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of the North and South, and these words were as prophetic as they were significant, and showed conclusively that Lincoln thought more of the true interests of his country than he did of his personal advancement politically.
On the 24th of July, Lincoln challenged Douglas to a joint discussion of the issues between the two parties, and after some circumlocution on the part of the great Senator, he accepted the challenge, suggesting seven meetings, naming Ottawa, Freeport, Jonesboro, Charleston, Galesburg, Quincy and Alton, reserving for himself four openings and closings. Lincoln accepted the proposition without delay and without ceremony. The debates were attended by thousands upon thousands of people, many of whom came from neighboring States, traveling hundreds of miles to witness the intellectual conflict between these great men. Indeed, the contest attracted the attention of the people of every State in the Union, and from that time to this our State has really been the central figure in National politics. This discussion even surpassed the campaign of Henry A. Wise against Native Americanism in Virginia. While it lasted, many people turned aside from their daily pursuits, and employed their time in watching and reading the progress of this most wonderful and exciting contest, which opened at Ottawa on the 21st of August, and closed at Alton on the 15th of October, occupying a period of fifty-six days. The debates were produced in book-form under the direction of their respective shorthand reporters, and we deem it but fit that we should reproduce one of their joint discussions in full, that the reader may form a better idea of the mental character of these grand men as they appeared before the country. We have selected the meeting which took place at Freeport on the 27th of August as the one which shall best serve that purpose, it being their second joint debate.
The interrogatories put to Douglas on that occasion by Lincoln undoubtedly had the effect to return Douglas to the Senate, and make Lincoln President.
Here is the correspondence which passed between them in relation to the joint debate:
MR. LINCOLN TO MR. DOUGLAS.
"CHICAGO, ILL., July 24, 1858. "HON. S. A. DOUGLAS-My Dear Sir: Will it be agreeable to you to make an arrangement for you and myself to divide time, and address the same audiences the present canvass? Mr. Judd, who will hand you this, is authorized to receive your answer; and, if agreeable to you, to enter into the terms of such agreement.
"Your obedient servant,
MR. DOUGLAS TO MR. LINCOLN.
"CHICAGO, ILL., July 24, 1858. "HON. A. LINCOLN-Dear Sir: Your note of this date, in which you inquire if it would be agreeable to me to make an arrangement to divide the time and address the same audiences during the present canvass, was handed me by Mr. Judd. Recent events have interposed difficulties in the way of such an arrangement.
"I went to Springfield last week for the purpose of conferring with the Democratic State Central Committee upon the mode of conducting the canvass, and with them, and under their advice, made a list of appointments covering the entire period until late in October. The people of the several localities have been notified of the times and places of the meetings. Those appointments have all been made for Democratic meetings, and arrangements have been made by which the Democratic candidates for Congress, for the Legislature, and other offices, will be present and address the people. It is evident, therefore, that these varicus candidates, in connection with myself, will occupy the whole time of the day and evening, and leave no opportunity for other speeches.
"Besides, there is another consideration which should be kept in mind. It has been suggested recently that an arrangement had been made to bring out a third candidate for the United States Senate, who, with yourself,
should canvass the State in opposition to me, with no other purpose than to insure my defeat, by dividing the Democratic party for your benefit. If I should make this arrangement with you, it is more than probable that this other candidate, who has a common object with you, would desire to become a party to it, and claim the right to speak from the same stand; so that he and you, in concert, might be able to take the opening and closing speech in every case.
"I cannot refrain from expressing my surprise, if it was your original intention to invite such an arrangement, that you should have waited until after I had made my appointments, inasmuch as we were both here in Chicago together for several days after my arrival, and again at Bloomington, Atlanta, Lincoln and Springfield, where it was well known I went for the purpose of consulting with the State Central Committee, and agreeing upon the plan of the campaign.
