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English chapel at Lausanne being one of the tangible So droop'd Adonis, bathed in sanguine dew

as the patriarch of freedom, the precursor of your evidences of this freedom of opinion; and, in short,

Of his death-wound, when he from innocent air

republic ; so will posterity think, and so do the people

The gentlest breath of resignation drew; the country seems to be pursuing a fair course of

While Venus, in a passion of despair,

now believe.

We owe to him all, even the happiness national and individual prosperity.

Rent, weeping over him, her golden hair,

of being a portion of the French republic. He ever Spangled with drops of that celestial shower.

enjoys our confidence. Repeal your decree, and render She suffer'd, as inmortals sometimes do;

us happy.” Napoleon's bold appeal was not listened WORDSWORTH'S NEW POEMS. But pangs more lasting far that lover knew

to, and Paoli was compelled to look for safety to EngWho first, weigh'd down by scorn, in some lone bower Did press this semblance of unpitied smart

land. A NEw volume from the pen of William Wordsworth,

Into the service of his constant heart;

Another person who exercised much influence over is a gift which the public will now receive with general His own dejection, downcast flower! could share

Napoleon in his youth, was Father Dupuy, sub-pringratitude. The meed of popular favour was for a time With thine, and gave the mournful name which thou wilt ever cipal of the school of Brienne. As became common

bear." withheld from the poet of Rydal, and chiefly in con

in the case of Corsican families of respectability, after

The following lines to a Redbreast, written during the island was incorporated with France, Napoleon sequence of his own unfortunate promulgation of cer

sickness, are said to be from the pen of a female rela was sent to the college of Autun at the age of nine, tain laws of literary composition, to which the world tive, and remind us of the simple and touching style and afterwards to the school of Brienne. Bourrienne at large could not give their assent; but it was ulti- of the poet :

mentions, in his memoirs of Bonaparte, that the mately found, that though he observed these rules in

“ Stay, little cheerful robin ! stay,

Emperor never could spell properly ; but he does not And at my casement sing,

tell the reason. a few instances, as in the case of the “Idiot Boy,"

The fact was, that Napoleon could

Though it should prove a farewell lay, “ Harry Blake and Goody Gill," and some other short

And this our parting spring.

not speak a word of French when he came to the

school first mentioned. He picked up the tongue pieces, the majority of his poems were modelled after

Though I, alas ! may ne'er enjoy
The promise in thy song ;

through his intercourse with others, but never was the loftiest exemplars of our language, and had few

A charm that thought cannot destroy,

taught it grammatically. He was engaged in learning parallels in it, whether as regarded dignity of diction

Doth to thy strain belong.

the classics, when he ought to have been set to the or elevation of thought. The effect of the mistake

Methinks that in my dying hour

French language by his teachers. His excessively

Thy song would still be dear, under which the public laboured with respect to Mr

careless penmanship in later days was supposed to be

And with a more than earthly power Wordsworth, is partly shown by the present volume,

My passing spirit cheer.

partly affected, in order to hide his faulty orthography. Then, little bird, this boon confer:

Dupuy, who formed a strong attachment to Napoleon, which contains many pieces composed long ago, and

Come, and my requiem sing;

and was shown the essays from his pen, did all he which the writer has only at the eleventh hour been

Nor fail to be the harbinger

could to correct the style and spelling, but the evil

Of everlasting spring." encouraged to give to the public. Among other pro

was not thoroughly removable. One of the early ductions, we find here the “Tragedy of the Bor- add little to the author's reputation. Though con

As for the tragedy of the Borderers, it will probably essays of Napoleon was a History of Corsica, which

was composed in the form of letters, addressed to the derers," written in 1795–6, and respecting which great taining fine thoughts scattered here and there, it is Abbé Raynal. Lucien Bonaparte mentions this work curiosity has been felt by the poet's admirers, its unfitted for exhibition on the stage, and indeed, as in his memoirs. It was written,” he says, “ in the existence having been very generally known for many the author admits, was never intended for production vacation of 1790, at Ajaccio, and two copies were made by-past years. in public.

of it by myself. One was sent to the Abbé Raynal,

who found the composition so remarkable that he As the volume only adds to the amount of Mr

showed it to Mirabeau. The latter, on returning it, Wordsworth’s works, and gives no novelty in any

THE EARLY DAYS OF NAPOLEON.

said to Raynal, that this little history seemed to him other respect, it is scarcely necessary, except for form’s There hangs over the boyish days of Napoleon to indicate a genius of the first order. Napoleon was sake, to present any specimens of its contents. We Bonaparte a mystery somewhat similar to that which delighted with these praises.” The work was repreare tenipted, however, to transfer to our columns one

rests on the opening years of Shakspeare. In the sented by Lucien as lost, but in reality it is still in

case of the latter, we are totally at a loss to compre-existence, having formed part of a bundle of early or two pieces or passages which have fallen upon our hend by what species of training that wonderful mind writings lodged by Napoleon in the hands of Cardinal own feelings with an effect peculiarly Wordsworthian, was developed, and whence was derived that boundless Fesch. It is written with great vigour, and an uncomand which we have no doubt will give equal pleasure knowledge of human nature, and of the phenomena promising boldness of speech. Every page proves, to our readers. One of these is the conclusion of a of the universe, which his writings display. With moreover, that the author had been indefatigable in poem entitled “ Musings near Aquapendente,” written early life of Napoleon, wondering in what manner that documents. Napoleon's mode of reading books was

the like feelings of uncertainty do we muse upon the his researches into authorities, and even unpublished during a tour in Italy.

prodigious amount of intelligence was accumulated, peculiar, and well calculated to fix on his memory “ Time flows-nor winds, which gave him such a sway in after-days over his whatever fell under his eye. His custom was to read Nor stagnates, nor precipitates his course,

fellow-men, and rendered him never for one instant at with the pen in his hand, and to mark passages which But many a benefit borne upon his breast For human-kind sinks out of sight, is gone,

a loss, amid the most varied and trying circumstances he approved or disapproved ; and frequently, when No one knows how; nor seldom is put forth

in which man could be called upon to act. Bonaparte he was especially struck with any thing, he made it An angry arm that snatches good away,

appeared to burst at once upon the world with the the subject of a distinct critical disquisition. In this Never perhaps to reappear. The Stream

experience of fifty lives concentrated in his young manner did he go over all the most grave and learned Has to our generation brought, and brings, Innumerable gains ; yet we, who now

mind, ready to take up at will the parts of warrior, works in the stores of literature. Herodotus, Strabo, Walk in the light of day, pertain full surely

ruler, legislator, or diplomatist, and to cope with and Plutarch, and all the other historians both of Greece To a chill'd age, most pitiably shut out

foil those who had grown grey in studying the duties of and Rome; the annals of England, and all the most From that which is and actuates, by forms,

but one or other of these difficult characters. These important modern countries in the world ; natural Abstractions, and by lifeless fact to fact

circumstances throw a peculiar interest over the youth history, geography, medicine, and physics ; all of these Minutely linked with diligence uninspired, Unrectified, unguided, unsustained,

of Napoleon. Fortunately, during the period of the branches of learning his papers show him to have By godlike insight. To this fate is doom'a

consulate, he gave directions for the preservation of studied attentively. But, above all, his favourite Science, wide-spread and spreading still as be

various letters and papers connected with his early authors were Filangieri, Mably, Necker, Smith, and Her conquests, in the world of sense made known. history, and from a notice of these, lately published other writers on political economy, legislation, and So with the internal mind it fares ; and so With morals, trusting, in contempt or fear

in France,* we shall proceed to draw several parti- the moral sciences generally. For seven years, namely,

culars. Of vital principle's controlling law,

from 1786 to 1793, while a student and lieutenant of To her purblind guide Expediency; and so

