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stances.

THE ENGLISIL ABROAD.

was

“ calls Macbeth the thane of Crumbachty, which is withont destroying the beds entirely; The usual plan | having put us on the histrionic track; and also because, the Gaelic name of Cromarty; and in the well would have been to trench the ground; but, aware that their art consisting in assuming at will certain characters known story of the Weird Sisters, the chronicler I should only increase the evil by dividing the roots of and feelings, the Daguerreotype is peculiarly well admakes the first witch hail Macbeth 'thane of Crum such weeds as could not be picked out, amidst an accu- apted to take their portraits in a state of emotion : bachty, the second thane of Moray, and the third

mulation of strawberry plants, I had them mown off close orators and others could only be so taken unawares, king. These intimations lead directly up to the

to the ground, which was afterwards trenched carefully, which would be scarcely practicable except in rare inseveral fictions of Doece, llolinshed, and Shak-breaking each spadeful, and picking out every root

that could be seen. It was then planted with celery, and But some readers, having a prejudice against the Daspcare. Macbeth was by birth the thane of Ross,

every time the plants were moulded up, those roots which guerreotype miniatures, may be ready to protest against by marriage with the Lady Gruocl the thane of Mo- had escaped in the trenching were picked out. In the their incorrectness as well as their grimness ; and this ray, and by liis crimes the king of Scots. Finley, as spring 1 again gave it a shallow trenching, to incorporate brings us to the point which we are aiming to enforce, we may learn froin Torfieus, was maormor, or, as the the dung in which the celery grew; and I afterwards namely, the necessity for viewing the photographs through Norwegian historian calls him, jarl, of Ross, who, at planted the ground with early spring-sown cauliflowers, a medium of high magnifying power, not only to correct the commencement of the eleventh century, carried which were all cut by the middle of August. A good coat the slight aberration caused by the diminishing lens of on a rigorous war, in defence of his country, against of manure was then dug in, and strawberries were planted the camera, but to amplify their shadows so as to lessen the incursions of that powerful vikingr, Sigurd, the in patches, three or five together (according to the sorts), their density and remove the harshness and blackness Earl of Orkney and Caithness. With his dominions

two feet apart in the rows, which are two and a half and consequent thereon. The image is too minute for any but the district of Finley was contiguous, while the coun

four feet wide alternately. These plants bore a crop the a microscopic scrutiny to develop all its minutiæ of form; try of Angus lay southward at a great distance. Fin-following season, equal to what they would have done had and, looking at the plate with the naked eye, one does ley lost his life about 1020, in some hostile conflict with they been planted out singly the previous spring. When not perceive the object truly and completely, even in point

of form. A compensating lens, through which the visiters Malcolm II,

This fact alone evinces that Finley rotation, except that I have no occasion to trench the might view the photographic limnings, and artists might would scarcely have fought with his wife's father if ground.' Previously to making the celery trenches, I have copy them when required, would be a desirable addition he had been the husband of Doada. The Lady Gruoch, only to strike a spade under the patches, and remove them to the new arrangements that M. Claudet is now making when driven from her castle by the cruel fate of her with the few runners they have made attached ; a little at the Adelaide Gallery for facilitating his operations and husband, the maormor of Moray, naturally fled with hoeing being sometimes necessary, if there are weeds on promoting the convenience of visiters. her infant son, Lulach, into the neighbouring country the ground. I annually dig amongst them; and, as soon The value of the Daguerreotype as an aid to artists of Ross, which was then ruled by Macbeth, who mar as possible after the fruit is gathered, I remove from the both in landscape and portraiture, is not yet fully appreried her, during the reign of Duncan. We have now patches all the runners they have made. It may be ciated; nor is the practice of producing prints from phoseen distinctly that Macbeth was maormor of Ross, objected, that it is more difficult to keep the fruit clean tographs so general as it is likely to become. We allude the son of Finley, and the grandson of Rory, or Rode- than when the plants occupy the whole row; but as I not to the experiments of taking impressions from the rick; and that he was the husband of Gruochi, who

can get plenty of short grass, it is easily accomplished. I plates themselves (which the specimens that have been was the daughter of Boedhe, and the grand-daughter I should be no loser ; for, about six years

ago, I removed impossible), but to copies from them. A work has been

am of opinion, that, if the patches had double the room, shown, though very imperfect, prove to be not altogether of Kenneth IV. Macbeth thus united in himself all

alternate patches from two rows of Keen's seedling--the commenced in Paris, called “ Excursions Daguerriennes," the power which was possessed by the partisans of fruit they have since borne has been very fine, and not containing views of the principal cities and remarkable Kenneth IV., all the influence of the Lady Gruoch, less in quantity than there would have been had I not places in the world, some numbers of which we have seen and of her son Lulach, together with the authority of removed any. They continue to bear well still, but I in London. The engravings are very neat and accurate maormor of Ross, but not of Angus. With all these seldom allow them to stand longer than four years. Some- copies in aquatint of the plates, the size of the originals; powers, in addition to his own character for address times, instead of cauliflowers after the celery, I have a notwithstanding the absence of very minute detail, and and vigour, Macbeth became superior to Duncan and late crop of peas, in which case I do not plant the straw- the inferiority of the execution to the marvellous delicacy the partisans of his family. Macbeth had to avenge berries till the following spring ; but I cannot calculate of nature's image, they are beautiful as works of art, and the wrongs of his wife, and to resent for himself the on much fruit that season. -James Murdoch.

of course exact representations of the places. death of his father. The superiority of Macbeth, and the weakness of Duncan, were felt, when the unhappy

MUSINGS IN SEPTEMBER. king expiated the crimes of his fathers by his most

The Russians and the English are the two great travel

Out we went, we three, sacrilegious murder;' and Macbeth hastily marched

In loving companie :

ling nations, and they are the only two who travel in the to Scone, where lie was inaugurated as the king of

Faith. I mote remember,

large, heavy, family coach, though the latter seem to be Scots, supported by the clans of Moray and Ross, and

'Twas the moneth of September!

giving up that heavy machine which one cannot see out applauded by the partisans of Kenneth IV. If Mac

Ilaws were red and fields mowne,

of. One of these carriages arrived two nights ago, and beth had been, in fact, what fiction has supposed, the

And the song-byrd sate lone

there was an immediate wager to which it belonged, Engson of the second daughter of Malcolm, his title to

On the brown bough; singing, she

land or Russia : the former gained it. The English have

Made amends for companie. the throne would have been preferable to the right of

little idea how everything they do and say is discussed

By a brooke sate we, Duncan's son, according to the Scottish constitution

by foreigners. They mark and remark the most trifling And discoursed of destinie

circumstances; everything seems of consequence; even from the earliest cpoch of the monarchy. Whatever

" See you now, how things change

the dress is noted in the memory. Madame defect there may have been in his title to the sullied

As they drew near to die? sceptre of his unhappy predecessor, he seems to have

Man slackens in 's gait,

the mise à merveille," or " comme un ours ;” and while been studious to make up for it by a vigorous and

llair whitens on 's pate,

they are going in or out, walking or talking, just as they Puff', goeth out 's breath!

would if they were at home, they are little aware of the beneficent administration. He even practised the

So comes the year's deatlı:

construction put upon every word and action, particularly hospitality which gives shelter to the fugitive. Dur.

