place, notorious for the vicious habits of its po- assigned to it a large income.

progress of construction. The entire length of the line pulation, became, under the eye of its zealous pastor,

The establishment of the order of the Daughters of which was performed to and fro in one day. The com

from Vienna to Olmutz is twenty-eight German miles, the abode of happiness and virtue. The poor and in- Charity, so famous in France for their attention to munication with this town, one already of great commer firm were already the peculiar charge of Vincent de the indigent and the sick, was the next great work of cial consideration, is far more important than that with Paul; and it was here that he established, for their be- this indefatigable man, whose touching appeals moved Brunn,

as it favours the commercial relations with Silesia, nefit, his first Fellowship of Charity (Confrérie de Cha- even the most insensible to contribute to the ends of Poland, and Bohemia. The next line of importance is rité), an institution which became the model of nume- charity and benevolence. Ile also established the that from Prague to Dresden, but this is only in projecrous others subsequently formed in France. Vincent order--at first a distinct one-of Female Visitants to tion; and the capitalists of Vienna who were invited to returned to the family of De Joigny in 1617, at the the Hospitals for Disease. In the war of the Fronde, take a part in the enterprise have refused to comply until pressing intreaties of the countess, who had felt bis several thousand Germans, who had been induced to that from Vienna to Prague be established. Meanwhile, loss deeply. He now entered earnestly on the forma- enter France, were left by their employers to perish, a committee has been instituted to trace out the plan of tion of missions for the religious instruction of rural and would have perished, had not Vincent stirred up operations, and they have determined that the only suitplaces where it was greatly required. But a much a general spirit of charity in their behalf, and got the Elbe and the Moldau. There is no doubt but that a more striking task to which Vincent de Paul devoted them sent back, clothed and fed, to their own counhimself, was one connected with the galley-convicts. try. The calamities of the same war were fearful in Prague, and thus à system of railroads will be formed

road will eventually be established between Vienna and He visited the prisons where they were for a consider- many French provinces. Famine and pestilence ra- joining the north and south of Germany, which, if exable time confined before being sent on board the vaged the ranks of the soldiery, and the fields were tended to Trieste, as it probably will be, will present a ships at Marseilles. He then saw, to use his own covered with unburied bodies. Vincent raised twelve continued line from the Baltic to the Adriatic and Mediwords,“ unfortunate beings shut up in dark and deep millions of francs, which he, with his coadjutors, car terranean. There exist other railways also, as that from dungeons, devoured by vermin, attenuated by want ried to the relief of the sufferers, giving them food, Liuz to Budweis, and from Prague to Pilsen, which are and misery, and entirely neglected both in body and attire, and medicine, and saving numberless lives from but ill constructed, and unfitted for steam-carriages; and soul.” This state of things excited in him the pro- too probable destruction. De Paul went on his knees one from Linz to Smunden, better constructed than the foundest emotions of pity and sorrow, and he resolved before Cardinal Richelieu, to intreat that minister to former, but still only capable of horse-conveyances. A that it should exist no longer. Receiving leave from assent to peace. His petition was not without its central railway in Hungary, following the left bank of the the Count de Joigny, he commenced by purchasing, effect.

Danube, has been authorised by the Diet, and in July in the street Saint Honoré, a building large enough During the regency of Anne of Austria, Vincent 1840, all the shares, forming a capital of 8,000,000 florins, to receive all the convicts of Paris condemned to the was named president of the Council of Conscience, Hungary is that from Presburg to Tirnau, which was

were taken. At present the only railroad existing in galloys. He then made an appeal to the charity of and, in that position, brought his influence to bear on

opened in September 1810. his friends, in order to enable him to perfect that es many new abuses. As one example, he procured the tablishment for the reception of the convicts. The renewal of the ancient ordinances against duels ; but the present sovereign, the arts of civilisation have, within

The kingdom of Bavaria, where, under the auspices of result was, that, by indefatigable personal exertions, the most famous of his actions was his permanently the last thirty years, made great advances, has not been he restored comfort to these unhappy persons, and fixing the lot of foundlings in France. These unfor- backward in appreciating the advantages of railway comconverted them from reckless and blaspheming ma-tunate victims of error and wretchedness, for whom Imunication, although its railways at present exist only

ANCIENT WORLD.

in project, with the exception of one from Fürth to Nu- | Liege ; so that the time is not distant when a general connecting Florence, Lucca, Pisa, and Leghorn. There remburg, and another from Augsburg to Munich. The line of communication will exist between Belgium and is also some question of a railway from Rome to Civita first, which is two Bavarian leagues in length, was con Prussia.

Vecchia. With regard to Switzerland, the great difficulstructed by a company of shareholders, and opened in In the kingdom of Saxony, great attention has been ties which the country presents, and the obvious interest 1835. The last dividend, declared in January 1842, ex-paid, from a very early period, to the construction of of its inhabitants in delaying travellers, will doubtless ceeded 16 per cent. That from Munich to Augsburg, also railways, and no other part of Germany have they re oppose an obstacle for some time to the establishment of constructed by shares, is 16+ Bavarian leagues in length, paid with so much advantage. Leipsic, especially, has railways. Nevertheless, a line from Basle to Zurich has and cost 9,015,000 f., including a portion of the necessary beheld its prosperity daily increasing. The railway from been talked of. implements. It was opened in October 1840, and the this down to Dresden was constructed by shares, and number of passengers conveyed during the year amounted thrown open in 1839. It is 154 German miles in length, to 253,680, the total receipts for the same period being and has two tracks, the second of which was completed