Paoli, the Corsican patriot, seems to have been a artillery, now in one place and now in another, such Suffers religious faith. Elate with view

material instrument in moulding the character of the was the training to which his papers show him to Of what is won, we overlook or scorn The best that should keep pace with it, and must,

young Napoleon. Genoa had assumed the right of have subjected himself. Men have marvelled that the Else more and more the general mind will droop,

selling Corsica to France, in the time of Louis XV., soldier of Italy should have started up, as it seemed, Even as if bent on perishing. There lives

and that monarch sent an army to take possession of a legislator by intuition,-intuition; such is the word No faculty within us which the Soul

it. The Corsicans resisted, under the guidance of under which men too frequently shelter their own Can spare, and humblest earthly Weal demands, Paoli. Charles Bonaparte was a warm partisan of apathy and deficiencies. Years of patient study, while For dignity not placed beyond her reach, Zealous co-operation of all means

that chief; and, in the campaign of 1769, which gave other lads were fooling away their time, would, at Given or acquired, to raise us from the mire,

France the ascendancy, was personally in the field least in this instance, have been a more correct form And liberate our hearts from low pursuits. .

with his wife Letitia, who, at that very time, in the of expression. Napoleon's ability as a soldier was not By gross Utilities enslaved, we need

midst of peril and alarm, gave birth to Napoleon. less puzzling ; but comprehensiveness and promptitude More of ennobling impulse from the past, During the childhood of the latter, Paoli was con

of thought, produced by the same preparatory studies, If to the future aught of good inust come Sounder, and therefore holier, than the ends

stantly in the mouths of those around him, and he united with a sound physical development, formed Which, in the giddiness of self-applause,

grew up with a deep admiration of the character of the true explanation of the phenomenon. What is We covet as supreme. Oh, grant the crown

the exiled general, then living in England. When curious, however, Bonaparte sometimes left his grave That Wisdom wears, or take his treacherous staff the French Revolution broke out, Paoli was recalled, studies for the slightest of all varieties of literary From Knowledge !-If the Muse, whom I have served "This day, be mistress of a single pearl

and Napoleon became his close personal friend. The composition : he wrote novels. One of these was an Fit to be placed in that pure diadem,

old general had penetration enough to discern the English romance, entitled The Earl of Esser, being Then, not in vain, under these chestnut boughs

remarkable character of the youth. “ You are one of founded on the story of Queen Elizabeth's unfortunate Reclined, shall I have yielded up my soul

Plutarch's men,” he used to say to him--a compliment favourite. Another tale was composed by him on a To transports from the secondary founts

of no slight kind. It has been often asserted, that Corsican subject, and he also wrote some oriental Flowing of time and place, and paid to both Due homage; nor shall fruitlessly have striven,

Napoleon never acted under the impulse of feeling, apologues, bearing covertly on the politics of the By love of beauty moved, to enshrine in verse

but was always guided by motives of self-interest and passing day. The idea of the man who wielded such Accordant meditations, which in times

cold calculation. Not so was it when Paoli, having mighty elements in after days, devoting time to storyVex'd and disorder'd, as our own, may shed

incurred the suspicion of the French Convention for writing, is startling enough. It has the same apInfluence, at least among a scatter'd few, To soberness of mind and peace of heart

his denunciations of the execution of Louis XVI., was parent incongruity as the idea of his being glad to Friendly; as here to my repose hath been

summoned to appear and answer for himself in Paris. borrow a few shillings from Bourrienne in the days This tlowering broom's dear neighbourhood, the light Napoleon, who had then received a commission in the of his lieutenantship. And murmur issuing from yon pendent flood,

French service in Corsica, had the generous boldness We cannot well give a specimen of the stories of And all the varied landscape. Let us now

to write to the Convention in his old friend's defence. Napoleon, but our space permits of our quoting one Rise, and to-morrow greet magnificent Rome."

"One of your decrees,” says the letter, “has deeply of the most remarkable of all his papers in place of The following upon the flower called Love lies Bleed- afflicted the citizens of Ajaccio ; it is that which these. This is a document in which he discusses the ing, seems to us exquisite :

orders an old man of seventy, loaded with infirmities, propriety of suicide. Many features of his future “ You call it, 'Love lies Bleeding'--so you may,

to drag himself to your bar, charged, through mis- character seem to have originated in youth in his Though the red flower, not prostrate, only droops,

understanding, as corrupt and ambitious. Represen- isolated position. From the age of nine to seventeen, As we have seen it here from day to day,

tatives ! when the French were governed by a corrupt he was absent from home. He dwelt alone, and From month to month, life passing not away :

court, and placed credence neither in virtue nor pa formed those habits of self-dependence which at once A flower how rich in sadness! Even thus stoops

triotism, then might it have been said, perhaps, that constituted a great quality in him, and isolated him, (Sentient by Grecian sculptor's marvellous power), Thus leans, with hanging brow and body bent

Paoli was ambitious. It is by despots alone that in a measure, from human sympathies. His note Earthward in uncomplaining languishment,

Paoli should now be deemed ambitious ; at Paris, in book was the sole confidant of his secrets in his youth. The dying Gladiator. So, sad flower!

the midst of French liberty, he ought to be regarded Whatever struck him forcibly, even a simple conver('Tis Fancy guides me, willing to be led,

sation with a lady, was committed to paper, and, beThough by a slender thread,,

yond question, this plan led him ever to reason coolly

* In the Revue des Deux Mondes.

before action. The following are his thoughts on the serve them. Let it be no more said that chance ele- | the whole bottom be occupied with them. To form subject of self-destruction. “Ever alone in the midst vated Napoleon. When, after seven years of retire- the sides, a number of upright rods with sharpened of men, I return to dream with myself, and to give ment, he appeared for the first time on the stage of points are forced between the rods of the bottom, or myself up to all the vivacity of my melancholy: To the world, he contained already all the germs of his

are plaited with them towards the centre. Around what point is it now directed ? To the side of death. future greatness. Nothing was fortuitous in his case. these perpendicular ribs other rods are woven in and Yet in the morning of my days, I may hope to live a He struggled to rise, and left no occasion unused to out alternately, until the sides also are complete. long time. I have been absent seven years from my make himself known. He himself, therefore, must The rim of the basket is chiefly formed by turning country. What pleasure shall I not taste in revisit no more be permitted to ascribe his elevation to fata- down the ends of the upright rods, and plaiting them ing, in four months, my relatives and compatriots ? lity.”

over one another. Sharp-pointed wands are forced Filled with the tender sensations which the remem To these truths nothing can be added. Never was down through the rim, and pinned on each side to brance of my youthful pleasures inspires, may I not it more

fully shown than in the case of Napoleon--that form the handle. They are usually plaited together conclude that my happiness will be complete? And industry is the better part of genius.

more or less intricately. what madness, then, urges me to wish for my destruc

It would be a waste of time to describe the mode tion? Doubtless, I may say, what have I to do in this

of making rounded baskets, their construction being world ? Since I must die, is it not as well to end my

OSIER-WEAVING.

