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Secretary of State; Thomas H. Campbell, of Randolph, Auditor of Public Accounts; John Moore, of McLean, Treasurer.

The first session of the Eighteenth General Assembly convened January 3, 1853, and adjourned February 14. A second session convened February 9, 1854, and adjourned March 4.

Lieut.-Gov. Koerner presided over the Senate, and R. E. Goodell was elected Secretary. John Reynolds was elected Speaker of the House, and John Calhoun Clerk.

This Legislature became famous for passing the black laws, of which an extended mention has been made in a preceding chapter. The bill passed the House February 5, 1853, by a vote of 45 yeas to 23 nays; seven members were absent, or refrained from voting. The Senate passed the bill February 11, as it came from the House, by a vote of 13 yeas to 9 nays; three Senators were absent or refrained from voting. On February 12, the bill received the approval of Gov. Matteson.



First Newspapers in Illinois-First Books Printed-Printing Presses Then and Now-First Daily Papers-Chicago Papers-Papers at the Capital -Weekly Journals-Interior Dailies-Eminent Journalists.

When Illinois was organized as a Territory of the United States, the arts of printing and journalism were in their infancy, not only in this, but in all countries. Research shows that Matthew Duncan was the pioneer journalist of Illinois, establishing the Herald, at Kaskaskia, in 1814. Prior to the establishment of the Herald legal notices were published, by act of December, 1813, in the Louisiana Territory (Missouri).

The Herald was a three-column folio until 1816, when it was enlarged to a four-column folio. In 1817, Daniel P. Cook and Robert Blackwell bought it. Subsequently, its name was changed to Intelligencer, and in 1820 it was moved to Vandalia. The second paper in the State was the Emigrant, established as an anti-slavery paper, at Shawneetown, in 1818, by Henry Eddy and S. H. Kimmell. The third paper, the Spectator, was established as an anti-slavery paper, at Edwardsville, in 1819, by Hooper Warren. In 1835, the number of weekly newspapers had multiplied to eighteen. The first daily paper in the State -Daily Express-was established at Chicago, in 1839, and the second-Democrat-in the same city, in 1840. John Wentworth was the editor of the latter.

The first book or pamphlet, of which we have any knowledge, printed in Illinois, was by Matthew Duncan, at Kaskaskia; it bears date December 24, 1814. It contained an act establishing a Supreme Court, the letter of Judges Jesse B. Thomas and William Sprigg to the Legislature, challenging the legality of the act; the answer of the Legislature to the Judges, the address of Gov. Edwards to the Legislature, and the memorial of the Legislature to Congress, numbering, in all, 46 pages. In printing this book, there were but three fonts of type used-burgeois, small-pica and English. In an address delivered by William L. Gross before the Illinois State Bar Association, at Springfield, January 6, 1881, we find that Matthew Duncan also published the first volume of what is known as Pope's Digest, in June, 1815. These books are in the possession of Mr. Gross, and they show the art of printing in its most primitive state.

The first printing press used in Illinois was known as the Franklin Ramage, which was capable of printing but one page of a folio newspaper at a time, with a capacity of 240

impressions per hour. This required the services of one man and a boy. The next press in use was the Washington, which printed two pages at a time, with a capacity of 300 impressions per hour. Then followed the power presses. The Konig, with a capacity of 1,000 to 1,800 impressions per hour; the Applegate, 5,000 to 10,000; the Hoe cylinder, 6,000 to 8,000; Hoe lightning, 10,000 to 15,000; Hoe ten-cylinder, 25,000. Then came the presses which printed the paper complete. The Walter, with a capacity of 11,000; Bullock, 11,000 to 20,000. The Walter and Bullock presses print from a web or continuous roll of paper. The last and most successful invention in newspaper presses, however, is the perfecting press, whose capacity is 30,000 to 32,000 per hour. On this press the paper is printed from a web, on both sides, cut, pasted and folded ready for the carrier. This is equivalent to 60,000 or 64,000 impressions per hour.