The ancient world was only a little world. Although 547,774 f.

in September 1840. For the year 1840, the receipts were In 1841, a convention was signed between Bavaria and 1,702,895 f., and the expenses 919,535 £., the number warlike, it derives its chief glory from the works of Saxony, for the construction of a railway from Nurem- of travellers having been 415,135. The kingdom of genius, from the writings of poets, historians, and phiburg to Leipsic, which is to pass through Bavaria by Saxony, together with the Duchy of Saxe Altenburgh, losophers. Viewed through this glowing but exaggerated Erlangen, Bamburg, and Hoff, and through Saxony by has entered into an agreement with Bavaria for the esta: medium, that looks great and magnificent which in Plauen and Altenburgh. The king has also determined blishment of a line from Leipsic to the frontiers of Ba- reality was stinted, meagre, and desolate. Alexander on the establishment of a road from Augsburg to Nurem- varia at Hoff, passing throughi Altenburgh, Krimitzchau, had only ravaged a district. Nations were then only burg, and the entire line from Augsburg to Hoff will be Plauen, &c. The necessary capital is 6,000,000 f., oneconstructed at the expense of the state. The portion fourth of which will be supplied by Saxony and Saxe tribes, empires cantons, and their half-savage rulers which extends from Nuremburg to the frontiers is to be Altenburgh, and the rest by shareholders. The shares hardly more potent than enirs of Lebanon or khans of are at present all disposed of, and the works were com

Tartary. completed in the space of five years. Several other lines

Most of what now constitutes the earth, and are also, though distantly, projected, namely, one striking menced in July 1841. Their conclusion is promised for hid below the horizon of the ancients; even the swell of

fills it, was unknown; the great seas and continents were south-west of Augsburg into the valley of Nerlach, through 1847. Kempten to Lindau, on the Lake of Constance ; another One of the best regulated and most conveniently con- an ocean-tide had scarcely been felt by them; and all to Dillingen, thence to join the railway of the Neckar structed railways in Germany is that belonging to the

their conquests, battles, and bustle-the sites of their and the Rhine ; a third will extend to Ulm, pass through free town of Frankfort. is nine leagues in length, and great cities and kingdoms, as well as of their histories Kaustadt, Heilbronn, and Heidelberg, and join Rhenish extends to Wiesbaden, taking in Mentz. The cost of

and epic poems-never ranged far from the tranquil Bavaria with Bavaria ; a fourth, according to arrange this line was 7,000,000 f., and the returns are now as

shores and islets of the Mediterranean lake. ments with Saxony, will diverge at Bamburg from the much as 167 per cent. The engineer, M. Denis, under geographical limits. How, indeed, could mankind be

The number of people corresponded to their narrow Nuremburg and Hoff line, extend through Coburg and whose direction the works were carried on, is the same

numerous without the means of sustenance, when there Meningen, and so reach the Prussian lines. It is probable who constructed the lines from Nuremburg to Furth, and that a railway will also be established from Munich to from Munich to Augsburg.

was little commerce, and no manufactures; when they Salzburgh and Vienna.

The kingdom of Hanover is daily expected to con

were strangers to the useful arts, by which a dense popuIn the Grand Duchy of Baden, the greatest activity is clude a treaty with Brunswick for the establishment of lation can alone be fed, clothed, and lodged ? All, thereat present displayed in completing a railway stretching lines connecting Hamburgh, Hildesheim, Celle, and fore, which has been transmitted as to the extreme popufrom Mannheim, through Heidelberg, Carlsruhe, Kehi, Brunswick ; and it is also in negotiation with Bremen lousness of the ancient world, may be considered almost and Freyburg, to the frontiers of Switzerland, near Basle. on the subject of a railroad to that rich and commercial Strabo, contained 700,000 inhabitants; Athens, inclusive

as deceptious as its oracles. Carthage, according to Its entire length comprises 62 3-10 leagues, and the total town. The Duchy of Brunswick has already a railroad of slaves, about half a million ; Rome, four millions. It cost is estimated at 55,025,218 f.

Wurtemburg has as yet no railways either in a finished miles and three quarters in length ; and a company is is not improbable that in these representations there is a state or approaching it, but negotiations liave taken place formed for the construction of a line from Brunswick to

wrong figure or a redundant one. Statements of numbers between this state and Baden, which will in all probabi- Hamburgh, passing through Heide and Luneburg, which, multiplied, as the grammatical construction does not

are very liable to errors, and the errors to be copied or lity terminate in the commencement of a system forming it is anticipated, will be extended to Wismar. The city detect them. Besides, it must be remembered of Athens a connexion between the Rhine and the Danube, which of Hamburgh will