so visibly simple. Both the cross ribs and the longilife at once? If I had passed through sixty years, I BASKET-MAKING or osier-weaving is an art which tudinal wands pass usually from rim to rim, and are should respect the prejudices of my contemporaries, seems to us to have a tendency, somehow or another, there turned over a strong encircling wand, and fixed and wait patiently till nature had completed her to call up pleasant reflections whenever the mind is by a few plaitings afterwards. Considering the great course ; but since I begin to experience misfortunes, directed to it. The cause of this perhaps is, that the simplicity of construction of the common willow bassince nothing gives me pleasure, why should I go on art is a peculiarly neat and cleanly one ; and partly, kets, and their usefulness in many respects, it strikes enduring, un prosperous days ? 'How far have men perhaps, because it affords occupation to so many of us that our peasantry are by no means so thrifty and wandered from nature ! How cowardly, base, and our poor fellow-creatures who have scarcely any other careful as they might be in respect to these matters. servile are they! What spectacle shall I behold in

resource to turn to for bread the infirm, the lame, We have no ill-will whatever to tinkers and gipsies, my native country! My compatriots, loaded with and the blind. Possibly, moreover, the beautiful story and admit that no very large sums are requisite to chains, tremblingly kiss the hand which crushes them. of the Peruvian Basket-Maker, told in almost all read purchase brown baskets for the necessities of a farmer's They are no more those brave Corsicans, whom a hero ing-books for the young, may have an early influence or cottar's establishment; yet the old maxims are good. animated with his virtues ; no more are they enemies in impressing the mind with a pleasing sense of the ones, which recommend people

never to look to others of tyranny, luxury, sycophancy. Proud, and full of a usefulness of this little art. Speaking for ourselves, for a service which they can do for themselves, and to noble consciousness of worth, a Corsican once lived all three causes, we believe, have had their effect ; and take care of the small sums, as the large ones will then happy. If he had employed the day on public affairs, if others have felt any similar impressions, some ac

look after themselves. Therefore, seeing that clumps his evenings passed away in the sweet society of a count of the basket-weaving process may not be un

of willows are nowhere very scarce over old Scotland, loving and beloved spouse ; reason and enthusiasm acceptable.

we imagine that the long nights might often be spent effaced all the fatigues of the day; tender and natural The interweaving of twigs is an operation which by the rustic ingle in making the handy articles under affection rendered his nights comparable to those of suggests itself so naturally to man, that we cannot notice with greater advantage than in gossipry. The the gods. But these happy times have disappeared wonder at finding it practised by him

in his rudest little story of the Peruvian Basket-Maker, which, with liberty, like passing dreams! Frenchmen, not condition. The very birds teach it to him, for among though an invention, conveys a moral of daily applicacontent with having reft from us all that we cherished, them we have some clever twig-weavers. Plaiting bility, might teach parents that a species of useful ye have also corrupted our manners! The existing of rushes comes more readily to the hands of boys knowledge,despised under certain circumstances, might spectacle of my country, and my powerlessness to than almost any other manual task, and the very sim- in others become of paramount importance. In the effect a change, form a new reason for quitting a scene, plest of all baskets are actually formed of this mate

tale mentioned, we are told that a proud gentleman where I am compelled by duty to praise men whom rial. Some of the Van Diemen's Land tribes make

(or scorned a poor basket-maker as of an inferior species, virtue commands me to hate. When I arrive at my rather did make, for the last native of that island was

when a king, from whom both of them stood at so home, what aspect shall I assume, what language shall hanged lately) baskets of strong rushes by tying the great a distance as to seem equal, took it into his head I hold! His country lost, a good citizen ought

to die
. ends merely, and keeping the middle

parts swelled to send them away together to a savage island, and to Had I but one man to destroy, in order deliver my out by a cross band or two. These tribes stood very leave them there in nudity, that the assumed natural countrymen, I should turn to the task in one instant, low in the scale of civilisation. Some other Aus- superiority of the one might have scope for display if and avenge my country and its violated laws by tralasians, a little more civilised, have been observed it existed. The luxuriously-nurtured gentleman was plunging my steel into the tyrant's bosom. Life is a burden to me, because I enjoy no pleasure, and be as to hold

liquids without spilling. Of all the rude perished but for his contemned companion, Savages cause all is pain to me; it is a burden because the nations, in truth, with whom we have become ac

discovered them; the gentleman could neither defend men with whom I live, and probably shall always quainted, not one'is ignorant of this art ; and there is himself nor do aught for his life. But the basketlive, have manners as widely different from mine as every reason to conclude that past times were in this maker had a resource. Making signs for the savages the moon's light differs from that of the sun. I can respect like the present. Our own ancestors,

to wait, he set to work on some rushes, and in a few not follow the sole mode of life which could make it

minutes plaited a cap for one of the chiefs, who donned endurable, and a disgust for all is the consequence.”

“While yet our England was a wolfish den,"

it with rapture. Others were called for instantly, This passage affords a remarkable proof of the high- were famous for their skill in basket-making, as Mar- and, in brief, the basket-maker became the delight of reaching sentiments which, even at the age of seven tial tells us that their manufactures were brought to the tribe. At his intreaty the gentleman's life was teen, characterised Napoleon. The death which he Rome in great quantities, and, like our oysters, sold spared; but seeing him to be of no use, the savages meditates is the death of Cato, not of Chatterton. It there for extravagant prices.

despised him utterly. Here was a lesson given to is not the pressure of penury which disgusts the ex In days and places where nailing, dove-tailing, joint- him. The poor man was far above him in the eyes traordinary boy with life, but the slavery of his country ing, and hingeing were arts unknown, plaiting was the of those who were not blinded by artificial distincand the degradation of his species. There is ample most natural of all resources and substitutes. Hence tions; and the petty art which he had despised was evidence existing among his early papers to prove, that not only utensils such as baskets, but houses or huts, the means of saving his life. So runs the moral, and, he was in his youth a genuine and ardent lover of re- scallops, shields, and sword-hilts, and the like articles, as observed, it is in part applicable every hour of the publican liberty, and that he disliked the French, fix. were alí formed from the same material, being ren- day, We do not know to what we may come in this ing his whole thoughts on Corsica. As his mind dered serviceable by coverings of hides, another ready world of changes, casualties, and sufferings ; and the became matured, however, he saw that Corsica was resort in rude regions. At the present day, in some pettiest accession of really useful knowledge ought not too insignificant in extent, and possessed resources too parts of the east, half the necessary implements of life to be contemned by us. limited, to permit it to tlourish independently amid are made of wicker-work, the bamboo, from its strength This is a digression, but not without a purpose. states so much superior to it in power; and he turned and elasticity, giving peculiar facilities for such manu The art of basket-working has been neglected in Brito France, as affording full scope for the development factures. Boats of hide and bamboo can be made by tain, but especially in Scotland ; so much so, that a of those great problems in social government which half-a-dozen men in as many

hours, when it is neces- patriotic society for the

improvement of arts and occupied so much of his youthful attention.

sary to cross a river; and these articles can be con- sciences some time ago offered premiums for the culAmong the thirty-eight bundles of papers consigned strueted of such strength, that thirty men, and even tivation of the best kinds of materials for the craft by Napoleon to Cardinal Fesch, one curious paper cattle, can be transported in them from bank to bank. of basket-making. Mr Phillips, of Ely, was consedeserves to be briefly referred to. It is a Dialogue on To attend, however, to basket-making in particular. quently induced to make some experiments, by which Lote, which proves how early his opinions had been Osiers or willows are the usual materials employed in he gained the reward. He found that there were about formed on this, as on other points. He never was re- this manufacture. The wands are cut by the roots, fourteen or fifteen varieties of the osier-willow; and markable for sentiment, and, at the commencement of and if intended for the finer kinds of work, are soaked that but a few of them were well fitted for baskethis dialogue, he speaks in this condemnatory manner for a time in water previously to their being peeled. making. The grey or brindled osier, the bark of of the feeling of affection between the sexes. "I This is done by means of a brake or iron instrument, which is marked by red streaks, is hardy, tough, and believe it to be hurtful to society, and to the individual through which they are drawn. As the natural sap bleaches well, but it is rare in Britain. The other prinhappiness of men ; I believe, at least, that it does more of the wands greatly injures the work, they are always cipal species are the Welsh willow, of which there are harm than good, and that a benefit would be conferred dried in the sun, whether peeled or unpeeled, before two kinds, one red and the other white; the Spanish by that protecting power which should extinguish it, use. One of the circumstances that renders osier- willow; the new willow; the Kent willow; and the and deliver men from its influence.” Notwithstand work a ready resource to persons incapacitated from French willow. The latter is held the best, particuing this denunciation, he was beyond question de- engaging in other work, is the very small number of larly for light purposes. It is grown in Britain to a votedly attached in his life to at least one woman implements required for the craft. A brake, such as considerable extent, yet large quantities have annually Josephine. His letters to her from Italy carry passion has been mentioned, a knife or two, and a splitter, to be imported from the continent. even to extravagance.

