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Whig, Quincy, established 1848; Gazette, Galena, 1848; Herald, Quincy, 1849; Argus, Rock Island, 1851; Transcript, Peoria, 1855; Pantagraph, Bloomington, 1857; Demokrat, Peoria, 1860; Union, Rock Island, 1861; Telegraph, Alton, 1861; National Democrat, Peoria, 1865; Journal, Jacksonville, 1866; Bulletin, Cairo, 1868; Leader, Bloomington, 1869; Evening Review, Peoria, 1869; Republican Register, Galesburg, 1870; News, Aurora, 1872; Republican, Decatur, 1872; Journal, Mattoon, 1873; Register, Rockford, 1873; Zeitung und Stern, Belleville, 1874; Republican and Sun, Joliet, 1874; Germania, Quincy, 1874; Democrat, Alton, 1874; News, Danville, 1876; News, Elgin, 1876; Illinois Courier, Jacksonville, 1876; Evening Post, Aurora, 1877 ; Republican, Braidwood, 1877; Bulletin, Freeport, 1877; News, Joliet, 1877; Times, Ottawa, 1877; Journal, Peoria, 1877; News, Quincy, 1877; Argus, Cairo, 1878; Commercial, Danville, 1878; Review, Decatur, 1878; Frank, Elgin, 1878; Journal, Lincoln, 1878; Dispatch, Moline, 1878; Journal, Freeport, 1879; Sonne, Peoria, 1879; Gazette, Rockford, 1879; Morning Herald, Decatur, 1880; Journal, Ottawa, 1880; Bulletin, Bloomington, 1881; Advocate, Elgin, 1881; Times, Pekin, 1881; Free Press, Streator, 1881; Monitor, Streator, 1882; Gazette, Sterling, 1882; Express, Aurora, 1882; Evening Eye, Roodhouse, 1882; News-Democrat, Belleville, 1883; Daily Gazette, Champaign, 1883; Republican, Moline, 1883; Evening Gazette, Monmouth, 1883; Times, Lincoln, 1884; Daily Sentinel, Centralia, 1884. Rowell's Directory for 1884, places the total number of papers, weeklies and dailies, in Illinois, at 1,009.

We have spoken of the wonderful improvements made in printing presses, and now a word is due journalism generally, and we hazard nothing in saying that the weekly papers in Illinois are not surpassed by those of any State in the Union, as regards their moral tone, independence of character, neatness in make-up, local

interest or editorial ability, while the daily press stands unrivaled.

The Illinois Press Association, which was organized in 1866, has done much toward elevating the character and advancing the interests of the profession.

With the journalism of Illinois there have been connected many eminent men, who have taken a prominent part in shaping the politics or destiny of the State, and we call to mind a few who have been a power in its councils: Henry Eddy, Shawneetown, who was the editor of the Illinois Emigrant, and wielded a vigorous pen in 1823, in opposition to the attempt to make Illinois a slave State; Rev. Elijah P. Lovejoy, Alton; John Wentworth, C. L. Wilson, Jas. W. Sheahan, T. Lyle Dickey, C. H. Ray, Joseph Medill, A. C. Hessing, Andrew Shuman, Horace White, John L. Scripps, W. F. Storey, Wm. Bross, Herman Raster, Herman Lieb, Samuel J. Medill, W. K. Sullivan, Chicago; Austin Brooks, Quincy; John W. Merritt, Salem; E. R. Roe, Bloomington; George Scroggs, Champaign; C. H. Lanphier, who commenced his apprenticeship in the State Register, and afterwards became sole proprietor; D. L. Phillips, John M. Palmer, John A. McClernand, who established, edited and published the first Democratic newspaper in Southern Illinois; George Walker, Simeon Francis, who established the Sangamo Journal, Springfield; Enoch Emery, Peoria; W. W. Sellers, Pekin. We might swell this list indefinitely, but this will suffice to show that the men who have guided the press of the State have not lacked in ability or force of character.



The Nineteenth General Assembly convened January 1, 1855, and adjourned February 15.

Lieut.-Gov. Koerner presided over the Senate, and Geo. T. Brown was elected Secretary. Thomas J. Turner was elected Speaker of the House, and Edwin T. Bridges Clerk.

Among the familiar names in this Legislature were these: In the Senate, Norman B. Judd, Burton C. Cook, John M. Palmer, Silas L. Bryan and Joseph Gillespie ; and in the House, Wm. J. Allen, S. W. Moulton, Stephen T. Logan, Chauncey L. Higbee and Owen Lovejoy.