, through the arrangements now in pro; and Rome, that, though termed cities, they were more will prove of immense importance to all Germany, while gress in the different states above spoken of, be placed at the same time it facilitates its own internal relations. in direct communication - Ist, with Berlin, and thence properly districts or provinces walled in. The present Engineers have examined the country, and have con with Frankfort-on-the-Oder and Stettin ; 23, with Madge- remains of the Roman walls show that they were of vast cluded a plan divided into three portions. The first burg, and thence with Leipsic and Dresden ; 3d, with extent; but

they encompassed large tracts of country, forming a line from Heilbronn to Kaustadt, and from Hanover, and thence with Brunswick and the Harz. The

were truly rus in urbe, and included in their circuit Krusslingen on the frontiers of Baden to Ludwigsburg. projected line from Hamburgh to Berlin is already being woods and

water, and corn-fields, as well as mansions and The second would join the former line with the Danube, actively carried out. The subscription lists are closed, spacious gardens. And Rome, as is well known, comextending from Kaustadt through Goeppingen and Ess- and the sum subscribed by Hamburgh amounts to 54,000 prised the chief of Italy: Genoa, Milan, Florence, Leg; lingen to Ulm, and consequently would require a section f., a very feeble portion of the necessary capital ; but horn, and other noble cities, are of recent foundation, and through a chain of the Alps. The third would effect the it must be considered that it has undertaken solely at pertain entirely to modern history. Italy, even in tho junction of the Danube with the Lake of Constance, its expense that part of the line requiring the most out

Augustan age, must have been thinly peopled, and passing through Biberich. This line presents greater lay-namely, from Hamburgh to Bergedorf, and which is doubtless afforded a free passage enough for those vast difficulties than any of the rest, in consequence of the now almost completed. Hamburgh, however, with the

herds of swine (one thousand in number) of which Polygreat heights intervening between Ulm and the Lake of other free towns, Lubeck and Bremen, have not shown migrations by the blowing of horns. The severity of the

bius writes, and which were guided in their pastoral Constance. The estimates for these three divisions themselves so actively disposed to favour this project as amount to 31,430,520 f. Prussia, whose interest is far more evident in it than

climate in the most busy regions of the Old World attests In Prussia, a country admirably adapted by nature for their own. In Denmark, it is expected

that a railway the scantiness of population. In Ovid's time, the Black such enterprises, on account of the vast extent of its will shortly be commenced from Kiel to Altona ; and Sea was often frozen, which would be quite a phenomenon plains, the railway system is pursued with the greatest there is some question of one from the same town to

at present. That Italy is warmer now than formerly, we activity; and it already possesses several lines of con Gluckstadt, on the mouth of the Elbe ; but Denmark, who have many testimonies. From various passages of Horace, siderable importance, while daily progress is made in the derives a large share of revenue from the tolls of the

we may suppose that the streets of Rome were full of construction of others. From Berlin four lines diverge ; Sound, has always evinced the strongest opposition to

snow; and Juvenal refers to a woman breaking the ice of the first to Potsdam, 3German miles in length; it any plans having a view to facilitate the communication the Tiber to perform her ablution. I never met with a was constructed by shares, and cost 5,090,600 f. The by land between the Baltic and the German Ocean. Such tourist who had seen snow in Rome; and the Tiber is next extends to Frankfort-on-the-Oder, and is in process interested motives, however, will not hold out long hardly more liable to freeze than the Nile or Ganges. of construction by a company of shareholders, authorised against the strong impulse which now animates the

This increase of temperature is satisfactory proof of an by royal ordinance, and whose capital amounts to whole confederacy in establishing a great and general increase of people ; for numbers tend much to the civi

. 8,140,000 f. This road, which is 10.1 German miles system of railway communication.

lisation of climates, as of manners and institutions. in length, will, it is expected, be terminated at the end With regard to Belgium, it was natural that, with all

Wade's Lecture on Ancient and Modern Society. of the present year, when it will prove of the utmost the facilities and resources which it possesses in itself for

AN OBJECT WORTHY OF PURSUIT. commercial benefit. Another line proceeds to Koethen, this species of construction, it should rapidly arrive at a There is but one pursuit in life which it is in the power passing through Juterbogh, touching the Elbe at Wit- complete system of railways, and, indeed, little now of all to follow and of all to attain. It is subject to no temberg, and after following that stream a short distance, remains to be done in that respect.

disappointments, since he that perseveres makes every crosses to Dessau. The length of this road is twenty The following is a list of the lines now in full ope- difficulty an advancement, and every contest a victory; German miles ; it was constructed by a company of ration :-From Brussels to Antwerp, by Mechlin; from and this is the pursuit of virtue. Sincerely to aspire shareholders with a capital of 4,200,000 dollars, and was Mechlin to Ostend ; from Mechlin to Aus; from Landen after virtue is to gain her, and zealously to labour after thrown open to the public in September 1841. The fourth to St Frond ; from Ghent to Courtray ; from Brussels to her wages is to receive them. Those that seek her early, line, which is now in course of construction, goes to Subise.

will find her before it is late ; her reward also is with Stettin; it is 18 German miles in length, and will cost, Holland, too, has recognised the necessity of following her, and she will come quickly. For the breast of a good according to the present estimates, 9,271,400 f. The the example of surrounding states, and although it has

man is a little heaven commencing on earth, where the opening of this line will take place, it is anticipated, at but one line in a finished state, that from Amsterdam to Deity sits enthroned with unrivalled influence, every the beginning of next year. A railroad has been com Haarlem, it is actively engaged in forming a regular and subjugated passion, “ like the wind and storm, fulfilling pleted, extending from Magdeburg through Koethen and extended system. The lines from Haarlem to Leyden, his word." --Lacon. Halle to Leipsic. It is constructed with a double track, and from Leyden to the Hague, are already in process of and is 14 miles in length, which distance is performed in construction, while other lines have been projected,