consisting of two edge-tools placed at right angles, for Unquestionably, this might be remedied. The The writer in the Revue des Deux Mondes, from cleaving the wood longitudinally into one or more willow, in all its forms, grows well in the British whom we derive these notices of Napoleon's early days, splits, are all or nearly all the tools required. The climate, and indeed better there, perhaps, than in concludes by observing, that “ every thing proves him workman arranges his wands into bundles according more southerly climes ; so that there appears no good to have exemplified, like other men of genius, that to their strength, the largest being set apart by him reason why an ample supply should not be obtained law of humanity which ordains that nothing great can for the rims and binding-rods of the basket. When at home for the home market. Unfortunately, howbe accomplished without great efforts. In spite of his the artificer begins to an ordinary flat-bottomed basket, ever, in agricultural matters above all others we seem superior talents, he had studied long and carefully his first operation is to form the slat, as it is called, or to cling with tenacity to old forms and customs. To those subjects in which he afterwards showed himself woof, out of which the osier web is to be formed. He introduce a new seed, or improved article of any kind 2 master. During many years, he never ceased to read lays down a number of wands, cut each of a little for culture, though its merits may be fully proven, is and reflect on the most profound existing works. If greater length than is required, and arranges them at one of the most difficult things imaginable ; and every be displayed ideas so correct on legislation, finance, and a short distance from one another, and in a parallel body remembers how ludicrously the same anti-innosocial organisation, these ideas did not spring sponta- position. These wands are then crossed at right vating spirit was exhibited in the matter of barnneously from his brain. On the throne, he only reaped angles by two rods, each of which passes alternately fanners, which the old rustics denounced as demoniacal the fruits of the long labours of the poor lieutenant of above and below the parallel wands, thus keeping and heretical in the extreme. Some such feelings artillery. He formed his character by the means them in their places. The cross rods are chosen of seem to have caused the agricultural population to suited for the development of superior

men-by toil

, great length, and their loose ends are turned and neglect the call made by the society for the improvesolitude, meditation, and endurance. The Revolution woven under and over the pairs of short ends allment of arts and manufactures some years ago. People offered to him a vast and brilliant field ; but without round the bottom, until the whole be woven in. The still persist in the hopeless attempt to grow corn and that revolution, he would still have been distinguished, same thing is done with the other rod, and then addi- wheat out of undrainable land, though crops of willows, for characters like his seize on fortune, and make it tional long rods are woven in in a similar way, until which require a humid soil, and are in constant request

DEACONS OF THE OLD SCHOOL.

EXTREME OLD AGE.

It is on

in the market, might save them all their draining out-attached to it. Hence, by carefully studying the memory, lands of Lincolnshire, become expanded in bulk, and it lay, and remunerate them much better on the whole. and ascertaining by well-conducted experiment where it is from such sources that our carriage and heavy troop Mr Phillips calculated that good and well-managed is vigorous and retentive, and where comparatively defec- horses are supplied. To what a degree of monstrosity willows would give, in ordinary circumstances, an an

tive, we should be materially assisted in arriving at a may not our bacon hogs be fed ; and our prize-oxen exnuai profit of above L.18 an acre. Others state the knowledge of the real condition of the mental faculties of hibit the extraordinary powers of food, when forced

on an animal, by increasing the supply and restrainprofit lower, or about L.10 or L.12 per acre. Any of the individual whom we undertake to educate.

In this our sublunary state of existence, mind and ing the expenditure. It is from our artificial mode of these sums, considering the nature of the soil occupied, matter are so inseparably united, that the one cannot feeding cattle that our markets are now furnished with might well induce people to try the culture of osiers.

manifest its functions without the other. The brain is veal all the year round, and lamb is so common some Mr Phillips conceives the best time for planting to

the material instrument of the mind. The human brain, months before it appeared at the tables of our forebe autumn, and the best time for cutting to be also in number and depth of convolutions, in the proportionate fathers.--- Encyclopædia of Rural Sports. autumn, though it is common to plant in the spring quantity of grey or cineritious matter, in size, compared

ENGLISH AND IRISH BEGGARS. Shoots only are cut, and the stock left. From 6000 with the other portions of the nervous system, in developto 12,000 sets are usually planted on an acre of ground. ment of parts posteriorly, superiorly, and anteriorly, ex You may journey many a mile in England, and the It has just been mentioned that humidity is necessary ceeds that of all other animals. If the brain be deranged people you will meet are in their manner and deportment for willows. They grow even in standing water, but in function, or diseased in structure, the memorial facul• so much alike, that they appear, if not members of one are too soft in such situations, and not well fitted for ties suffer. The brain sympathises with remote parts, family, to have been all educated in the same school. It basket-work.

and with the digestive organs in particular ; we all know is otherwise in Ireland; everywhere there is some national Upon the whole, it might be worth while for ågri. and feel to what an extent our reasoning powers and characteristic, the ramifications of which are various and cultural people to look into this matter, and see if Often in my boyhood, and even subsequently, I have en by misery, and murmurs and complains under its endur,

numerous. The English pauper is at once bowed down they could not do both themselves and their country deavoured to repeat at night words or propositions which ance from first to last. The Irish beggar wrestles with good by giving the home market a home supply of an

I was anxious to imprint on the memory, and repeat distress; he can exist upon so little food as to seem almost article continually in demand, and for which foreign correctly. At night I could perform my task but very able to live without it; but he cannot do without his countries have to be resorted to at present.

imperfectly; on awaking in the morning, and repeating jest; there are moments when the heart beats lightly the effort, not one word was forgotten. Sympathy with even in his starving bosom. The poverty of the English,

remote parts-high mental excitements and emotions, except at stated times, is sullen; the poverty of the Irish MEMORY.

such as grief, intense pleasure, intense application- | is garrulous: the Englishman takes relief as a right; the

various poisonous substances, such as opium, alcohol, Irishman accepts it as a boon. You may aid half a dozen In a paper read a short time ago by Sir Henry Marsh, disease, injury-all these, by disturbing the functions of English paupers without receiving thanks; you cannot reBart., at a meeting of physicians, on the subject of the brain, derange variously, and to a greater or less ex lieve an Irish beggar without being paid in blessings.memory, and which afterwards appeared in a newspaper, tent, the mental manifestations."

Hall's Ireland. we find the following intelligent observations, tending to We add the single observation, that young persons who show that memory, like every thing else, is susceptible of feel deficient in memory, may rest assured that the defect cultivation, and must always less or more depend on the is caused less by inferior mental capacity, than want of In the days of Bailie Nicol Jarvie's father, the office of proper exercise of the faculties of the mind :

application at right times and on right objects. The deacon (chairman of a corporation of tradesmen] was "Wherever there are traces of mental manifestation, avoidance of trifling pursuits and undue gratifications of esteemed no mean distinction. Two worthy incumthere the attribute of memory is to be found-variously the senses, at the same time directing the mind to sub- bents, who fretted their little hour upon a stage not far distributed, but always bearing invariable proportion to jects of a useful and ennobling tendency, will strengthen from the banks of the Ayr, happened to be invested the amount and extent of intellectual development. As the reflective faculties, and that is the cultivation of the with the above-named dignity on the same day. The the instincts of the animal become more numerous, so memory.