Verily, friends, it is strange!"

in countries where they are not much known. The want ing his reign, plenty is said to have abounded ; justice

Out then spake another,

of “risibility of the countenance and flexibility of the was administered; the chieftains, who would have

In hollow accents, “ Brother,

body” is the first thing that strikes; and it may be a raised disturbances, were either overawed by his

There's a charnel for the fleshi,

question, whether the general acquirement of these agré power or repressed by his valour. Yet injury busied

And a grave for all matter,

mens in society might not be useful, inasmuch as the first

But there's what springetlı fresh herself in plotting vengeance. Crian, the abbot of

would increase our own happiness, and the last the con

From the first as the latter. Dunkeld, who, as the father of Duncan, and the grand

The field getteth a new green cloth,

tentment of our neighbours. All persons like to be refather of his sons, must have been now well stricken

But who knoweth how it doth ?

spected; “preferring one another” is a Christian prinin years, put himself at the head of the friends of

And man quickeneth again,

ciple; and there is a pleasure in the feeling of a wellIlow or where we seek in vain !

regulated mind in showing deference to others, as well Duncan, and made a gallant but unsuccessful at

The life of nature it is given

as receiving it one's self; and if we do not pay it, we tempt to restore them to their rights. The odious

To our view-our own to Heaven."

cannot expect to receive it. The outward attention and crime, however, by which Macbeth acquired his autho

- Collnırn's Kalendar of Amusements.

respect paid by foreigners to women, and the inattention rity, seems to have haunted his most prosperous mo

to her of our lords of the creation, is evident to the most ments. He tried, by distributing money at Rome, by USES OF THE DAGUERREOTYPE.

unobserving. I could give many examples of my own largesses to the clergy, and by charity to the poor,

experience of this ; but were I to mention them, it might to obtain relief from the afiliction of those terrible

[From the “Spectator."']

be called vanity: however, one is vivid in my imagination. dreams that did shake him nightly: Macbeth and The Daguerreotype process, as improved by M. Claudet, We were once in a hurry to get our passports, and, knowthe lady Gruoch, his wife, gave the lands of Kirkness, can represent objects all but in motion ; a momentary ing there is nothing like “ making a page of your own and also the manor of Bolgy, to the Culdees of Loch- suspension of movement only is necessary to fix the age," that is, doing your own business, I drove first to the leven. Yet the friendship of the pope, and the support image on the plate, and a transient expression of the English, then to the Austrian ambassador's ; my owa

countryman" received me in dishabille--civilly, how of the clergy, did not insure Macbeth a quiet reign. countenance is rendered permanent. Several members

ever, though hurried in his movements; the passport was His rigour increased with his sense of insecurity. The of the corps de ballet at the Italian opera lately stood--injuries of Macduff, the maormor of Fife, constantly

or rather danced---for their portraits to M. Claudet, in signed, the gentleman bowed and retired to his den, leav. prompted the son of Duncan to attempt the redress postures that could be retained but for an instant, such ing the lady to make her way out as she could. I then

as poising on one toe with the other leg extended, and proceeded to the Austrian ambassador, and was shown of their wrongs. With the approbation, perhaps by resting on the points of both feet. These miniatures may into his room, where he was writing. I ought to have the command, of Edward the Confessor, Siward, the be seen at the Adelaide Gallery, and very curious they mentioned, the Englishman kept me waiting some time. potent Earl of Northumberland, and the relation of are ; the whole of the figure, and even groups of two or Monsieur received me with the grace and politeness of Malcolm, conducted a numerous army into Scotland three dancers, being delincated on a plate of two or three his nation. When he found we were going to Italy, he during the year 1054. The Northumbrians, led by inches high, in which the play of the features and the inquired by what route, discussed the merits of them all, Siward and his son Osbert, penetrated, probably, to minutest characteristics of the dress are discernible. M. gave me much information, and, when the passport was Dunsinane. In this vicinity were they confronted by Claudet's collection of likenesses includes the queen- ready, accompanied me to the head of the stairs, preMacbeth, when a furious conflict ensued. The num dowager and other distinguished personages ; but the sented it, and, with many good wishes for an agreeable bers of the slain evince the length of the battle and

most interesting of the series to us were those of Made- journey, and as many obeisances as if we had been at the bravery of the combatants. Osbert was slain ; moiselle Rachel, in ordinary costume, and with her habi- court, we parted. One was an unpleasant business, the yet Macbeth, after all his efforts of valour and vigour and character are so vividly and delicately pourtrayed, If it is true that action is three parts of speaking, manner

tual look when in a thoughtful state of quietude. Mind other an agreeable visit; and manner made the difference, of conduct, was overcome. He retired into the north, that we could not but wish that the great tragic actress where he had numerous friends, and where he might had sat in some of those different states of emotion which Lust Tour and First Work.

must be three parts of diplomacy.-Lady Vavasour's find many fastnesses. Siward returned into Northum her eloquent countenance can express at will with so much berland, and died at York in 1055. Meantime, Mac, intensity. If there is one thing more than another that

CAST-IRON BUILDINGS. beth continued his bloody contest with Malcolm; and the magic power of the Daguerreotype is valuable for, it Buildings of cast-iron are daily increasing in England. this uncommon character was at length slain at is this of limning the fleeting shades of expression in the As the walls will be hollow, it will be easy to warm the Lumphanan, on the 5th of December 1056, by the human face: for here the art of the painter, however great buildings by a single stove placed in the kitchen. A threehand of the injured Macduff.”

his skill, is most at fault; and it is only in his happiest storey house, containing ten or twelve rooms, will not moments that the artist of genius can transfer to the can cost more than L.1100. Houses may be taken to pieces,

vass the indications of lively sensation, strong passion, and transported from one place to another, at an expense ROTATION OF CROPS IN GARDENS.

and profound thought, or even of individual character in of not more than L.25.-- From a newspaper. I have pursued with success for many years the follow- a quiescent state. Could Garrick have looked all his cha [We entertain serious doubts as to the propriety of ing rotation in preparing ground, which has been almost racters before the lens of the Daguerreotype, generation using cast-iron buildings as dwelling-houses ; the liability exclusively devoted, during fifty years, to the growth of would have beheld again and again what was given to his to attract lightning is not the least of the evils to be strawberries :-It was usual, in renewing the beds, to mow contemporaries to see once and away. Charles Mathews, dreaded.] down the plants after the fruit was gathered, and to dig who dipped for faces behind his green table, and brought up the middle of the beds for a path, retaining the runners up a fresh one every time, would havehad nothing to do but that had struck in the old one to bear the following to present his various physiognomies successively before London: Published, with permission of the proprietors, by season. But the ground being overrun with couch-grass, the Daguerreotype camera to have them reflected in that W. S. ORR, Paternoster Row. fox-tail grass, and blind-weed, I despaired of cleaning it retinent mirror. 'We instance actors in particular, Rachel

Printed by Bradbury and Evans, Whitefriars

CHAMBERS
INBURG

JOURNA

CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM AND ROBERT CHAMBERS, EDITORS OF " CHAMBERS'S INFORMATION FOR THE PEOPLE,”

“ CHAMBERS'S EDUCATIONAL COURSE," &c.

NUMBER 559.

SATURDAY, OCTOBER 15, 1842.

PRICE 15d.

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SELF-IMPOSED TAXES.

small portion of their incomes in the manner which sleep more than two in a bed. Yet I venture to say,