CAPTURING OF CRIMINALS IN AMERICA. from 3 to 3. hours. The plan of this road has been cen- forming a round from the Hague, through Rotterdam and One of the most significant signs of social improvement sured by experienced officers, in consequence of its being Utrecht to Amsterdam, and their directions traced out. is the people of one country helping the people of another laid on the left bank of the Elbe, as, in case of a war with It is also projected to establish a line from Utrecht to put a stop to crime. It now appears that a person the west, it would become necessary to destroy it. It is through Arnhelm to Dusseldorf, there to join the Prusso- absconding from justice in England to America has little proposed to establish a line from Halle to Frankfort-on- Belgian line. Four or five years, it is expected, will see chance of escape, the American executive, to its credit, the-Main, passing through Weimer and Gotha, and the this line completed. In Russia, with the exception of interposing to capture the fugitives. The following are treaty relative to this project has already been signed one

short line from St Petersburg to the Imperial palace cases in point, which we copy from the Montreal Gazette by the interested states. As it is of the greatest import- at Zarskojeselo, no railways exist ; indeed, in a country of the 5th of May last: for obvious reasons, we put the ance, both in a commercial and military point of view, where the natural facilities for conveyance are so great, names in blank : _“The New York papers contain the that Halle should be in direct communication with Cassel the frost, during six months of the year, rendering the particulars of the arrest of two persons, from England, and Cologne, a railway has been projected effecting this land hard and smooth, these modes of communication for fraud and embezzlement, by the New York policejunction. Cassel will also be placed in communication are not so desirable. It is, however, understood that a officers Hays and Stephens. These officers having rewith Altenburgh, with Brunswick, and with Frankfort, project is on foot to establish a line from St Petersburg ceived notice that a man named J — P-a clerk in and thus will become the centre of five great national to Moscow, which is to be undertaken by a society of the employ of a tanner near Sittingbourne, England, had lines. From Dusseldorf to Elberfeld there exists a rail- foreign capitalists. The expenses of such an enterprise embezzled a large sum of money belonging to his emway four miles in length, which is now open for the con- have been estimated at 400,000,000 roubles, and England ployer, and sailed for New York, obtained a boarding veyance of passengers. The latter town, which is now has offered to supply the rails, of which a length of 150 boat, and proceeded down to the Narrows, where they one of the most important trading centres, will shortly be leagues will be required; and although twenty per cent. awaited the arrival of the ship in which P-- had taken joined to Cologne by a line extending through Lippstadt above the English price has been offered to Russian forge- his passage ; and on her making her appearance, they imto Minden, and connecting the Rhine with the Weser. masters, it is probable that they will not be able to commediately boarded her, and arrested the delinquent, who It will be 34 miles in length, and its cost is estimated pete with us.

was a cabin passenger. The other delinquent arrested in at 22,641,000 f. Cologne has already a railway to It is not likely that Italy will remain long without the same way was a man named JTM, & cattleAix-la-Chapelle, which is 9 miles long"; it was opened railways; in the Lombardo-Venetian states, a short line dealer in the neighbourhood of Leeds, who had overdrawn in September 1841, and is in the hands of the same com has been completed between Milan and Monza ; and a his account at the bank of that place, committed forgery, pany as the Cologne and Minden line. Arrangements series of lines will shortly unite Milan and Venice.

The and then taken his passage for New York. Intelligence have also been made for the establishment of a railway construction of a railway of no great length, from Castel of these frauds had previously been brought out by the from Minden to Magdeburg, passing through Brunswick lamare to Naples, is daily expected to reach its termina- steamers ; and in both cases the agents were successful and Hanover. Meanwhile, vigorous efforts are being tion; and it is already announced as certain that com in recovering the greater part of the embezzled promade to complete the line between Aix-la-Chapelle and panies have been formed for the establishment of lines perty."

A TALE FOR BOYS.

tion of his master's son, older than he two or three took possession of the mind of Harman, and this caused tinue ever after, a student, or others will leave him in the

JAMES WALLACE:

could get books, it occurred to him that he might, by age, when he graduated, and came home with the honoworking in the evening, earn some money, and with it rary title of A.B. At this time James Wallace was be buy such as he wanted. But in what manner to obtain tween seventeen and eighteen years of age, somewhat

work he knew not. [We extract the following tale from an American newspaper,

It finally occurred to him, that, in rough in his appearance, but with a sound mind in a in which it purports to be written by T. 8. Arthur. The repre- passing a house near the shop, he frequently observed a sound body-although each day he regularly

toiled at hensible practice of American newspaper editors of transferring pair of window-blinds with faded hangings and soiled the work-bench, and as regularly returned to his books

colours." Perhaps," said he to himself, “ if I could do it when evening released him from labour, and was up at literary articles without acknowledging the source whence they are derived, renders it impossible for us to say whether the tale is cheap, they would let me paint and put new hangings to the peep of dawn, to lay the first offerings of his mind

their blinds." original or selected from a previous publication.]

upon the shrine of learning. But all this devotion to the

The thought was scarcely suggested when he was on acquirement of knowledge won for him no sympathy, no " How far is it from here to the sun, Jim ?" asked Har- his feet moving towards the street. In a few minutes he honourable estimation from his master's son. He despised man Lee of his father's apprentice, James Wallace, in a

stood knocking at the door of the house, which was soon these patient persevering efforts as much as he despised tone of light raillery, intending by the question to elicit opened. “ Well, my little man, what do you want?" was his condition as an apprentice to a trade. But it was not some reply that would exhibit the boy's ignorance. the kind salutation of the individual who answered the many years before others began to perceive the contrast James Wallace, a boy of fourteen, turned his bright in- call.