One of the important duties devolving upon this Legislature was the election of a United States Senator, to succeed Senator Shields, and the two houses met in joint session February 8, and balloted for Senator. James Shields was the Democratic candidate, and Abraham Lincoln the Whig. On the first ballot Shields received 41 votes; Lincoln, 45; scattering, 13. On the second, Shields received 41; Lincoln, 43; scattering, 15. On the third, Shields received 41; Lincoln, 41; scattering, 16. On the fourth, Shields received 41; Lincoln, 38; scattering, 19. On the fifth, Shields received 42; Lincoln, 34; scattering, 23. On the sixth, Shields received 41; Lincoln, 36; scattering, 21. On the seventh Shields' name was withdrawn, and that of Joel A. Matteson substituted, who on this ballot received 44; Lincoln, 38; scattering, 16. On the eighth, Matteson received 46; Lincoln, 27; scattering, 25. On the ninth, Matteson received 47; and Lincoln's name having been withdrawn, Trumbull received 35; scattering, 16. On the tenth, Trumbull received 51; Matteson, 47;

scattering, 1. Mr. Trumbull having received a majority of all the votes cast, was declared by the Speaker Senator-elect.

This was at the time of the Kansas-Nebraska excitement. John M. Palmer, Norman B. Judd and B. C. Cook were anti-Nebraska Democrats, and it was expected that they would vote for Mr. Lincoln, which, with the vote of Henry S. Baker, an anti-Nebraska Whig, would have secured his election; but when Mr. Lincoln found, through his friend John T. Stuart, whom he had authorized to wait upon these gentlemen, that they could not vote for Mr. Lincoln, for the reason that they were instructed by their constituents to vote for an anti-Nebraska Democrat, then it was that Mr. Lincoln, standing in the lobby, reached over with his long arm, touched a member of the House and directed him to withdraw his name, which being done, Mr. Trumbull was elected on the next ballot. This was the first break in the political control of the State by the Democratic party since its organization, and the election of Lyman Trumbull as an outspoken anti-slavery man was the forerunner of the organization of the Republican party in 1856.


It seems almost incredible to say, that in 1841 there was but one Railroad in Illinois, and that it was laid with flat iron, and only twenty-four miles in length, or that for a time its cars were drawn by mules, but such is the true beginning of Railroad building in the State. The termini of this road were Jacksonville and Meredosia. From that one, the number has increased to fixty-six, whose aggregate number of miles, in main lines and branches, is 8,766. We enumerate them as they are given in the annual report of the Railroad and WarehouseCommission for 1883:

Baltimore & Ohio & Chicago, 262.60; Belt Railway, of Chicago, 23.67; Central Iowa Railway, 504; Chicago & Alton, 849.78; Chicago & Atlantic, 249.10; Chicago & Eastern Illinois, 247.50; Chicago & Grand Trunk, 330.50; Chicago & Iowa, 104; Chicago & Northwestern, 3,584.10; Chicago & Western, 1.50; Chicago & Western Indiana, 27.90; Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, 1,673.52; Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, 4,514.22; Pekin & Southwestern, 85.50; Rock Island & Pacific, 1,380.42; St. Louis & Pittsburgh, 580.50; Cincinnati, Indianapolis, St. Louis & Chicago, 342.91; Danville, Olney & Ohio River, 86.10; East St. Louis & Carondelet Railway, 11.50; East St. Louis Connecting Railway, 2.66; Fulton County Narrow Gauge Railway, 61; Grand Tower & Carbondale, 24.21; Grand Trunk Junction, 3.90; Illinois, St. Louis and Coal, 25; Illinois Central, 1,927.78; Illinois Midland Railway, 173.13; Indiana & Illinois Southern Railway, 56; Indiana, Bloomington & Western, 685.20; Indiana, Illinois & Iowa, 110; Indianapolis & St. Louis, 266.20; Jacksonville Southeastern Railway, 82.90; Kankakee & Seneca, 42.30; Lake Erie & Western Railway, 386.91; Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway, 1,339.54; Louisville & Nashville, 2,065.27; Louisville, Evansville & St. Louis Railway, 249.13; Louisville, New Albany & Chicago, 446; Michigan Central, 270; Moline & Southeastern, 8; New York, Chicago & St. Louis, 523; Ohio & Mississippi Railway, 616.20; Pennsylvania Co., 467.97; Peoria & Pekin Union Railway, 18; Peoria, Decatur & Evansville, 240.69; Pittsburgh, Cincinnati & St. Louis, 580.50; Rock Island & Mercer Co., 26.71; Rock Island & Peoria, 91; St. Louis, Alton & Terre Haute, 137; St. Louis & Cairo, 151.60; St. Louis Coal, 92.66; St. Louis, Rock Island & Chicago, 307,67; Sycamore, Cortland & Chicago, 4.90; Terre Haute & Indianapolis, 159.13; Toledo, Cincinnati & St. Louis, 781.96; Union Stock Yards & Transit Co., 50; Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railway, 3,482.40.

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