more youthful of the two flew home to tell his young the reach of memory increases; and if, in our observa

wife what an important prop of the civic edifice he had tions of facts, beginning with the lowest, we ascend in

been allowed to become; and searching the “but and the scale of animated nature, we shall discover a gradual

ben” in vain, ran out to the byre, where, meeting the augmentation of mind and memory till we arrive at man,

cow, he could no longer contain his joy, but, in the fullwho, in the possession of both, stands alone and pre-emi We pray in the Litany to be delivered from sudden ness of his heart, clasped her round the neck, and it is nent above every other inhabitant of the earth.

death. Any death is to be deprecated which should even said, kissed her, exclaiming, “ Oh, crummie, crumthe score of those superior faculties, moral and intellec- find us unprepared ; but, as a temporal calamity, with mie, ye’re nae langer a common cow-ye're the deucon's tual, by which man is distinguished, that he, amongst more reason might we pray to be spared from the misery cow!" The elder civic dignitary was a sedate pious animals, is designated the image of his Maker ; but how

of an infirm old age. It was once my fortune to see a person, and felt rather “blate" in showing to his wife valueless had all these endowments been, had not that of frightful instance of extreme longevity-a woman who that he was uplifted above this world's honours. As he memory been superadded! Of all the mental powers, was nearly in her hundredth year. Her sight was greatly thought, however, it was too good a piece of news to allow none arrests so forcibly the attention of all classes of per- decayed, though not lost ; it was very difficult to make her to remain any time ignorant of, he lifted the latch of sons as this of which we treat. Its utility in every sphere her hear, and not easy then to make her understand what his own door, and stretching his head inwards, “ Nelly!" and condition of life is so palpable, that it cannot pass

was said, though, when her torpid intellect was awakened, said he, in a voice that made Nelly all ears and eyes, “ gif unobserved. It is also so remarkably affected by disease, she was legally of sane mind." She was unable to walk, ony body comes spierin' for the deacon, I'm just owre the so strikingly exhibited in infancy and childhood, so altered or to assist herself in any way. Her neck hung in such gate at John Tamson's !"— Ayr Advertiser. in character by old age, and displayed in such strong wrinkles, that it might almost be likened to a turkey's ; features, though limited in extent, in the warring and and the skin of her face and of her arms was cleft like

WHAT IS A GENTLEMAN? predatory life of savage and uncivilised man, and so the bark of an oak, as rough, and almost of as dark a

By the appellation of a gentleman, it is not meant to largely bestowed in some one distinct form upon parti- colour. In this condition, without any apparent suffer- draw a line that would be invidious between high and cular individuals, that it is, above all other mental mani- , ing, she passed her time in a state between sleeping and low, rank and subordination, riches and poverty. The festations, that which never fails to obtrude itself upon waking, fortunate that she could thus beguile the weari: distinction is in the mind. Whoever is open, loyal, and the notice of even the unobservant and thoughtless. someness of such an existence. Instances of this kind true-whoever is of humane and affable demeanour-whoThe events and occurrences of childhood are not im are much rarer in Europe than in tropical climates. Ne

ever is honourable in himself, and in his judgment of printed permanently on the mind. In all instances in gresses in the West Indies sometimes attain an age which others, and requires no law but his word to make him which I have made inquiry, I cannot trace permanent

is seldom ascertained, because it is far beyond living fulfil an engagement, such a man is a gentleman, and impressions farther back than to about two years and a memory. They outlive all voluntary power, and their such a man may be found among the tillers of the earth. half old. A lady told me lately, that she left India when descendants of the third or fourth generation carry them High birth and distinction, however, for the most part, only three years old—that she distinctly recollected out of their cabins into the open air, and lay them, like having been carried in a palanquin, and having embarked logs, as the season may require, in the sunshine or in the lower professions. It is hence, and hence only, that the on board what then appeared to her an enormous vessel, shade. Methinks, if Mæcenas had seen such an object, great claim their superiority; and hence what has been in which she sailed to Europe ; all else had escaped from he would have composed a palinode to those verses in her memory. The first event of my own life which I can which he has perpetuated his most pitiable love for life. than true. It aids and strengthens virtue where it meets

so beautifully said of honour, the law of kings, is no more recollect is a fight with a cock. From that period on

A woman in New Hampshire, North America, had her, and imitates her actions where she is not.- Book of wards to the age of eight years, the facts and events which reached the miserable age of 102, when, one day, as some

Thought. I am able to recall are few. 'In precocious children it people were visiting her, the bell tolled for a funeral ; may be different; but of these so many die prematurely, she burst into tears, and said, “Oh, when will the beli

MAKING A MYSTERY OF NOTHING. that we cannot gather many facts. In old age, too, me toll for me! It seems as if it never would toll for me! There are minds so habituated to intrigue and mystery mory gradually fails. We may say, then, that the period I am afraid that I shall never die!" This reminds me in themselves, and so prone to expect it from others, that of memory is the period of the consciousness of personal that I have either read or heard an affecting story of a they will never accept of a plain reason for a plain fact, if identity. In point of fact, we live only as long as we can poor old woman in England-very old, and very poor- it be possible to devise causes for it that are obscure, farrecall past impressions; all else in life, both in infancy who retained her senses long after the body had become fetched, and usually not worth the carriage. Like the miser and extreme senility, and the time spent in sleep, is a a weary burden ; she, too, when she heard the bell toll of Berkshire, who would ruin a good horse to escape a blank. Thus the period of human life is contracted within for a funeral, used to weep, and say she was afraid God turnpike, so these gentlemen ride their high-bred theories a smaller span than the number of years usually reckoned had forgotten her! These are extreme cases, as rare as to death, in order to come at truth, through byepaths, upon. The progress of memory from infancy'to mature they are mournful. Life, indeed, is long enough for what lanes, and alleys; while she herself is jogging quietly years in an individual of an energetic, active, and culti we have to suffer, as well as what we have to learn ; but along upon the ligh and beaten road of common sense. vated mind, may not inaptly be compared with some it was wisely said by an old Scottish minister (I wish I The consequence is, that those who take this mode of great river-at its source a streamlet, enlarging by degrees knew his name, for this saying ought to have immortalised arriving at truth, are sometimes before her, and sometimes as it advances, collecting materials for expansion from a it), " Time is short ; and if your cross is heavy, you have behind her, but very seldom with her. Thus, the great thousand springs, spreading wider and wider as it rolls not far to carry it."The Doctor.

statesman who relates the conspiracy against Doria, onwards, and becoming ultimately one mighty and ma [The writer of the above omits one of the chief reasons pauses to deliberate upon, and minutcly to scrutinise jestic mass of waters-deep, broad, and beautiful-till at for not wishing to live to an extreme old age--the total into divers and sundry errors committed, and opportulength it is mingled with and lost in the ocean. Such is deprivation of all friends and relatives whom we knew in nities neglected, whereby he would wish to account for the progress of memory in the human mind. Memory youth or later years. The gradual loss of these, as we the total failure of that spirited enterprise. But the cannot be without a previous impression. An impres- become older, is a kind provision for weaning us from a plain fact was, that the scheme had been so well planned sion cannot be made upon the mind without attention. love of an undue length of life.]

and digested, that it was victorious in every point of its Attention presents itself to our view under two very

operation, both on the sea and on the shore, in the harbour distinct forms; one, instinctive and necessary, which

of Genoa no less than in the city, until that most unlucky takes place whether we will or not; the other constrained,

QUADRUPEDS.