between them, although, on the very day that James telligent eyes upon the son of his master, and, after re

James felt confused, and stammered out, “The hang- completed his term of apprenticeship, Harman was adgarding him for a moment, he replied, “I don't know, ings of your blinds are a good deal faded."

mitted to the bar. Harman. How far is it po

“That's a very true remark, my little man," was the The one completed his education-as far as general There was something so honest and earnest in the tone reply, made in an encouraging tone.

knowledge and a rigid discipline of the mind was conof the boy, that much as Harman had felt disposed at first " And they very much want painting."

cerned-when he left college. The other became more to sport with his ignorance, he could not refrain from

“ Also very true," said the man, with a good-humoured really the student when the broader and brighter light giving him a true answer. Still, his contempt for the igno smile, for he felt amused with the boy's earnest manner of rationality shone clearly on his pathway, as he passed rant apprentice was not to be concealed, and he replied, and novelty

of speech.

the threshold of manhood. James still continued to “ Ninety-five millions of miles, you ignoramus !” James “ Wouldn't you like to have them painted and new work at his trade, but not for so many hours each day did not retort, but repeating over in his mind the distance hangings put to them?" pursued James.

as while he was an apprentice. He was a good and fast named, fixed it indelibly upon his memory:

"I don't know. It would certainly improve them workman, and could readily earn all that he required for On the same evening, after he had finished his day's much.”

his support in six or eight hours of every twenty-four. work, he obtained a small text-book on astronomy, “ Oh yes, sir, they would look just like new. And if Eight hours were regularly devoted to study. From which belonged to Harman Lee, and went up into his you will let me do them, I will fix them up nice for you, some cause, he determined he would make law his progarret with a candle, and there, alone, attempted to dive cheap."

fession. To the acquirement of a knowledge of legal into the mysteries of that sublime science. As he read, “Will you, indeed ? But what is your name, and where matters, therefore, he bent all the energies of a well-disthe earnestness of his attention fixed nearly every fact do you live ?"

ciplined, active, and comprehensive mind. Two years upon his mind. So intent was he, that he perceived not "My name is James Wallace, and I live with Mr Lee, passed away in an untiring devotion to the studies he had the passage of time, and was only called back to a con- the blind-maker."

assigned himself, and he then made application for adsciousness of where he was by the sudden sinking of the “ Do you, indeed? Well, how much will you charge mission to the bar. wick of his candle into the melted mass of tallow that for painting them and putting on new hangings ?"

[Young Wallace passed his examinations with some had filled the cup of his candlestick. In another moment “I will do it for two dollars, sir. The hangings and applause, and the first case on which he was employed he was in total darkness. The cry of the watchman had tassels will cost me three-quarters of a dollar, and the chanced to be one of great difficulty, which required all told him that the hours had flown, until it was past ten paint and varnish a quarter more. And it will take two his skill; the lawyer on the opposite side was Harman o'clock.

or three evenings, besides getting up very early in the Lee, who entertained for his father's old apprentice the Slowly undressing himself in his dark chamber, his morning to work for Mr Lee, so that I may paint and var most profound contempt.] mind recurring with a strong interest to what he had nish them when the sun shines."

The cause came on within a week, for all parties intebeen reading, he lay down upon his hard bed, and gave “But will Mr Lee let you do this ?"

rested in the result were anxious for it to come to trial, full play to his thoughts. Hour after hour passed away, “I don't know, sir ; but I will ask him.”

and therefore no legal obstacles were thrown in the way. but he could not sleep, so absorbed was he in reviewing “ Very well, my little man. If Mr Lee does not object, There was a profound silence and a marked attention the new and wonderful things he had read. At last I am willing."

and interest when the young stranger arose in the courtwearied nature gave way, and he fell into a slumber, James ran back to the house, and found Mr Lee room to open the case. A smile of contempt, as he did filled with dreams of planets, moons, comets, and fixed standing in the door. Much to his delight, his request so, curled the lip of Harman Lee, but Wallace saw it not. stars,

was granted. Four days from that he possessed a book The prominent points of the case were presented in On the next morning, the apprentice boy resumed his of his own, and had half a dollar with which to buy some plain but concise language to the court; and a few replace at the work-bench with a new feeling; and with other volume, when he should have thoroughly mastered marks bearing upon the merits being made, the young this feeling was mingled one of regret, that he could not the contents of that. Every night found him poring lawyer took his seat, and gave room for the defence. go to school as did his master's son.

over this book; and as soon as it was light enough in the Instantly Harman Lee was on his feet, and began refer“But I can study at night while he is asleep,” he said morning to see, he was up and reading.

ring to the

points presented by his “very learned brother," to himself.