their natural tastes would dictate, and paying nearly the immense self-taxation which is the chief cause of It is a great mistake to allege of mankind that they the whole of it away in self-imposed taxes, merely that all this poverty is submitted to without a murmur. do not like taxes. There is, indeed, some truth in the they may appear to live as some other persons live, It is calculated that the town of Dundee, which conallegation, but it also includes a large amount of whose good opinion they think they are thus culti- tains 60,000 inhabitants, taxes itself for spirits to the falsehood. Mankind only do not like taxes which vating, while in truth nobody is ever once thinking amount of L.180,000 per annum : there is one parish other people impose upon them. They are quite about them. Some tax themselves in a pack with in it which gives a new version of Falstaff's tavern contented under taxes which they impose upon them- which they never hunt ; some in a racing stud which bill—a hundred and eight places for the sale of liquor to selves. To speak with more rigid accuracy, no man they never accompany to Ascot's. Some pay a vast eleven bakers' shops. Now, the angels may weep over likes taxes which others impose upon him, but every impost in the maintenance of a gratis hotel in the these taxes of Dundee, but the people themselves do man is happy to pay taxes which he imposes upon shape of a country house ; some in the keeping up of not. In the principal street of the old town of Edinhimself. Comparative amount is of no moment. A an equipage which they think their rank calls for; burgh, there are upwards of a hundred tax-offices open ; man will pay very large self-imposed taxes with all some in a retinue of servants whom they do not need, if there were half so many for compulsory taxes, the good humour imaginable, while he will be found and who are only a cumber to them, so that they may human nature would be in constant rebellion under to grumble at a very small rate imposed by others. be considered as a sort of double tax. A box at the it; but being all for self-imposed taxes, the thing is Generally speaking, the voluntary taxes are greatly opera makes a very neat self-imposed tax of some thought nothing of. Some years ago, there was in in excess of the compulsory, so that it may be said hundreds per annum, which some persons of no parti- Glasgow one office for these self-imposed taxes to every there is but a small proportion of truth in the allega- cular taste for music pay with a great deal of pleasure. | thirteen houses, and all submitted to with marked tion that mankind do not like taxes. It would be much Private concerts, routs, and fetês champetres, are occa- resignation. Such is the general case throughout the more philosophical to say that mankind like taxes, sional cesses of the same kind, which many are happy empire : everywhere we see numerous offices for spononly admitting that there was a small exception from to pay, taxing their own patience and spirits at the taneous imposts, which the people are hourly paying the rule with regard to a certain way in which taxes same time to entertain the company who may be as- without a murmur, while the smallest cess laid upon were occasionally imposed, namely, when they were sembled. In short, almost all the gaieties of the beau them for something really useful to them, would rouse put by one man upon another.

monde may be described as self-imposed taxes, for their “ignorant impatience of taxation” in a moment. I admit this exception to the fullest extent. I do those at whose cost they are instituted obviously have With what heroic indifference does a patriotic citizen not even deny it with regard to those instances of very little real enjoyment in them. “ I don't care for pay out his self-imposed taxes in one of these offices taxation in which a man is supposed to tax himself going to town next season—to tell the truth, I am on a Saturday evening, ay, even till he has denuded through the medium of representatives. Somehow, tired of it—but I suppose we must go, my dear, or it himself of perhaps a sixth or fifth part of his weekly though statesmen have ever shown a great anxiety to would be thought very odd.” So says a country gen- earnings ! Not a qualm seizes him, not a whisper of uphold this fiction of the law, and thereby, if possible, tleman to his wife, in the true spirit of submission to complaint escapes. But take the same citizen, and tell make the public taxes seem self-imposed, there are self-imposed taxation. And they go and pay the tax him that it would be well for him to pay a health rato few well-authenticated instances of individuals liking accordingly, with all the cheerfulness imaginable. or an education rate of the most trifling amount, and such taxes any more than those to which the dictate Talk of self-devotion and self-sacrifice !-- where is see how he would receive the idea. It is a remarkable of a despot has subjected them. The relation between there anything of the kind comparable to a life passed fact, which I have often had occasion to note, that the will of the represented citizen and the order for in constant submission to restraints and expenses, in- when you speak to a man about any new proposed tax payment which he in time receives, with due penalties curred in order to carry out the idea of what is proper of a public and compulsory nature, however small it specified for delay and refusal, is apt to be not very to one's class in the gay world?

may be, he is sure to begin a long elegy on the severity clearly perceived, and all De Lolme and Blackstone's The less affluent classes submit to their self-imposed of the taxes of that kind which he already has to pay efforts to mend the matter go much in vain. The taxes with a patience equally edifying. It is calcu. but when he is in the way of subjecting himself to a fact, then, is certain, that men do not like taxes of a lated that from forty-five to fifty millions, or about tax of the other kind, albeit a pretty heavy one, he public nature. Alas, how little need is there to im- the amount of the whole of the public taxes of the never says a single word about this department of his press this truth! Does not almost every newspaper United Kingdom, are spent in it annually on ardent hardships. His demeanour, when paying his selfconvey the groans and grumblings of the unfortunate spirits, beer, tobacco, and some other things which, so imposed taxes, is in general rather of a cheerful kind. public on the enormity of these imposts! How do far from benefiting the people, do them harm. This as if they were a source of positive happiness to him, high and low, young and old, rich and poor, and “men is a splendid amount of coluntary taxation, and it is, and so much to be enjoyed, that he could not bear to of all shades of political thinking," unite in detesting of course, only a portion of the whole. Yet not a indulge at the moment in a single painful association, these at the best necessary evils ! Yes, I think the word of grumbling is ever heard from those who pay Do not let it for an instant be supposed, that any proposition that men do not like public taxes will be it. The expenditure on ardent spirits alone is esti- one class of the community is more addicted to the pretty generally acceded to.

mated at twenty-four millions, and this at least must paying of self-imposed taxes than another. It is an But it is quite different with the far larger class of be regarded as a very pure tax of the voluntary kind, universally prevalent disposition, and the same essentaxes which men do really and without fiction lay seeing that not an atom of utility can be attributed tially, whether exemplified by the gentleman whiffing upon themselves. Here all is serenity and compla- / to the article, but much that is the reverse. Never- at his cigar or the workman at his clay pipe, whether cency. If we consider every expense incurred under theless, I now am old who once was young, and I do in the same tavern amongst mugs and jugs, or at a the influence of some false maxim, sentiment, or ap- not recollect ever hearing any one vent a word of com- table where five kinds of wine and a dessert tempt to petite, and which does not redound to real enjoyment, plaint respecting this tax. What stronger subject a bewailment of the unfortunate habits of the lower as a self-imposed tax, I think it will be allowed that for indignation, it may be asked, could a poet or an orders, and a general discussion of the distresses of the most men pay more in voluntary than compulsory orator wish for, than the well-fed, well-clad emissaries country. I may chance, however, to have met with taxation ; yet not a single genuine groan is ever heard of a despot, extorting oppressive taxes from a popula- an illustration amongst a humble portion of the people, about the matter. Sometimes, indeed, the voluntary tion, such as that of Egypt, sunk into the depths of better than any which have accrued from higher is curiously mixed up with the compulsory taxation, poverty? The same contrast is to be seen every day quarters. This illustration I here introduce, without as we shall see in the sequel; but in these cases the between the magnificent tax-offices called gin-palaces wishing it to be supposed that it is more characteristic only remarkable thing is, that the part which is volun- | in all our large towns, and the poor wretches who of one class than another. When Sir Charles Shaw tary usually serves in a great measure to reconcile the hourly come there to pay in their spontaneous impost; took charge of the police force in Manchester a few sufferer to that which is otherwise—and many are so but no one connected with the tax-paying class in this years ago, he found the work-people in the habit of happy to pay the voluntary as to overlook the com- instance is ever seen to get warm upon the subject. paying sixpence per week each to the old watch for pulsory altogether.

In the town of Bury, which contains 25,000 inhabi- calling them up in the mornings. He put a stop to Spontaneous taxation is of several kinds, and it tants, the annual expenditure on spirits and beer is the practice, as being one which interfered with the would require a much more skilful hand than mine to estimated at L.54,190, or about L.8 for each family, regular duties of the police, and as being founded on anatomise it properly. Sometimes we see it in the being sufficient to pay the rent and public taxes of a habit which might be corrected. The employers, whole style of a man's life, sometimes only in parti- comfortable houses for the whole of the population. A however, complained of the interruption of the praccular habits or particular acts. In the fashionable large proportion of the humbler classes do there live tice, and requested that it might be renewed. Sir and affluent world, it has ever borne extensive sway. in very mean and ill-furnished dwellings, there being Charles, considering that sixpence was too high a There we see men and women content to spend but a no fewer than fifteen hundred in which the inmates charge, offered to allow the police to call up the work

people at tropence per week each, provided that the and in infancy only an equilibrium between supply | point out an abnormal metamorphosis of the brain. masters, to save the trouble of the weekly collection, and waste (the abstract state of health).