accident befell the Count de Fiesque, who was the very or the result of mental effort. So likewise memory, or Food influences all the external characters of quadru- life and soul of the conspiracy. In stepping from one the recalling of past impressions, is either necessary and peds. Without adverting to the different appearance of galley to another, the plank on which lie stood upset, spontaneous, or it is the result of a mental effort. The an ill-fed beast and one which has an abundant supply, and he fell into the sea. His armour happened to be very first is termed simple memory; the second, recollection. we may remark, that the form of the young animal that heavy, the night to be very dark, the water to be very The more vigorous and active each mental faculty, the suffers a deprivation either in the quantity or quality of deep, and the bottom to be very muddy. And it is another more excited is the attention to congenial objects, the its food, never becomes perfectly developed either in its plain fact, that water, in all such cases, happens to make more forcible the impression made, and consequently bulk or proportions. The integuments of such a one no distinction whatever between a conqueror and a cat. the more tenacious and permanent the memory of such never present the gloss of health, neither is the constitu - Lacon. impressions. The order of the sequence then is-active tion at large often free from disease ; internal congestions faculties, strong impressions, vigorous memory.

take place, and the mesenteric glands frequently become I have often thought that, if in children the various schirrous. On the contrary, in proportion as the supply

London: Published, with permission of the proprietors, by powers of memory were closely observed, an index of the within prudent limits is liberal, so is the growth ex W. S. Orr, Paternoster Row. mental faculties would thence be derived, most valuable tended, and the form reaches to the standard of the

Printed by Bradbury and Evans, Whitefriars. in the conduct of education. Believing, as I do, that parent. It often also exceeds the parent stock, from the many intellectual faculties have each its own proper excess of nutritive stimulus applied ; and thus horses, publishers or their agents ; £180, any odd numbers to complete

Complete sets of the Journal are always to be had from the memory, it follows, as a necessary consequence, that in oxen, and sheep, brought up in low marshy lands, where

sets. Persons requiring their volumes bound along with title proportion to the strength and activity of each faculty is the herbage is luxuriant, attain a monstrous size. Horses, pages and contents, have only to give them into the hands of any The vigour, readiness, and retentiveness of the memory | in particular, when bred and pastured in the rich flat | bookseller, with orders to that effect.

EFFECTS OF FOOD ON THE FORM AND CHARACTER OF

[graphic]

CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM AND ROBERT CHAMBERS, EDITORS OF " CHAMBERS’S INFORMATION FOR THE PEOPLE,”

“ CHAMBERS'S EDUCATIONAL COURSE,” &c.

NUMBER 538.

SATURDAY, MAY 21, 1842.

PRICE 11d.

THOUGHTS ON NATIONS AND

remark, that the Toltecan civilisation might have an and tendency to good social institutions, has many a

independent beginning, whether the people came origi- parallel in the rise of judicious and industrious indiCIVILISATION. nally from the eastern continent or not.

viduals out of families where little of that kind of Some philosophers have such an opinion of the help Assuming one origin for the whole race, it is much character is seen to prevail generally. Take any welllessness of the race to which they belong, as to be less difficult than might be supposed to show how the marked man at this day, and plant him in the midst quite at a loss to understand how civilisation should variations have since arisen. That external physical of an ample unoccupied space, with married children have commenced. They see vast nations of barbarians circumstances will do much to produce variation, around him, and, unquestionably, if his family spread still overspreading the earth, amongst whom, after to blacken or whiten the skin, for instance-can over that space, as it probably would, if unrestrained, thousands of years, no tendency to improvement can scarcely be doubted, when we see in the Hindoos we should in a few hundred years find a new and be detected; and, not perceiving any natural diffe- alone every shade of colour, the shades being the effect peculiar nation arisen. It is only for want of space rences in men, they wonder how the history of other of the comparative elevation of territory and compa- that phenomena on the same scale as the creation of nations, originally as barbarous, should have been so rative height of temperature. But the grand cause the Greeks or the Goths do not now take place. Yet, different. Their error lies, first, in not seeing diffe- of variation appears to reside in a natural law for the even as the world now is, we see that a certain order rences in men. There are great organic differences production of varieties. This law is less obvious than it of Englishmen, emigrating in company to form a both in nations and in individuals, accompanied by otherwise might be, in consequence of the apparently New England, become the progenitors of a nation corresponding differences of mental character. It opposite one that the general character of parents is which, two hundred years from its origin, shows may be readily owned that, as far as we can see, no transmitted to offspring. It is nevertheless a promi- strong traces of the peculiar Anglicism which marked power of originating a spontaneous civilisation exists nent and most important feature of nature's economy, the so-called pilgrim fathers. Supposing that the in the Papuans and the Troglodytes; these, apparently, having apparently for its object a perpetual freshening first Puritan emigrants had been alone, and that their must wait for a reflected light from other quarters. and rejuvenescence of the stock of her many animated descendants had received no infusion of other races, But the Hellenes and the Teutones, and some other tribes. It is under favour of this law that an un can we doubt, from what we see, that the people of races, have been constituted very differently. The usually able man—a Franklin or a Burns, for instance New England would have been, still more expressly error of the philosophers lies, secondly, in their not-occasionally arises from a race of simple and un- than they are, a representation of a peculiar section understanding that the mental faculties have an in- thinking rustics. From such a man we may often see of English society of the time of Charles the First ? herent activity, and that, in some special cases of high the like in succession, but he is himself the head and Variety-production—that law by which nations of endowment, this activity is inventive and suggestive, commencement of his own style of character. It is superior have sprung from nations of inferior endowthus striking out new lights from the mass of sur also seen that, in the domesticated tribes of animals, ment-may be considered as the highest that affects rounding darkness. A Pascal, at fifteen, made out and in cultivated shrubs, new varieties are constantly the natural history of our species. It produces great for himself the chief conclusions of geometry. A arising. A sheep is born with short legs ; it is bred leaps in improvement, but these may be at long inwoolcomber's son, springing up amongst the com from; and in time we see an English county full of tervals, and their frequency must be much diminished monalty of Warwickshire, wrote more exquisite short-legged sheep, the peculiarity being thought as the earth becomes filled up with nations. There are things, untaught, than any educated man of his own useful as disabling the animal for leaping fences. A other laws of less instant energy, but which work as or almost any other age. Why should it be so diffi- violet or tulip with particular colours and form of remarkable effects in time. These work improvement cult to comprehend how savage man first learned to leaves arises : it is selected for propagation on account by bringing superior to work upon inferior mental kindle a fire or cook his food ? Truly, the ideas of its beauty, and in a few years we see it spread organisation, and by intermarriage of races. There of philosophers respecting their race are any thing every where over the country. It is not at all un- is an inherent tendency in human nature to improve ; but complimentary. We say, on the contrary, that, likely that some of the chief varieties of mankind—as but, like some other mental characteristics, it is in a just as we see geniuses rise every day to extend the the Mongolians (amongst whom are the Chinese), or great measure confined to a few nations, and to a limited bounds of knowledge, and singularly worthy men to the Caucasians (amongst whom are nearly the whole of class of even these. If any one wonders why it has been advance and exemplify moral excellence, so, in a the European nations)—have descended from one per. hitherto shown almost exclusively in the Gothic races, barbarian community of the superior kind, would son, a cadet of another stock who happened to have let him also wonder why the fine arts can scarcely be there be better men rising every now and then, to received from nature qualities considerably different said to have ever risen spontaneously any where but produce some improvement in both respects. The law from those of his parents. The greatness of the on the shores of the Mediterranean. Apparently, the which produces such men must have operated from number marked in one way can be no objection, when very highest degree of the endowment of any faculty the beginning: as there were many heroes before Aga- we remember that the whole Hebrew nation have a is that which leads the possessor to its unprompted memnon, so there must have been many Anaxagorases, family likeness, known, from Egyptian monuments, to exercise, as when a boy attempts to draw, and draws Aristotles, and Platoes, long before the philosophers have been the same in the time of Moses, and which well, who never saw or heard of limning. Of this of these names existed—men capable of conceiving may therefore be presumed to be derived from Abra- nature is the case of those who have an inherent tenand showing the way to something superior to bar- ham or one of his immediate descendants. We have dency to civilisation. But there are many who would barism. These were the fathers of civilisation. The only to suppose one of these heads of varieties quitting never think on their own part of drawing, who, mythologies of most nations seem to be an obscure the native territory with his family, and settling in nevertheless, if tempted to take lessons, and induced record of such men, Veneration having deified them, some neighbouring vacant one, which his children in to give attention, would become tolerable draughtswhile as yet Intellect had not formed a written lan- time peopled. And we can readily suppose that such men. So also are there many nations which, though guage in which to take down a correct account of a person would be just the most likely to pine for not spontaneously disposed to civilisation, are susceptheir deservings.