Of course there was much in it that he could not in a flippant, contemptuous manner. There were those Just then Harman Lee came into the shop, and ap- understand, and many terms the meaning of which was present who marked the light that kindled in the eye of proaching James, said, for the purpose of teasing him, hidden from him. To help him in this difficulty, he pur- Wallace, and the flash that passed over his countenance, How big round is the earth, Jim ?"

chased with his remaining half dollar, at a second-hand at the first contemptuous word and tone that were uttered “Twenty-five thousand miles," was the unhesitating book stall, a dictionary. By the aid of this he acquired by his antagonist at the bar. These soon gave place to

the information he sought much more rapidly. But the attention, and an air of conscious power. Once on his Harman looked surprised for a moment, and then re more he read, the broader the unexplored expanse of feet, with so flimsy a position to tear into tatters as that sponded, with a sneer---for he was not a kind-hearted knowledge appeared to open before him. He did not, which his " learned brother” had presented, Lee seemed boy, but, on the contrary, very selfish, and disposed to however, give way to feelings of discouragement, but never to grow tired of the tearing process. Nearly an injure rather than do good to others---- Oh, dear! How steadily devoted every evening, and an hour every morn hour had passed away when he resumed his seat with a wonderful wise you are! And no doubt you can tell ing, to study; while all the day his mind was pondering look of exultation, which was followed by a pitying and how many moons Jupiter has? Come, let's hear." over the things he had read, as his hands were diligently contemptuous smile as Wallace again slowly arose. “ Jupiter has four moons," James answered, with some employed in the labour assigned him.

Ten minutes, however, had not passed when that smile thing of exultation in his tone.

It occurred, just at this time, that a number of bene- had changed to a look of surprise, mortification, and “ And no doubt you can tell how many rings it has ?” volent individuals established, in the town where James alarm, all blended into a single expression. The young

" Jupiter has no rings. Saturn has rings, and Jupiter lived, one of those excellent institutions, an Apprentices' lawyer's maiden speech showed him to be a man of calm, belts," James replied, in a decisive tone.

Library. To this he at once applied, and obtained the deep, systematic thought-well skilled in points of law For a moment or two Harman was silent with surprise books he needed. And thus-none dreaming of his de- and in authorities; and, more than all, a lawyer of pracand mortification, to think that his father's apprentice, votion to the acquirement of knowledge—did the poor tical and comprehensive views. When he sat down, no whom he esteemed so far below him, should be possessed apprentice boy lay the foundation of future eminence important point in the case had been left untouched, and of knowledge equal to his, and on the points in reference and usefulness. We cannot trace his course, step by none that had been touched required further elucidato which he had chosen to question him; and that he step, through a long series of seven years, though it would tion. should be able to convict him of an error into which he afford many lessons of perseverance and triumph over Lee followed briefly, in a vain attempt to torture his had purposely fallen. “I should like to know how long almost insurmountable difficulties. But at twenty-one language and break down his positions. But he felt that it is since you became so wonderful wise,” Harman at he was master of his trade ; and what was more, had he was contending with weapons whose edges were turned length said, with a sneer.

laid

up a vast amount of general and scientific informa- at every blow. When he took his seat again, Wallace "Not very long," James replied, calmly. “I have tion : he was well read in history; had studied thoroughly merely remarked, that he was prepared, without further been reading one of your books on astronomy."

the science of astronomy, for which he ever retained å argument, to submit the case to the court. * Well, you're not going to have my books, mister, I lively affection; was familiar with mathematical prin The case was accordingly submitted, and a decision can tell you! Anyhow, I should like to know what busi- ciples, and could readily solve the most difficult geo- unhesitatingly made in favour of the plaintiffs, or Walness you have to touch one of them! Let me catch you metrical and algebraic problems ; his geographical know- lace's clients. at it again, and see if I don't cuff you soundly. You'd ledge was minute; and to this he added tolerably correct From that hour James Wallace took his true position. better, a great deal, be minding your work."

information in regard to the manners and customs of The despised apprentice became the able and profound " But I didn't neglect my work, Harman; I read at different nations. To natural history he had also given lawyer, and was esteemed for real talent and real moral night after I was done with my work; and I didn't hurt much attention. But with all his varied acquirements, worth, which, when combined, ever place their possessor your book.”

James Wallace felt, on attaining the age of manhood, that in his true position. “ I don't care if you didn't hurt it. You're not going he knew comparatively but little.

Ten years from that day Wallace was elevated to the to have my books, I can tell you. So do you just let

Let us now turn, for a few moments, to mark the pro- bench, while Lee, a second-rate lawyer, never rose above them alone.”

gress of the young student in one of the best semi-that position. Poor James's heart sank in his bosom at this unexnaries in his native city, and afterwards at college. Like

In the histories of these two persons is seen the diffepected obstacle so suddenly thrown in his way. He had

too many tradesmen whose honest industry and steady rence between simply receiving an education, as it is no money of his own to buy, and knew of no one from

perseverance have gained them a competence, Mr Lee called, and being self-educated. This fact every student, whom he could borrow the book that had all at once

felt indisposed to give his son a trade, or to subject him and every humble apprentice with limited advantages, become necessary to his happiness.“ Do, Harman,” he

to the same restraints and discipline in youth to which should bear in mind." It should infuse new life into the said, appealingly; “ lend me the book ; I will take good he had been subjected. He felt ambitious for him, and studies of one, and inspire the other with a determination care of it." “No, I won't. And don't you dare to touch it," was

determined to educate him for one of the learned profes- to imbue his mind with knowledge. The education that

sions. To this end he sent him to school early, and pro- a boy receives at colleges and seminaries does not make the angry reply. vided for him the best instruction.

him a learned man. He only acquires there the rudiments James Wallace knew well enough the selfish disposi

The idea that he was to be a lawyer or a doctor soon

of knowledge. Beyond these he must go. He must conyears, to be convinced that there was now but little hope him to feel contempt for other boys who were merely the apprentice of the

handicraftsman, for instance, whose

rear--others of humbler means and fewer opportunities; of his having the use of his books, except by stealth; designed for trades or store-keeping. and from that his natural open and honest principles

few hours of devotion to study, from a genuine love of revolted. All day he thought earnestly over the means