When this condition continues beyond a certain time, deducted the amount from the weekly wages, and paid A cause of disease which strengthens the causes of experience teaches that all motions in the body cease. it over to the police fund. The answer to the pro- supply, either directly or indirectly, by weakening the If the change of matter be chiefly confined to the posal was, that the work-people would sooner pay six- action of the causes of waste, destroys, in the child brain, then the change of matter, the generation of pence of their own accord than have one penny de- and in the adult, the relative normal state of health ; force, diminishes in all other parts. By surrounding ducted from their wages by their masters. Could while in old age it merely brings the waste and supply the head with ice, the temperature is lowered, but the there be anything more pointedly demonstrative of into equilibrium.

cause of the liberation of heat continues; the metathe readiness with which imposts are submitted to, A child, lightly clothed, can bear cooling by a low morphosis, which decides the issue of the disease, is although actually severe, if they are only self-imposed ! external temperature without injury to health ; the limited to a short period. We must not forget that

I trust, then, that the proposition put at the head force available for mechanical purposes, and the tem- the ice melts and absorbs heat from the diseased part ; of this paper, that it is a great mistake to allege of perature of its body, increase with the change of that if the ice be removed before the completion of mankind that they do not like taxes, has been satisfac- matter which follows the cooling ; while a high tem- the metamorphosis, the temperature again rises ; that torily made out. The whole matter, it will be ob- perature, which impedes the change of matter, is fol- far more heat is removed by means of ice, than if we served, lies in the specialty as to the mode of imposi- lowed by disease.

were to surround the head with a bad conductor of tion. Tax honest John Bull in the most homøopa On the other hand, we see, in hospitals and chari- heat. There has obviously been liberated in an equal thic manner, and he roars like his namesake ; but table institutions (in Brussels, for example), in which time a far larger amount of heat than in the state of allow the worthy man to tax himself, and you cannot old people spend the last years of life, when the tem- health ; and this is only rendered possible by an intake any plan for making him more happy. The perature of the dormitory, in winter, sinks 2 or 3 decreased supply of oxygen, which must have determined great error or misfortune of statesmen is, that they grees below the usual point, that by this slight degree a more rapid change of matter. always leave him somebody to blame as the cause of of cooling the death of the oldest and weakest, males The self-regulating steam-engines, in which, to prohis impoverishment: if they could so arrange the as well as females, is brought about. They are found | duce a uniform motion, the human intellect has matter with the worthy gentleman as to leave him lying tranquilly in bed, without the slightest symp- shown the most admirable acuteness and sagacity, furonly himself for that purpose, they would find him toms of disease, or of the usual recognisable causes of nish no inapt image of what occurs in the animal body. the most gentle, submissive, forgiving, and Christian- death.

The body, in regard to the production of heat and like person in the world.

A deficiency of resistance, in a living part, to the of force, acts just like one of these machines. With causes of waste, is obviously a deficiency of resistance the lowering of the external temperature, the respi

to the action of the oxygen of the atmosphere. When, rations become deeper and more frequent ; oxygen is LIEBIG ON HEALTH AND DISEASE.

from any cause whatever, this resistance diminishes in supplied in greater quantity and of greater density ; WE said we should most likely glance at the theory of a living part, the change of matter increases in an the change of matter is increased, and more food must disease propounded by Liebig in his recent work on equal degree.

be supplied, if the temperature of the body is to reAnimal Chemistry,* and we now take up the subject. Now, since the phenomena of motion in the animal main unchanged.”

Liebig's ideas are not altogether new, but they are body are dependent on the change of matter, the in The section on this deeply interesting subject is given in an original and forcible manner, and must crease of the change of matter in any part is followed closed by the following judicious remarks :-“ It is prove of no small use in helping forward physiological by an increase of all motions. According to the con- only by å just application of its principles that any science. He shows, as we formerly mentioned, that a ducting power of the nerves, the available force is theory can produce really beneficial results. The very principal phenomenon in the animal organism consists carried away by the nerves of involuntary motion same method of cure may restore health in one indiin the supply and waste of substance ; that the vital alone, or by all the nerves together.

vidual, which, if applied to another, may prove fatal force may be compared to a furnace which requires Consequently, if, in consequence of a diseased trans- in its effects. Thus, in certain inflammatory diseases, constant fuel—the oxygen of the atmosphere, as it formation of living tissues, a greater amount of force and in highly muscular subjects, the antiphlogistic were, blowing the flame, while the fuel is the food that be generated than is required for the production of treatment has a very high value ; while in other cases hunger incessantly demands. Animal life, then, our the normal motions, it is seen in an acceleration of all blood-letting produces infavourable results. The viauthor proceeds to demonstrate, is intimately asso or some of the involuntary motions, as well as in a vifying agency of the blood must ever continue to be ciated with the mutual action of waste and supply, higher temperature of the diseased part. This condi- the most important condition in the restoration of a and that the condition of body in which these are tion is called fecer.

disturbed equilibrium, which result is always depenpreserved in equilibrium is what we term health. When a great excess of force is produced by change dent on the saving of time; and the blood must,

The process of destruction in the animal fibre is of matter, the force, since it can only be consumed by therefore, be considered and constantly kept in view, greatly assisted by exercise or labour, and consequently motion, extends itself to the apparatus of voluntary as the ultimate and most powerful cause of a lasting so is the demand for material greater. This, indeed, motion. This state is called a febrile paroxysm." vital resistance, as well in the diseased as in the unis a plain truth, which every person knows—the man He then proceeds to show that disease in a hitherto affected parts of the body." who toils hardest requires most food. But this general healthy part is immediately a result of an overcharge of truth is qualified by circumstances; the action of oxygen, and that in the same manner the whole system THE LIFE AND POETRY OF LUCRETIUS. supply and waste differs in degree at different periods may become affected. “Should there be formed, in of life from infancy to old age. In childhood, the the diseased parts, in consequence of the change of Titus LUCRETIUS Carus was born at Rome, B. c. 95 power of assimilation—that is, transforming food into matter, from the elements of the blood or of the tissue, or 96. His father seems to have been an obscure scion fibre—is stronger than in advanced years, and there new products, which the neighbouring parts cannot of an illustrious stock. The Lucretii were one of the fore proportionally more nourishment is required. employ for their own vital functions ; should the sur

most ancient and powerful families in the Roman We find, says Liebig, that “a perfect balance between rounding parts, moreover, be unable to convey these the consumption of vital force for supply of matter, products to other parts, where they may undergo fame by their connexion with that heroic lady whose

commonwealth. They had been early elevated into and that for mechanical effects, occurs, therefore, only transformation, then these new products will suffer, in the adult state. It is at once recognised in the at the place where they have been formed, a process tragic fate had changed the constitution of her councomplete supply of the matter consumed. In old age of decomposition analogous to fermentation or putre- try, and with it the destinies of the world. more is wasted ; in childhood more is supplied than faction.