free space, and endeavour to obtain it. Subordinate tible of being civilised when the proper agency is It is scarcely necessary to remark, that, upon this varieties would arise from similar emigrations. In brought to bear upon them. And it is very interesttheory, the civilisation and arts of Central America this variety-producing power of nature, evidently lies ing to observe from history what a tendency the are to be accounted for without puzzling ourselves the chief cause of the numberless peculiarities which higher races have always shown to be the cultivators about the source of American population. A better mark and distinguish the nations of the earth. or educators of the inferior. It would almost appear kind of race seems to have arisen in that part of the The distinguishing features of nations are to be as if there were providential arrangements in human American continent: there is no reason why that race traced quite as clearly in their mental character as in nature to bring about this object. Higher races are should not have invented architectural designs and external form and colour. One is addicted to mystic generally restless, ambitious, and fruitful. Obeying the practised sculpture out of their own heads, as well as learning; another to the elegant arts; a third runs impulse of their nature to conquest, or simply breaking the Egyptians, from whom it is vainly attempted to wild in superstitious error. Even in savage nations, over their bounds in search of new fields of settlement, be shown that they must have borrowed their ideas. when we look narrowly into them, there are well they tend to go in upon other nations, whom they The invention of these, and a thousand other things, marked peculiarities of character. The variety-pro- perhaps injure and oppress for a time, but generally, was but a natural phenomenon, only requiring the ducing law of course includes the production of such in the long run, improve. The colonies of the Greeks, conditions of intellect and certain external circum- characteristics. And thus we may contemplate the the conquests of the Romans, the overflow of the stances to bring it to pass. It might take place in origin of the artistic mind of the Greeks as a pheno- northern nations upon the Roman empire, the extenany of those physically favoured regions of the earth, menon precisely analogous to the production of a sion of the British race and power over Northern where alone young nations are sufficiently at ease on Lawrence in an inn on the Bath road, or a Wilkie in America, India, and many other parts of the earth, the score of food and shelter to allow of their culti- the manse of a rural Scottish parson. The Gothic are instances of this disposition of superiorly endowed vating the arts of civilisation. And it is important to mind, with its sober thoughtfulness, perseverance, nations, while all the secondary races remain for ages

66

in defined bounds, and generally much isolated. The fused in three centuries, for they were not very di “ Well, there is no occasion to be sharp about it. invasive system, when unregulated by just and verse ; but in Ireland we have seen six centuries do I thought when you received your first quarter's humane views, is to be lamented ; but we must not scarcely any thing to bring the more discrepant ele- salary, you would have changed it. Caroline, take rashly and sweepingly condemn what has been so ments of Saxon and Celt together. In some cases of your hand out of Miss Dawson's ; I hate to see that conspicuous a feature of human conduct from the extreme diversity, as in that of the African Negroes sort of familiarity. Since you have both been so beginning.

placed amongst the Anglo-Americans, we can contem- good, suppose you come and drive with me in the Superior natures, with all their acquired ideas and plate no end to the natural antagonism ; and civilisa- park.” systems, being, by whatever means, brought in contact tion will be of course in such cases retarded, or the " Oh, thank you, dear mamma!” exclaimed both the with inforior, the latter are put, as it were, under a one race will shrink and die out under the unfavour-children, in the same delighted tone of voice, and recompulsion to improve. The law of improvement by able effect of contact with the other.

joiced to see her temper changed. external agency takes effect upon them, and usually a History completely corresponds with physiology in " Thank you, that will be a trcat ; and, mamma," few generations see wonderful changes brought about. its illustrations of this subject. The Greeks were a added Caroline, “ may Miss Dawson come also ?" The Celtic Britons under the Romans, the Hindoos mixture of the Pelasgic and Hellenic races, the latter Miss Dawson has had hier drive this week already,” under the British of the present day, are examples. being not improbably of Gothic origin. Rome was said Mrs llylier, walking out of the room with renewed This is precisely the same phenomenon as the im- first peopled by a collection of different races, and as

care.

"*

BY MRS S. C. HALL.

ill temper. provement which the great men of a nation work it advanced, took in large infusions of new elements. “ Let Elizabeth go, and I will stay with you," whisupon itself. In both cases, it is the highly endowed The present English are composed of Celts, Romans, pered the affectionate though spoiled child to Miss few acting beneficially upon the inferior many. Im- Saxons, and Normans. When the ingredients are Dawson. provement in both instances goes on under certain not too unequal in character or numbers, assimilation “ No, indeed,” she replied—“no, indeed ; it was very remarkable conditions, which are well worthy of a goes on, and one good national type results. In the kind of your mamma to ask you, and you will offend particular notice. Here we are glad to look for illus- words of a predecessor in this walk of inquiry, “ the her if you do not go. I have a letter to write, and tration to the familiar phenomena of nature.

national elements gravitate from the circumference to that will employ me until you return.' It has been fully ascertained that, even amongst the centre—from diversity to one common character. · Ah, you say that to make us go !” said Elizabeth. the lower animals, an effect produced by external And the inferior races being forced to decline and die “ For shame, Lizzy! you know we never found Miss agency in the mental character of one generation, away, in the saine proportion as the stronger increase Dawson out in the very least little white fib in the tends to reappear in the next as an inherent condi- and multiply in numbers, a more equal degree of in- world,” observed Caroline. tion. This is conspicuously the case in those horses tellectual energy and a more equal physical type are “ But that would not be a fib, would it, sister?-beand dogs which have fallen particularly under human thus attained, in the course of time, by the nation at cause mamma often says those kind of things to papa,

The act of the pointer, a result of training large. Its civilisation is then completed to the full to get him to do what she wants.” in past generations, is natural to a puppy of the extent which the original powers of its races admitted, • You are too young, my dear Lizzy, to be able to tribe which never saw game. The amble of the and its corresponding nervous system has arrived at judge of any one's motives," said Miss Dawson ; "and American horse, the peculiar leap of the Irish, the its acme of development.”

in this instance must be mistaken. So now, dears, go, docility to speech and not to the bridle shown by the It thus appears that man, in certain favourable cir- and do not keep mamma waiting.” hardy courser of Norway—all reappear in foals of the cumstances, may arrive at what seems to be a compa Some persons, who had seen Miss Dawson by chance respective tribes which have been brought up in Eng. ratively advanced stage. The improvability, so to at Mrs II ylier's, although she was "only a governess," land.* Such facts can only be accounted for by sup- call it, is not strictly definite ; yet we must conclude, had been heard to observe that she was very pretty. posing that the training or education works a certain from all analogy, that it has bounds, and that the pre- Had she not been a governess, she could not have organic change in the animal, for how otherwise could sent being must ever remain upon the whole the irre-, been looked at without being admired-not for actual it be transmitted ? Either the former material of gular impulsive creature which he has been.