Like too many others, he had no love for learning, nor learning, have given him a taste and a habit that remain whereby he should be able to obtain a book on astro- any right appreciation of its legitimate uses. To be a

with him in all after time. nomy, to quench the ardent thirst that he had created lawyer he thought would be much more honourable in his mind. And night came without any satisfactory than to be a mere mechanic; and for this reason alone, answer being obtained to his earnest inquiries of his own as far as he had any thoughts on the subject, did he de

LONDON: Published, with permission of the proprietors, by thoughts. sire to be a lawyer. As for James. Wallace, he, as the

W. S. ORR, Paternoster Row. He was learning the trade of a blind-maker. Having poor illiterate apprentice of his father, was most heartily Printed by Bradbury and Evans, Whitefriars. been already an apprentice for two years, and being indus-despised, and never treated by Harman with the smallest

Complete sets of the Journal are always to be had from the trious and intelligent, he had acquired a readiness with degree of kind consideration.

publishers or their agents; also, any odd numbers to complete tools and much skill in some parts of his trade. While At the age of eighteen, he was sent away to one of the sets. Persons requiring their volumes bound along with titlesitting alone after he had finished his work for the day, eastern universities, and there remained-except during pages and contents, have only to give them into the hands of any his mind searching about for some means whereby he the semi-annual vacations—until he was twenty years of bookseller, with orders to that effect.

answer.

CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM AND ROBERT CHAMBERS, EDITORS OF " CHAMBERS'S INFORMATION FOR THE PEOPLE,"

“ CHAMBERS'S EDUCATIONAL COURSE,” &c.

NUMBER 560.

SATURDAY, OCTOBER 22, 1842.

PRICE 11d.

had a strange, rough, contradictory way of speaking, vent and free way. To expose anything to its force, HANDLES.

especially to his wife Bet, who could not make the by way of diminishing it, is as imprudent as it would THERE is a class of persons usually described by the simplest remark, or set forth the most unpretending be to go and put up a fire-screen against an igniting silken tongue of polite society as persons of peculiar proposition, but he was sure to treat it as wrong and fri- barrel of gunpowder. The only safety is in getting temper, or simply as “peculiar,” but who are some- volous. Bet was obliged to act accordingly, whenever away from the Presence as quickly as possible. Pastimes confidentially alluded to under much more she wished to carry any particular point. Their son, sionate people, when thus treated, generally become alarming designations. The peculiarity generally con- a boy of thirteen, who assisted his father, wished to go reasonable and penitent in a short time, and are even sists in such qualities as fretfulness, crossness, quarrel to Thornhill fair, and to have money in his pocket willing to make some amends for their violence. Unsomeness, contradictiveness, cankeredness, and so forth, when he went. He disclosed his wishes to his mother, less, then, they should be like Fletcher of Salton, or in that summary of conditions which one describes who undertook to bring the matter about. That whose anger was no sooner off than it was on again, when he says of a fellow-creature, “ There is no pleas- evening, the following conversation, which I beg leave it is possible to manage violent people to some puring him." The existence of such a person in a little to relate in the original Doric, took place between pose. There is a story told of a country gentleman circle-for example, one of a sisterhood of old maiden David and Bet :

who was liable to fall into transports of rage with his ladies obliged for economy to live together-is an evil “Gudeman, ye'll no guess what that fulish laddie, servants, in the course of which he seldom failed to of a very grave character, as it never fails to make a our Robbie, has ta'en into his head ?”

inflict a cuffing or caning upon them. When his large subtraction from the comfort of all the rest. To “ 'Deed, gudewife, I canna tell what either he or better genius resumed its sway, there was always an keep that person tolerably sweet, or to avoid at least you would think o', ye’re baith sic fules.”

assythment for the injuries he had inflicted, generally giving occasion to outbreaks of the “ peculiarity,” “Na, but, gudeman, ye ken the morn’s the fair day, in the form of some extra indulgence or present, so often becomes the leading business of the associated and nought will serve him but he wad hae me to speak that in time it became rather a subject of rejoicing persons ; and, at the best, there is amongst them a

to you about letting him gang to the merket, and him among the servants when their master fell foul of want of that serenity and ease of mind, which form only a laddie o'thirteen ; it's clean out o' the question. them. The great art was to make no resistance or so important a requisite in life, and without which, What wad a laddie like him do there ?–and lose a complaint, but to leave it all to the worthy gentleindeed, life is scarcely worth having. A terrible class, day's wages into the bargain ?"

man's own conscience. It is easy to see how this in truth, are these “ peculiar” people, notwithstanding “What's that ye say, Bet? What for no? The policy might be adapted to parlour life. We can imthat, as Sir Walter Scott said of bores, there is gene- laddie's a bit weel-doing callan', an’ works primely; agine a lady anxious for a new drosky, of which her rally something respectable about them—the terma- an' he shall gae to the merket, 'at he shall, in spite o' husband would prudently postpone the purchase, saygant sister, for instance, being almost sure to be the your teeth. Yes shall he !"

ing to herself—“Well, I am sure of it the next time best house-keeper. It becomes, of course, a serious “ Aweel, aweel, David, just as ye like, ye're the best George falls into a passion." Eager for a particular consideration, whether there be any beneficent ar- judge, nae doubt; but ae thing leads aye to anither. splendid shawl, which George thought too dear, she rangement of Providence designed to alleviate to The laddie speaks the greatest nonsense about siller might bethink herself—“If he would only take one mankind the woes arising from these peculiar people. to keep his pouch in the merket; he even ven- of his frantic fits, I should be sure of it.” A wife of