At the time of our poet's birth, a rage for Grecian wasted." In mechanical efforts, or labour, vital force The accelerated change of matter, and the elevated is expended. The daily loss of a full-grown man can- temperature in the diseased part, show that the resist- literature had spread throughout Italy. The connot be restored in less than seven hours’ sleep. “The ance offered by the vital force to the action of oxygen querors had submitted to the schooling of the conadult man sleeps seven hours, and wakes seventeen is feebler than in the healthy state. But this resist- quered, and avowed themselves as far their inferiors hours ; consequently, if the equilibrium be restored ance only ceases entirely when death takes place. By in letters as they had proved themselves their supein twenty-four hours, the mechanical effects produced the artificial diminution of resistance in another part, riors in arms. The Achaians who had come to in seventeen hours must be equal to the effects pro- the resistance in the diseased organ is not, indeed, Rome as hostages remained as instructors, and the duced during seven hours in the shape of formation of directly strengthened ; but the chemical action (the new parts. The body can only increase in mass, if cause of the change of matter) is diminished in the seminaries over which they presided were thronged the force accumulated during sleep, and available for diseased part, being directed to another part, where with eager and delighted pupils. It was natural, mechanical purposes, is employed neither for voluntary the physician has succeeded in producing a still more however, to entertain a preference for the fountainnor for involuntary motions."

feeble resistance to the change of matter (to the action head of knowledge and taste. The language and These facts respecting the supply of waste by food of oxygen).”. and vital force by sleep, bear on the theory of disease. The remedies for disorders of this kind are such as

learning of Greece were to be found purest and raciest According to Liebig-“Every substance or matter, experience has pointed out to be useful in restoring

at the source. Rhodes, Mitylene, but especially every chemical or mechanical agency, which changes an equilibrium in the general action. One method, Athens, became, accordingly, the favourite resorts of or disturbs the restoration of the equilibrium between as is well known, is to apply counter-irritants; and the Roman youth. Each of these localities had assothe manifestations of the causes of waste and supply, when these fail, the surgeon withdraws a portion of ciations to boast of, inexpressibly precious to juvenile in such a way as to add its action to the causes of blood. “ He diminishes, by blood-letting, the number enthusiasm; and the last, in particular, was holy ground. waste, is called a cause of disease. Disease occurs when of the carriers of oxygen (the globules), and by this Not to speak of warriors, and statesmen, and poets, the sum of vital force, which tends to neutralise all means the conditions of change of matter; he excludes causes of disturbance (in other words, when the re from the food all such matters as are capable of con Athens was pre-eminently the home and the haunt of sistance offered by the vital force), is weaker than the version into blood; he gives chiefly or entirely non- science. Zeno was still apparent to the second-sight acting cause of disturbance.

azotised food, which supports the respiratory processDeath is that condition in which all resistance on

of fancy, hovering beside his porch ; Epicurus still upas well as fruit and vegetables, which contain the the part of the vital force entirely ceases. So long as alkalies necessary for the secretions.

rose at every turn of the garden ; the awful form of this condition is not established, the living tissues con If he succeed, by these means, in diminishing the Aristotle yet lingered by the Lyceum ; and the deep tinue to offer resistance.

action of the oxygen in the blood on the diseased part, grove of the Academy was made still more sombre by To the observer, the action of a cause of disease so far that the vital force of the latter, its resistance, the shade of Plato. It was thus to a spot, the richest exhibits itself in the disturbance of the proportion in the smallest degree overcomes the chemical action- in all the world in such inspiring recollections, that between waste and supply which is proper to each and if he accomplish this, without arresting the func- Lucretius was sent to complete his studies. Here he period of life. In medicine, every abnormal condition tions of the other organs—then restoration to health attended the Epicurean school, at that time taught by of supply or of waste, in all parts or in a single part of is certain. the body, is called disease. It is evident that one and To the method of cure adopted in such cases, if Zeno and Phædrus, both able and benevolent men, the same cause of disease will produce the organism employed with sagacity and acute observation, there and imbibed the lessons of that philosophy of which very different effects, according to the period of life ; is added, as we may call it, an ally on the side of the he afterwards approved himself so ardent a disciple and that a certain amount of disturbance, which pro- diseased organ, and this is the vital force of the and so gifted an expounder. As his fellow-students duces disease in the adult state, may be without influ- healthy parts. For, when blood is abstracted, the at this seat of learning, we find a group of names ence in childhood or in old age. À cause of disease external causes of change are diminished also in them, which afterwards rose to rank with the proudest in may, when it is added to the cause of waste in old age, and their vital force, formerly neutralised by these their country's annals. Among them are those of produce death (annihilate all resistance on the part of causes, now obtains the preponderance.” the vital force); while in the adult state it may pro Cold may be made available with great effect as an

Brutus, Cassius, and Cicero. With some of these reduce only a disproportion between supply and waste; agent of cure, by restoring equilibrium, and changing lasting friendships. But none of them seems to have

markable young men our poet contracted warm and * Animal Chemistry, or Organic Chemistry in its Applications cially in certain morbid conditions in the substance of had a place so near his heart as Caius Memmius, & to Bor of Medicine,

Aberdeen. London: Taylor and Walton, Upper the centre of the apparatus of motion ; when a glow high-born Roman, between whose family and that of Gower Street. 1342.

ing heat and a rapid current of blood towards the head | Lucretius there subsisted an hereditary amity. Ho

B. C. 58.

who was writing for millions was most concerned for which may be taken as the basis of the ancient physics. Say, when thy navies stud the ample mati,
the applause of Memmius.
The dryness of philosophical discussion is here agree-

Doth superstition, panic-struck, depart?

Doth dread of death forsake thy troubled heart? In company with Catullus, our poet, at an after- ably relieved by the following exquisite lines, which

Can these bid all thy dark forebodings cease, period, went with his friend to Bithynia, on his ob- are presented to the reader in our own version :

And lull the tempest of thy soul to peace? taining the government of that province. Into the The drops seem lost when Father Æther pours

If all be vain--if cares and fell alarins activities of political life Lucretius himself never In earth's expectant lap his genial showers

Fear not the gleam of spears, the clang of arms;
plunged, although, in his retirement, in the neigh-
But soon shall crops in golden glory spring,

If bold they thrust 'mid lords and sceptred kings,
And trees abroad their branchy foliage fling;

Unawed, uncheck'd, by all resplendent things ;
bourhood of Rome, he took, as a private patriot, a
Up from the soil in joyous effort shoot,

Invade the court, and cluster round the throne, lively and often an indignant interest in the events And bend anon beneath a load of fruit:

Though gold and purple frown, and bid begoneof the time. His chief solace or amusement, however, Hence man and beast are nurtured ; hence we see

Why doubt that error's films our vision blind,
was derived from the composition of his poem on the
Our cities gladden'd with the urchin’s glee:

And darkness broodeth o'er the human mind?
On every breeze the warbled music flouts,

As children tremble in the dark, and sce
" Nature of Things.” The completion of this work
And glade and grove grow vocal with the notes:

Ideal terrors, so full often we
may be referred, with some probability, to about
Hence languid herds athwart the mead repose,

Indulge our baseless fears in blaze of day,
And milky moisture from their udders flows :

And conjure phantoms, credulous as they:
The little that is known of the life of Lucretius has With fecble limbs the frolic lambkin plays,

Nor beams material pierce the mental gloom ; now been told. His death is involved in mystery. Quaffs the warm mother's milk, and o'er the pasture strays,

That not the sun's bright shafts, but reason, truth, illume. Thus nought may perish: mighty Nature brings

(Book II. 20-60.) Respecting two circumstances there seems to be no

Repair from ruin through the whole of things;

The poet then goes on to prosecute the old subject doubt. He became insane, and committed suicide. Nor suffers birth, nor yields of life the breath, Whether, as some assert, he was deranged by a love Save from the dust of antecedent death.-- (251-265.)

of atoms, describing their motions, figures, and other potion administered in a fit of jealousy by his wife The poet then discourses at large on the doctrine of properties ; explains the occasions of light and colour ; Lucilia, or whether, as may more rationally be sup- atoms, and the results of their infinitely-varied com.cludes, by an induction of imaginary proofs, that this

discourses on the vastness of the universe ; and conposed, he was liable, like Tasso, to periodical attacks binations. He attacks the opinions of several ancient earth has reached the stage of senescence, inanition, of a malady which has blighted some of the finest philosophers regarding the first principles of things; and decay-the idea of the world being in its dotage intellects, it cannot be questioned that he perished by contends that the universe and space are alike illimit- having

been a favourite of poets and moralists in all his own hands. He died at the age of forty-four. able ; and concludes with a brief yet sublime asserThe “ Nature of Things" is a philosophical and di- tion of the selj interpreting power of nature, and the cer

ages. dactic poem, in six books, each consisting, on an ave- tainty of a rich reward to those who patiently feel the nature, seat, and

destiny of the soul. At this

In the third book, Lucretius advances to consider rage, of twelve or thirteen hundred lines. It is de- their way to her august arcana. The modern reader section of his work, he stands committed to the advovoted to the exposition of the system of Epicurus, will be amused with the following reasonings against physical, moral, and theological, of which we may say the doctrine of gravitation and the possibility of anti-cacy of a creed no less unpoetical than false. The a few words. podes :

elaborate apologist of materialism is self-convicted of Philosophy, according to Epicurus, is reason ap

treason against the Muse. The dearest hopes of na

But fly, oh! Memmius, fly the sect deceived, plied to the promotion of happiness, which last is Who teach that things, with gravitation firm,

ture, when chilled and scared by the hard visage of man's chief good, and ought to be the object of all his