The Inter Ocean was the first newspaper in this country to adopt the use of the perfecting press. The folder was an invention of Mr. Walter Scott, of Scotland, who was an employee of the Inter Ocean office for a number of years, and at that time foreman of the machinery department of that office. For a long time the question of attaching a folder to the web presses had been agitating the pressmen and press-builders, but all attempts had failed until Mr. Scott perfected his experiment and attached it successfully to the several Bullock presses of the Inter Ocean, since which time his invention has been applied to all the web presses by whatever name manufactured, and the invention rightfully belongs to Illinois.

Journalism did not begin in Chicago until 1833, when John Calhoun established the Chicago Democrat, a weekly paper. In 1840, the Chicago Democrat was issued as a daily under the editorship of John Wentworth, and in 1858 it was consolidated with the Tribune.

In 1835 T. O. Davis established the American as a weekly, which became an evening daily April 9, 1839, with Wm. Stuart as publisher. W. W. Brackett bought the Evening American in October, 1842, and changed its name to the Daily Express. In 1844, a company of Whigs bought the Express office and established the Daily Evening Journal, with R. L. Wilson as editor, the first number of which was issued April 22, of that year. This was the beginning of the present Chicago Evening Journal, with whose editorial management Andrew Shuman has been connected for thirty years. He became chief assistant editor in 1856, managing editor in 1861, and editor-inchief in 1878.

April 4, 1840, Charles N. Halcomb & Co. issued the Weekly Tribune, the first newspaper of that name in the United States. The first number of the Daily Tribune was issued July 10, 1847. Its owners were James Kelly, John E. Wheeler and J. C. K. Forrest, the two last named being the editors. August 23, 1848, John L. Scripps became editor and owner. In September, 1855, Dr. Charles H. Ray, J. C. Vaughn and J. Medill became editors, and continued as such until July 1, 1858, when the Democratic Press and the Tribune were consolidated. Dr. Ray, J. Medill, J. L. Scripps and Wm. Bross became the editors. In 1861, Mr. Scripps was appointed Postmaster of Chicago, when his editorial connection with the Tribune ceased. Horace White became editor of the Tribune January 20, 1867, and retired November 10, 1874, since which time J. Medill has been editor-in-chief. His brother, S. J. Medill, was managing editor from 1874 to the time of his death, which occurred in February, 1883.

Of the subsequent dailies in Chicago, which are now in existence, The Times was established in 1854, with James W. Sheahan editor, until 1861, when he was succeeded by W. F. Storey; the Illinois Staats Zeitung was established

in 1855; Demokrat, in 1870. John Y. Scammon established the Inter Ocean, in 1872, on the ruins of the Chicago Republican. In the latter part of that year the Inter Ocean was purchased by a stock company, and shortly after, William Penn Nixon became business manager, and subsequently secured a controlling interest, and the paper is now conducted under his direction. In 1870, the Neue Freie Presse was established; in 1875, the News; in 1876, the Arbeiter Zeitung, and in 1881, the Herald.

From first to last there have been printed many newspapers at the Capital, of which there are but seven in existence. The Illinois State Journal was established in 1831, under the name of Sangamo Journal; the first number of the Daily Journal was issued in 1848. The State Register was established at Vandalia in 1836, but was removed to Springfield when the capital was removed; the first number of the Daily Register was issued in 1848. The Illinois Freie Presse was established in 1872; the Sangamo Monitor, in 1873; the Daily Monitor, in 1877; the Staats Wochenblatt, in 1878; the Evening Post, in 1880, and the Saturday Mirror, in 1883.

Among the older weekly papers published in the interior portions of the State, we find the following: Journal, Jacksonville, established 1831; Gazette, Galena, 1834; Herald, Quincy, 1835; Telegraph, Alton, 1836; Tazewell County Republican, Pekin, 1836; Home Journal, Lacon, 1837; Whig, Quincy, 1837; Advocate, Belleville, 1839; Register, Mt. Carmel, 1839; Register, Rockford, 1840; Signal, Joliet, 1842; Republican, Ottawa, 1844; Lake County Patriot, Waukegan, 1845; Beacon, Aurora, 1846; Pontagraph, Bloomington, 1846; Gazette, Carrollton, 1846; Atlas, Monmouth, 1846.

Of the dailies in Illinois, outside of Chicago and Springfield, we find the following, as given in Rowell's Newspaper Directory for 1884. They are given chronologically:

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