beauty, but for the sweet gentleness of her countethe nervous system must be in some way modified, or We conclude these speculations with an expression nanco, the purity of her complexion, the open, truthnew material must be added ; and this new condition, of sincere regret that, being in some measure new and ful outlooking of her fine eyes, and the ease and grace whatever it is, becomes represented in the new gene- unexpected, our bounds do not allow us to support of her movements. The deep mourning, which had ration. A change thus once set a-going must in- them by so large an amount of evidence as might be excited Mrs Hylier's displeasure, made her an object crease, for every new generation will start with not considered necessary. Researches into history by the of touching interest to all who had any feeling; it

ly the inherent character of the preceding, but all light of science is a thing of yesterday, and as yet little harmonised with the sad expression of her face; and the benefit which that has derived from externai has been done for it. But we entertain no doubt that two or three ladies, in open defiance of Mrs Hylier's agency. Such is the process which we recognise as physiology alone could throw more light upon the well-known jealousy of disposition, had said, “ how glad the taming, as well as that which we cail the training, origin and progress of nations, within the bounds of one they would be if Miss Dawson would visit their young of animals. Tameness in an animal originally wild, small volume, than could be done by a whole library people”-invitations which she thankfully declined. as, for instance, the common cow, may be regarded of political history, or the united labours of a score of When she was left alone—that luxury which her class as simply the result of an exposure of the race during archaiological societies.

so seldom enjoy-she opened her desk, and, after glancmany generations to influences which evoked the

ing over some letters, fixed her eyes upon a miniature gentler and stilled the fiercer feelings of the animals

which she had taken from a secret drawer. She nature. The tissues on which the fiercer feelings

THE GOVERNESS.

looked at it long and steadily, until her eyes overdepended would, in obedience to the universal organic

flowed, and tear after tear, large round drops, coursed law, decline, while those on which the milder feelings

each other down her anguished face. She then wiped depended would gain in volume and in strength.

the salt moisture from its surface, looked again at the Hence, the milk-cow of our

dairies must be organic-Emmy DAWSON had been nearly four months in her picture, pressed it convulsively within her clasped ally a considerably different creature from her cousin situation during that time Mr Byfield came and palms, and laying her head upon them, sobbed as if who yet roams wild in Chillingham Park or amidst went, at Mr II ylier’s, as usual; if he met bis protegee her heart was breaking. While sobbing, she slid the woods of Cadzow.

on the stairs, he turned his head another way; be from her seat upon her knees ; her emotion gradually As far as the mental constitution of the human

never asked a question about her, nor seemed to take subsided. She prayed, rose, kissed the cherished picrace depends on the nervous system, the process of the least interest in her proceedings ; once or twice ture, and murmuring, as she closed the case, “ Mother civilisation is precisely an analogous, though gene- Mrs Hylier (who prided herself on her diplomacy) rally a more strongly developed, phenomenon. In said something leading to the subject, but Mr Byfiei : my mother!" replaced it in her desk. Strange as

may seem, after this agitation she became at once the early stages of a society, the muscular and the silenced her in a way peculiarly his own. more animal parts of the mental system are predo “Why does Mr Byfield turn away from you, Miss composed it had done her good--the petty insults minant, as we see in savages at this day. Intellec- Dawson?" inquired little Elizabeth IIylier. Children which, cherished child as she had been for so many tual and moral influences being brought into operaare acute observers.) “ He used to stop us on the years, she felt it hard to endure, had passed away with

the deluge of tears that welled up from her young tion, those parts of the system are in some small stairs, and call us juvenile jades; now he looks som

heart. She wondered how they could have grieved degree less exercised, and consequently lose in volume and goes on. Have you been a naughty girl, dear her-how she could have felt them--when the superior and energy. The formative nutrition, diverted there- Miss Dawson ?"

bitterness of her mother's loss came again upon her. from, goes to the intellectual and moral tissues, which

“ I hope not, Elizabeth,” said the governess. it in some small degree increases. The next gene- two ; " I don't think you were ever naughty. When intervals, with a quieter and firmer mind than she

“I am sure not,” added Caroline, the elder of the Small sorrows place us below the world-a great sor

row above it ; and she continued a letter, written at riences during its existence further benefit from the you were a little girl, you were always too steady-too had felt for some days. The letter was to a young continued external agency. Thus, in the course of

serious—and" The young lady paused, and looked lady, the sister of the curate who had attended her a number of generations, a change sufficiently con- earnestly in her governess's face.

mother's deathbed : a portion of it ran thus:-“ You siderable to be entitled to the term cirilisation is

“Well, my dear, go on,” said Miss Dawson, in her ask me if I am happy: 1 ought to be happier than I effected. It is hardly necessary to remark, that this gentle voice. law is not definite in its operation, and that there is

am. My two pupils are kind, affectionate girls ; and,

“ I would rather not say what I intended, for fear though somewhat idle, and very ignorant, if I am peronly a tendency upon the whole to such improvement you would not like it," answered the girl ; “ and yet mitted to manage them as I desire, I have no doubt in the sum of instances. We are more called upon

I should wish to say it." to observe, that civilisations thus originating and

“ Then do, Caroline.”

they will improve-not rapidly, but certainly. I going on are liable to be absorbed, overpowered, and

never could manage a child until I obtained its affec

“ I meant, too sad to be naughty, or like other girls.” tions and the affections of the young are generally deranged by various causes. A strong civilisation,

“ I was not always sad, my dear; though, I perceive, ductile ; but Mrs Hylier is weak enough to be jealous coming in upon a weak, absorbs

it. An isolated civi- I must not let you see that I am so, even at times. If of the little love the children bear me. She does not lisation may be swamped by the irresistible brute you say your lessons as well, and are as attentive as

understand that it is the only means I have of workforce of a surrounding barbarism. Other external you have been this morning, I shall be much happier," ing out her, or what ought to be her, intention ; but agencies, as, for instance, false maxims in the superior Caroline Hylier flung her arms round Miss Dawson's race, may derange the process. On all hands, through neck, and kissed her, declaring that since such was the the truth is, that all she really desires them to know out history, we see civilisations undergoing the most case, she would certainly do her best to improve ; and

are a few showy accomplishments. She came home in strangely varied fates. It is also very clear that some while she was speaking, Mrs Hylier entered the school, who repeated some long Italian poem-of which she

an ecstacy of delight the other evening with a girl are wanting in certain of the elements that go to com

room-a cloud of the deepest displeasure overshadowed could not even remember the name, much less underpose a great nation. There may be fineness of intel- her pretty face. lect without strength; delicacy without moral energy;

“Oh, mamma !” exclaimed Elizabeth, “Miss Daw-stand the meaning-in a room crowded with comindustry without the power of self-defence. In all of son says that if we are good, she will be so much hap- sion, and her action was so graceful.' With the same

pany. The girl,' she said, 'had so much self-possesthese cases, there will be a tendency to break down pier." and relapse into an inferior condition. Much must

“ I should have thought,”. observed the jealous on the stage. I ventured to observe, that the child

breath she declaimed against a woman's appearing depend on whether the civilisation is produced by mother, that my being happier, was of more conse- who, at twelve years of age, would have sufficient elements within the race itself, as the Germanic seems quence; is it not, Miss Dawson?” to have been—the highest and best we have yet known

“Certainly, ma'am,” she replied.

confidence to repeat and act a poem in a crowded -and, in the case of a foreign element being the cause,

“I do wish, Miss Dawson, you would not answer bit before a larger audience as she grew older; but she

drawing-room, would be very likely to desire to exhiwhat proportion the superior bears to the inferior me in that peculiarly sad voice ; and that everlasting could not perceive the analogy, and thought, indeed race, and how far their various native qualities tend mourning, you wear—it makes me heart-broken to said, I was impertinent for making it. Is it not a in union or fusion to form a good type ; also how far

look at it.' they naturally tend to fusion. It was natural for the

“ It nearly broke mine," said the poor girl,“ to put mother who would act in concert with me? I sub

cause of great regret that I have never yet found a Normans and Saxons of the British isle to become it on.”

mit quietly to be treated with indifference by the lady * See “ Changes Produced in the Nervous System by Civilisa- and gentleman, who, when I am in the room, speak Educability of Animals," Journal, No. 533. tion." By Robert Verity, M.D. London: Lighley. 1839. and act exactly as if they were alone, except when

PART SECOND,

* See the paper

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