To the vast centre of the Entire, alike

scepticism, have ever been wont to find shelter in efforts. In order to its perfection, two things are ne

Unerring press: the world who fain would prove

song, Like the fabled Hamadryad, whose existence Void of external impulse, may subsist,

was bound up in that of her connatal tree, poetry cessary, a sound body and a tranquil mind. The

And nought its post desert, profound or high, great obstructions to the latter attainment are super Since of such gravitating power possessed.

seems destined to live or perish with the faith of an

hereafter. stition and the fear of death. These, therefore, For canst thou deem that aught may thus sustain Epicurus laboured with all his might to remove. It

And poise itself? that aught of solid weight,

Our limits permit only a single extract. We re

Placed at earth's utmost depth, could upwards strive gret the necessary omission of a beautiful passage, is evident that the grand aim of his ethics was the

Reversed ; and to the surface (in the stream emancipation of the human mind from dangerous pas

occurring towards the close of the book, in which the

As spreads the downward shadow) still adhere? sions and superstitious fears. Men fail of happiness For thus such sages hold: thus man and beast

tales of the popular mythology regarding the torments either from misconceiving its nature or mistaking the

Subsist, they teach, inverted, earth beneath :

of Tartarus are described as so many allegorical exFrom their firm station, down their deeper skies

ponents of the tyranny of unbridled passions and the means of its attainment. The definition of it given

As unexposed to fall, as towards the heavens

gnawings of an evil conscience. But without leaving by Epicurus was, the state in which man enjoys most

Ourselves to mount sublime: by them the sun,

unquoted this and other passages almost equally fine, and suffers least, reason being the arbitress of pain When night to us unfolds her stars, surveyed ; and pleasure. He himself, while recognising the mo And equal measuring, in alternate course

it would be impossible to assign anything like propordifying influences of habit and temperament, was dis

With us, their months, their darkness, and their day. tionate prominence to the remaining sections of the
Such are the specious fancies error feigns,

poem. posed to place happiness chiefly in mental tranquil

In idle hour, to minds perverse and vain.

Why think the soul, when desolate and bare, lity. Violent and tumultuous pleasures he regarded

(1051-1068, Good's Version.)

Disrob'd, unhoused, it melteth into air, as, on the whole, hostile to it. To sluggish inaction

The Stoics, whose system is thus acrimoniously re Its fleeting being to detain hath power he was equally opposed. The life he recommended pudiated, believed that the figure of the earth and of

Say--not for ever---for a single hour? finds its fitting emblem neither in the impetuous tor

Nor do the dying feel the spirit pass, the heavenly bodies was spherical, and also held the rent nor in the stagnant pool, but may rather be tenet of central gravitation. When asked how it oc

Unhari'd, entire, from the corporeal mass;

The bronchial pipe first fill, then mount the throat, likened to the limpid stream, passing, in cool serenity, curred-allowing this to be a fact-that the particles And last, at liberty in ether float: along its appointed channel.

of earth, water, and air, attracted by such common No; as each sense at its appointed part, Virtue is to be practised as the only means of se- centre, did not fly off from their own proper orbits,

The central soul expireth at the heart; curing such felicity. The grand end of living plea- and, passing through the vacuum of space, approach

While, were the mind immortal, none would mourn

That the dull body should to earth return; surably can only be reached by living well. All the that centre, and rest there, to the total subversion of But gladly rather fling his garb aside, virtues are resolvable into prudence. This, as applied order and 'the regeneration of chaos—they replied, As aged stag his horns, or snake his scaly hide. to the regulation of the appetites, is termed tempe that such would assuredly be the effect, were it not

(Book III., 602, 614.) rance—the virtue which teaches us to enjoy present for a certain elastic or contractile power possessed by The first of these arguments has already been disgood in such proportion as to avoid entailing a future the atmosphere of every orb, which compresses its missed, as proceeding on the false assumption that evil

. In its relation to the necessary calamities of particles together, and thus prevents such a dissolu- matter is a necessary adjunct of mind, or even an aid life, it becomes fortitude—a quality prompting to the tion.* This elastic substance was imagined to em in reaching the true notion of that existence; the patient endurance of whatever ills are inevitable ; of brace and keep compact not only each individual orb, second can only be fully met by a reference to the the more acute, since they cannot last long; of the but also the universe considered as a whole. Hence, teaching of the Christian scriptures. less considerable, because these are outweighed by the poets speak of the “ walls of the world.”

In the fourth book, Lucretius proceeds to discourse concomitant pleasures. In its bearing on social rela

The second book of the “ Nature of Things” opens on the various classes of external perceptions, enlarging tions, it is styled justice---a duty dictated by enlight with a sublime picture of the philosopher's position ; especially on the properties of vision, and proposing ened self-love, since strict regard to the rights of surveying securel from the heights of science, the explanations of various optical deceptions. The adothers is proved to be the only efficient safeguard of incessant though fruitless turmoil of vulgar mortals. mirer of Wordsworth will recognise in the verses on

The poet is thus conducted to what was deemed by echo, rudely disguised as they are in the translation We are now prepared to pass to a rapid survey of his master, Epicurus, an exhaustive definition of hap- of Creech, the germ of one of his finest thoughts. the “ Nature of Things.” The poem opens with an piness—" a body disjoined from suffering, and a mind But some parts of the voice that miss the ear invocation of Venus, the prolific principle of life and divorced from care.” As the passage which follows

Fly through the air diffused, and perish there enjoyment, whose universal dominion is glowingly is one of the finest in the whole range of ancient or

Some strike on solid buildings, and, restored,

Bring back again the image of the word. pourtrayed. The author next propounds his subject, modern poetry, we shall attempt to translate it with This shows thee why, whilst men through caves and groves and celebrates the triumph over superstition achieved out abridgment. The reader will note the allusion Call their lost friends, or mourn unhappy loves, by his master Epicurus. The mention of this foe to to the magnificent garniture of the Roman palaces.

The pitying rocks, the groaning caves, return human happiness suggests the tragic story of Iphi: Their walls and ceilings were often overlaid with gold

Their sad complaints again, and seem to mourn. genia, the virgin daughter of Agamemnon. We shall and ivory, while the pavement was formed of tesselated

This all observe; and I myself have known

Both rocks and hills return six words for one: extract this beautiful episode entire. It may be re- marble. We are told that Nero caused the roof of his The dancing words from hill to hill rebound marked, that Lucretius has heightened the pathos of dining-room to be so constructed as to shift and pre

They all receive, and all restore the sound; the incident, and brought it into far closer accordance sent various appearances during the progress of the

The vulgar and the neighbours think and tell, with nature, by deviating from the track of his pre- banquet. All the furniture of the mansion was pro

That there the nymphis, and fauns, and satyrs, dwell; decessor Euripides, who represents Iphigenia as a vo- vided in a like sumptuous style. In lamps, especially,

And that their wanton sport, their loud delight,

Breaks through the quiet silence of the night; luntary victim. the ancients were extremely curious. No price was

Their music's softest airs fill all the plains, Around she looked; the pride of Grecian maids, grudged in their purchase, and no pains were spared

And mighty Pan delights the listening swainsThe lovely Iphigenin, round she lookedin their workmanship. Some of those found among

The goat-faced Pan, whose flocks securely feed,

With long-hung lip, who blows his oaten reed. Her lavish tresses, spurning still the bond

the ruins of Herculaneum are ranked by Winkelmann Ten thousand such romaunts the vulgar tell,
of sacred fillet, flaunting o'er her checks-
with the most valuable spoils of the buried city.