I am of opinion that there is. It has often struck tured to name a gude white shilling in my hearing ; any ingenuity might in a great measure dress herself me that peculiar people are nearly the most manage- but, I trow, I soon settled that wi' the airn tangs, an' off her husband's hurricanes. But to secure such reable of all creatures, when once the moving spring of I hae na seen him sin-syne, like."

sults, an absolute submission is necessary. The penitheir predominant feelings is detected. Creative wis “What's that ye're saying, Bet! Did ye meddle tent feeling must have no consolation for itself in any dom has furnished each of them with what vulgar wi' the weel-doing laddie, wha bigs stane for stane wi' recollection of an angry reply. If it have, it fixes parlance terms a HANDLE—a certain something in me a' day, an'aye does my bidding in spite o' a' your equal guilt upon the other party, and no reparation their character, which it is only necessary to manage havers ! A shilling, Bet ! I tell ye, woman—an' what seems necessary. Yet the submission must be well rightly in order to avoid all that is bad about them, I say’s a law in this house—I tell ye, woman, he shall managed. Great pains must be taken to avoid the at the same time that we perhaps obtain the benefit not only hae a shilling, but half a crown, 'at he shall. appearance of a policy in the matter. When several of all that is good. Almost any peculiar person Sae shall he, e'en in spite o' you, and your airn tangs persons are concerned, there must be no symptom of may be made tolerable for the common intercourse into the bargain !"

a forethought, arrangement, or conspiracy amongst of life, if one only finds out his handle, and can “ Aweel, aweel, gudeman. Ye maun just hae your them. All must be natural and appropriate to the use it adroitly. Sometimes the handle is curiously ain way o't ; but ye'll see what it'll a' come to. Ye're occasion. Then, but then only, may the proper solahidden in the mesh of character, so as not to be very just spoiling the laddie wi' indulgence,” &c.

tium be expected. easily got hold of; but when once discovered, its In this way, honest David could be made to do any The persons usually called impracticable are a large management is generally not very difficult. The pa thing his wife pleased, all the time that he thought section of the class. These are usually individuals tient may be as immoveable as was the wooden horse himself the most incontrollable of domestic despots. of a self-willed character, full of rooted prejudices, mounted by one of the three calenders in Arabian | A similar expedient was resorted to about fifty years high in their own conceit, and strongly of opinion story ; but turn one little peg—the handle !—and he ago with a nobleman who owned a park of celebrated that all the rest of mankind are fools. Therefore, springs up into the air with you in a moment. It is beauty skirting the sea-coast near one of our large they never coalesce with other people in any comvery favourable to the management of peculiar people, towns. There was a pathway through his grounds, mon object. They never agree with any body on that they are usually so blind as to be in no great by which his predecessors had allowed the people of a any question. Unless an idea has arisen in their likelihood of discovering when any one is touching neighbouring village to pass on their journeys to and own minds, and they believe (which, however, they their handle, or even that they have a handle at all. from the town. Stingy and unsocial, he determined are apt to do) that nobody else ever had it before Did they suspect such a thing, a pretty storm we to put an end to the privilege, although it did not or now entertains it, it is no idea for them. Such a should have of it. But the fact is, of themselves they interfere with the privacy of his family; and, accord person never belongs to any political party. He is a never suspect any such thing, and no third party ever ingly, whenever he met any one going through the party of himself. Truly was it said of John Lilburn, gives them a hint of it-for it is just one of the mis park, he turned him back. The villagers at length a remarkable specimen of the class, that if he alone fortunes of people of difficult tempers, that they are came to know how to manage the old earl ; so, when were left in the world, Lilburn would not agree with the objects of an universal conspiracy. Thus, if the walking through the park, if they saw him at a dis- | John, nor would John with Lilburn. “What is to be operator does not expose himself by extremely clumsy tance, they immediately turned and seemed to be done with an impracticable man? Surely he has no play, or by voluntarily betraying the secret, all is safe. going the contrary way. When he came up, he of handle !" Has he not, indeed? Why, there is no kind

There is a well-known story of an Irish pig which course put them right about, and thus sent them on of person that has a more conspicuous handle. That had a handle. Its owner, taking it to Cork, and the way they wished to go. By this simple device, very self-concentratedness which makes him an imknowing its refractory disposition, told it that he both parties were equally pleased—the villagers in practicable man, supplies the handle by which he is wished it to go to Dublin, when, as he expected, it escaping a circumbendibus of several miles, and the to be managed. To make such a man tolerable, immediately took the course which he desired. This earl in the accomplishment of his resolution to turn his fellow-creatures generally find it necessary to story is conformable, if not to porcine, at least to back all who entered his grounds.

study to convert everything to his own glory, and to human nature, as the following true anecdote will For every different species of difficult people, a pe- support him in the notion that he is the centre and prove. David Dobie was a dyker, or builder of dry-culiar mode of management is required. A violent mainspring of everything. No one must ever pretend stone enclosures, near Thornhill in Dumfriesshire. He man, for instance, requires submission. When he to have an opinion as to how anything could be best was a passable sort of rustic in most respects, but i comes to the explosion, the great art is to allow it I done in his presence. No one must ever recommend to

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