Perhaps lest men should think the gods will dwell
And sought in vain protection. She survey'd
Near her, her sad, sad sire; the officious priests

Obey we Nature, and her claims are few,

In towns alone, and scorn their plains and cell.
Repentant half and hiding their keen steel,
Delights innumerous on our path she'll strew.

(Book IV. 572-596, Creech.) And crowds of gazers weeping as they view'd.

What though, athwart the hall, no boys of gold

We cannot present the reader with a more graceful Dumb with alarm, with supplicating knee

Their burnish'd lamps of sunny brilliance hold

commentary on the last extract than the following And lifted eye, she sought compassion still:

That flame on boards where proud patricians sup, Fruitless and unavailing: rain her youth,

And dazzle drinkers in the midnight cup?

“Nothing is more pleasing in ancient mythology than Her innocence and beauty; vain the boast

No massy plate in stately service come,

the fanciful doctrine which peopled all earth and sea Of regal birth; and vain that first herself

No music thunder o'er the fretted dome ?

with multitudes of fair female spirits. Every hill Lisp'd the dear name of Father, eldest born.

Yet what care we, on velvet greensward laid,

and dale, every grot and crystal spring, every lake, Forced from her suppliant posture, straight she view'd

Beside some brook, beneath some beech's shade!

and brook, and river, every azure plain and coral cave The altar full prepared : not there to blend

The less when laughs the spring, or summer pours

of ocean, was animated and hallowed by the presence Connubial vows, and light the bridal torch;

Across the verdant mcads her blushing flowers. But at the moment when mature in charms,

Yes! sultry fevers have as fierce a fire,

and protection of the nymphs. Grouped in bands, While Hymen called aloud, to fall e'en then,

And from their victim full as loath retire,

they braided the flowery garlands, or wove the mystic A father's victim, and the price to pay

Though broider'd purple be around him spread,

dance, or watched the cradle of infant gods and heroes, Of Grecian Davies, favour'd thus with gales.

As if he stretched him on a peasant's bed.

or followed in the train of Artemis. Sometimes they Such are the crimes that Superstition prompts.

Since, then, nor wealth, nor birth, nor wide control,

shared the love of the celestials, sometimes they (Book I. 89-102, Good's Version.) Avail the body, can they aid the soul? Say, when thy legions bristle on the plain,

deigned to consort with favoured mortals, sometimes The poet next proceeds to show that nothing can

they coqueted with satyrs and sileni; but more often, spring from or be reduced to nothing--a position

* Good's note on the passage, vol. 1., 166.

alone, in maiden purity, they would wander through

our own.

numerous.

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glade or field, and repose on sunny bank or in green It is interesting to observe, in the “Nature of for the whole town is built on a dead flat-flat as * wood covert, rejoicing in the beauty and beneficence Things” the triumph of genius over this and other pancake.” of nature. Being dispersed through all creation, the difficulties. Next to the barrenness inseparable from Here the author point blank hits upon what must classes into which they were divided, and the epithets his subject, in the manner, we mean, in which he pro- be considered the grand error in all emigration systems by which they were distinguished, are exceedingly posed to treat it

, is to be ranked the poverty, for his whatsoever, that is, the emigrants huddling up in towns, We hear most frequently of the Naiades, purpose, of the Latin language. In getting over this the fountain, lake, and river nymphs ; Nereides and obstruction,

he has been successful to a surprising de instead of boldly pushing into the country, and commencing Oceanitides, sea and ocean nymphs ; Oreades, mountain gree. Speech bends to his bidding; the tongue of Italy the proper business for which they set out. Arriving afternymphs ; Napææ, Dryades, Hamadryades, grove and seems to become plastic and subtle as the Greek ; his wards at Goderich, he makes a similar remark. At this tree nymphs." The fauns and satyrs are the rural very harshness harmonises with the subject and the place “ I felt inclined to exclaim against the building male divinities of Italian and Grecian mythology re man ; and his archaisms fill the ear far better than mania that seem to possess old country people. Instead spectively. Chief of the former is the Latin Faunus, the smoother dialect of his successors. In his logical of establishing themselves in the woods, they expend at the head of the latter Arcadian Pan. To him were nexus-in the knitting of his propositions and the their capital upon houses and stones in the town, and, ascribed all wild unearthly sounds, all strange and marshalling of his arguments--he often reminds us of sudden terrors ; whence, it is worthy of being noted, Young ; while the structure of his verse, though far so far from improving their condition by emigration, the English term panic.

more musical in its varied cadence, suggests to us oc- they are frequently worse off in those new colonial With an attempt to account for the phenomena of casionally the sonorous march of 'Akenside. But in towns than in the old established towns at home. For dreams, and other disquisitions which need not be the strength and grandeur of thought which pervade my own part, I cannot conceive what the people would particularly referred to, the fourth book closes. The those passages, which probably drew forth from Ovid be at, huddling together, bag and baggage, into every fifth opens with a fresh panegyric on Epicurus, whom the epithet of the “ sublime Lucretius," the author bit of cleared swamp, cut up, gridiron-wise, into streets our poet never tires in praising. That philosopher's of the “Nature of Things” has no rival save Milton. and lanes, in which the poor wretches purchasing lots system of cosmogony is next explained at large; the At these seasons the thick clouds of the Epicurean are invited to build houses, and establish another mutability of the visible universe is asserted; chaos, philosophy are not only pervious to the radiations of thriving new town. If people must and will live tothe heavenly bodies, the succession of seasons, the his genius, but seem to fall back, as if in reverence, solar and lunar eclipses, the rise of animals and vege- from around it

, and impart to it a deeper and richer gether like a swarm of bees in a hive, they ought to tables, afford ample scope for interesting discussion halo. In such moments of inspiration--to employ thrust themselves into the midst of Manchester, Birand splendid description ; and, last of all, we are pre- the words of a living scholar well qualified to pro- mingham, or London, where they may enjoy all the sented with a delightful view of the progress of human nounce such a verdict with confidence_“Notwith- bustle of life, and be fooled to the top of their bent, society and the origin of the various arts. We must standing the abstruse and technical discussions inse- without running the risk of crossing the Atlantic in a make room for the group of the seasons, which has parable from his theme, he has lighted up his work rotten vessel, and seeking society in the backwoods of been compared by Dr Warton to the exquisite designs with some of the grandest bursts of poetry to be North America." of Guido and Carracci. Our own translation is used : found in any language.”

Getting to Wisconsin, he proceeds gaily over the Spring comes and Venus ; harbinger of spring, Comes Zephyr, trippingly, with balmy wing;

open prairie in a mail-waggon to Janesville, on Rock While Mother Flora by their footsteps strews

« LIFE IN THE WEST." *

River. The free-and-easy way in which the letters Flowers of delicious scents and thousand hues :

are handled is droll enough. “Secure a seat in the Parch'd Summer next, and dusty Ceres come;

Such is the title of a volume through which we have waggon, paying four dollars for the same; an exorThe sultry blasts forsake their airy home: Next, Autumn marches in her mellow pride,

picked our way, not without a share of amusement. bitant price for a seat in such a lumbering old conWhile tipsy Bacchus staggers by her side : Behind, new tribes of tempests sally forth,

The author is a queer independent sort of blade, some cern. Only two passengers, myself and a carpenter, The lurid Auster and the blustering North :

what confused in his ideas, but with eyes open to what who carries a tool-chest big enough for a meal-chest or Then Winter follows with his hoary host

passes, and too sharp to be imposed upon in his wan bacon-bin.” Arrive at “ Mount Pleasant post-office. Snow, sleet, and stormy bail, and chattering frost.

(Book V. 736-746.) derings among the American borderers. He professes Here we stop to deliver the mail, and the post-master The last book treats on a vast variety of natural to have left home and betaken himself to the western being out, his wife asks us to enter the house and eat. phenomena, such as thunder, lightning, waterspouts, regions, both in Canada and the States, in search of some wild plums while the letter-bag is emptied on hurricanes, earthquakes, and volcanoes. The poet then land on which to settle ; but we do not hear much on

the floor; and the good woman, assisted by the carrier passes to assign his reasons for the inundation of the that subject, and the bulk of the volume consists of letters, two children playing with the same.

and the carpenter, proceeds to select and sort the Nile and the poisonous stench of the A verni, attempts droll sketches of adventure on board steamers, in to explain the mysteries of magnetism, adverts to

* Clara, miss! what are you doing ! Take your endemic and contagious diseases, and closes the work hotels and log huts, and among parcels of Indians blackberry-stained fingers off the letters. Do; that'sby a magnificent description of the tremendous pesti. with whom he picks up an acquaintance in the woods a dear. Give me that letter with the red seal.' lence, well known from the account of Thucydides, and prairies.

No I wont, ma.' which broke out in Athens during the first year of

"Give it to me for this plum, dear. the Peloponnesian war. With the concluding touches Mr Morleigh, as we suppose he is to be called, lands

No I wont, miss ; I'll keep it.' of this terrific picture we now finish our selections :

at New York, and gets away westward by Troy and • There, lift up the infant ; don't you see the state Nor small the misery from the city oft

Lake Champlain to the lakes, loitering a good deal at the floor, and the letters, and the newspapers are in ? That pour'd from distant hamlets; for in throngs different places on the journey. At Kingston, the exclaimed the carrier, as the post-mistress caught up Full flock'd the sickening peasants for relief, From every point diseased ; and every space new legislative capital of Canada, he “ fell in with a

her child ; and the young ladies, eating plums, held up

their hands and exclaimed, ‘My !'" And every building crowded ; height'ning hence lot of Irish and Scotch emigrants ; they had just comThe rage of death, the hillocks of the dead.

Starting in renewal of the journey,“ we continued pleted some bright deal-board houses. The men were our route through fine rolling prairie and oak openAt length the temples of the gods themselves

employed by the government, and the women were ings, quite parkish, and the oak seems to be the only Changed into charnels, and their sacred shrines Throng'd with the dead ; for superstition now,

washing their clothes and children. I asked several tree that escapes or resists the fires ; however, I ob The power of altars, half their sway had lost, of them if they had bought any land ; they said they bespoke the rough raising of prairie trees, exposed to

served their stunted growth and gnarled appearance Whelm'd in the pressure of the present woe. Nor longer now the costly rites prevailed

had not, and betrayed most lamentable ignorance, not winds, fires, frosts, and snows. This day we passed the Of ancient burial, erst punctilious kept ;

one of them knowing the name of the vast lake be- debris of two houses, one a log and the other a frame For all roved restless, with distracted mind, From scene to scene; and, worn with grief and toil,

fore them. But this did not surprise me much, as house, which had been burned by prairie fires ; fate we have a wealthy Yorkshireman and his wife at our

of the inmates unknown, though their carelessness is And direst exigence impelled them oft, Headlong, to deeds most impious; for the pyres hotel, as ignorant of the country as the babes in the manifest to all; a simple trench or ditch round their

dwellings would have stopped the fire, or turned aside Funereal seized they, rear'd not by themselves,

wood. They bore us to death with stupid and unAnd with loud dirge and wailing wild, o'er these

the destroying element." meaning questions. They expect to find shingle He at length arrives at Madison, a city in expectaPlaced their own dead; amid the unhallow'd blaze With blood contending, rather than resign

palaces in the woods, and sugar-trees, and apple-trees, tion. “ It was night before we wended our way The tomb thus gained, or quit the enkindling corse. and peaches, and all sorts of fruit trees, and Indian through the magnificent streets, squares, and avenues (Book VI., 1257-1261, 1270-1284, Good.)

of the young capital of Wisconsin. My companions, The “ Nature of Things” exhibits to us a great corn growing wild, and wild turkeys as easily caught favoured by the darkness of the night, amused thempoet grappling energetically with a stubborn and un as tame ones ; and I verily believe, if a Yankee told selves by telling me the names of the various streets tractable subject. Majestic in itself, his theme was them it rained striped pig' in the back settlements, we passed through on our way to the hotel, while I barely susceptible of the marvellous graces he has con- they would believe him.” A good quiz this on the strained my eyes into the oak openings, right and left, trived to engraft on it. Lucretius had to sustain the ridiculous notions of many persons who emigrate.

in quest of balconies, piazzas, stoops, and colonnades. double character of philosopher and poet. He had to do with more than the beautiful outsides of things.

At Toronto he finds everything to be now

very dull. Mr Morrison, the innkeeper, welcomed us to Madison,

led the way into his bar, volunteered whisky and Reason was ever hampering and hanging on the rear

“ There is a listlessness about this great overgrown water, or a cobbler, to drive the night dew out of our of imagination. Fact was ever damping the fires of town that displeases me. Even the plank footways throats. Moreover, the good man accommodated me fancy. He may be enjoying, in the simple love of cannot give elasticity to the step. One feels weighed with a single-bedded room, a luxury I had not enjoyed nature, the angry bravery and the rich fragrance down with the heavy air and drooping aspect of the for some time. Sunday morning : rose refreshed, and cal accuracy, the texture of its stem, the painting of people who have crowded into the streets and lanes

of like a dream, leaving that great unsightly fabric, the its petals, and the effluence of its odours;

he may Toronto, and for what purpose I cannot divine, for capitol, with its tin dome glittering in the sun, and brood, with awful satisfaction, on the “ disastrous twithere is little or no trade to induce such a swarm of some forty houses, of all sorts, shapes, and sizes, rained light” which fancy associates with “perplexed mo- people, rich and poor, to build up streets of two-storey about here and there sparingly, at the corner of the narchs,” and sinking states, and impendent battles, houses here, instead of scattering themselves over the projected streets and thoroughfares of this embryo culation of an eclipse ; he may venture, in lofty mood, vast tracts of wild lands around them. They live shavings,

and mortar : from the door and raised platinto the world of spirits, and Tartarus may rise before huddled together, and now the seat of government is form, en revanche, we have a splendid view of Third and him, peopled with shapes of terror, but these he must removed, the good people of Toronto look blank Fourth lakes—for as yet the lakes have been only forthwith transmute into so many vapid allegories ; enough. It cannot be concealed," said a tradesman, numbered, it would seem-and there is a chain of or the bow of beauty may span the firmament, and there may be stealing on him the dream of "gems

' the city has been seriously injured by that blow; but beautiful little lakes about Madison. There is noand gold” flashing through its limber and transparent we must and will have the seat of government brought beauty of wood and water frequently seen in the old fabric, but the darling iilusion is dissipated for ever back again. Others pretend it is a great benefit that settled country at home." by the rude revelations of optics. Such intrusions the seat of government has been taken away ; for, At Madison he is fixed for five days for lack of any into her own haunts the Muse loveth not, nor tole- say they, the clerks and employés bought up all the conveyance from it. “ The only quadrupeds and rates such tampering with her ideal sanctities. She loves the rose, by rivers loves to dream,

good town lots at exorbitant prices, but now things beasts of burden to be seen in the streets being hogs and Nor heeds why blooms the rose, why flows the stream; will find their level. Level enough, truly, thought I; alligator breed, infest the doors ; the oxen, worn down

oxen. The hogs of the true snake-eating, half-rat, halfShe loves her colours, though she may not know Ilow sun-born Iris paints the show'ry bow.

with toil, jingle their bells as they browse about the Extracts from the Note Book of Morleigh in Search of an Estate: highways and byways." A teamster arrives to bait * Notes on Ovid, Professor Ramsay, p. 368. One volume. London : Saunders and Otley. 1842.

his weary span, and embracing the favourable oppor

Gave to their friends the interment chance allowed.

* Life in the West : Backwood Leaves and Prairie Flowers :

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