"While, under these circumstances, I do not feel at liberty to make any arrangements which would deprive the Democratic candidates for Congress, State offices, and the Legislature from participating in the discussion at the various meetings designated by the Democratic State Central Committee, I will, in order to accommodate you as far as it is in my power to do so, take the responsibility of making an arrangement with you for a discussion between us at one prominent point in each Congressional District in the State, except the second and sixth districts, where we have both spoken, and in each of which cases you had the concluding speech. If agreeable to you, I will indicate the following places as those most suitable in the several Congressional Districts at which we should speak, to-wit: Freeport, Ottawa, Galesburg, Quincy, Alton, Jonesboro and Charleston. I will confer with you at the earliest convenient opportunity in regard to the mode of conducting the debate, the times of meeting at the several places, subject to the condition, that where appointments have already been made by the Democratic State Central Committee at any of those places, I must insist upon you meeting me at the times specified.
"Very respectfully, your most obedient servant, "S. A. DOUGLAS."
MR. LINCOLN TO MR. DOUGLAS.
"SPRINGFIELD, July 29, 1858. "HON. S. A. DOUGLAS-Dear Sir: Yours of the 24th in relation to an arrangement to divide time, and address the same audiences, is received; and, in apology for not sooner replying, allow me to say, that when I sat by you at dinner yesterday, I was not aware that you had answered my note, nor, certainly, that my own note had been presented to you. An hour after, I saw a copy of your answer in the Chicago Times, and, reaching home, I found the original awaiting me. Protesting that your insinuations of attempted unfairness on my part are unjust, and with the hope that you did not very considerately make them, I proceed to reply. To your statement that 'It has been suggested, recently, that an arrangement had been made to bring out a third candidate for the United States Senate, who, with yourself, should canvass the State in opposition to me,' etc., I can only say that such suggestion must have been made by yourself, for certainly none such has been made by or to me, or otherwise, to my knowledge. Surely you did not deliberately conclude, as you insinuate, that I was expecting to draw you into an arrangement of terms, to be agreed on by yourself, by which a third candidate and myself, 'in concert, might be able to take the opening and closing speech in every case.'
"As to your surprise that I did not sooner make the proposal to divide time with you, I can only say, I made it as soon as I resolved to make it. I did not know but that such proposal would come from you. I waited, respectfully, to see. It may have been well known to you that you went to Springfield for the purpose of agreeing on the plan of campaign; but it was not so known to me. When your appointments were announced in the papers, extending only to the 21st of August, I, for the first time, considered it certain that you would make no proposal to me, and then resolved that, if my friends concurred, I would make one to you. As soon thereafter as I could see and consult with friends satisfactorily, I did make the proposal. It did not occur to me that the proposed arrangement could derange your plans after the latest of your appointments already made. After that, there was, before the election, largely over two months of clear time. "For you to state that we have already spoken at Chicago and Springfield, and that on both occasions I had the concluding speech, is hardly a fair statement. The truth,
rather, is this: At Chicago, July 9th, you made a carefully prepared conclusion on my speech of June 16th. Twenty-four hours after, I made a hasty conclusion on yours of the 9th. You had six days to prepare, and concluded on me again at Bloomington on the 16th. Twentyfour hours after, I concluded again on you at Springfield. In the meantime, you had made another conclusion on me at Springfield, which I did not hear, and of the contents of which I knew nothing when I spoke; so that your speech made in daylight, and mine at night, of the 17th, at Springfield, were both made in perfect independence of each other. The dates of making all these speeches will show, I think, that in the matter of time for preparation, the advantage has all been on your side, and that none of the external circumstances have stood to my advantage.
"I agree to an arrangement for us to speak at the seven places you have named, and at your own times, provided you name the times at once, so that I, as well as you, can have myself the time not covered by the arrangement. As to the other details, I wish perfect reciprocity, and no more. I wish as much time as you, and that conclusions shall alternate. That is all.
"Your obedient servant,
"A. LINCOLN." "P. S. As matters now stand, I shall be at no more of your exclusive meetings; and for about a week from to-day a letter from you will reach me at Springfield. "A. L."
MR. DOUGLAS TO MR. LINCOLN.
"PEMENT, PIATT Co., ILL., July 30, 1858.
"Dear Sir: Your letter, dated yesterday, accepting my proposition for a joint discussion at one prominent point in each Congressional District, as stated in my previous letter, was received this morning.
"The times and places designated are as follows:
18th, 7th, 13th,
"I agree to your suggestion that we open and close the discussion. I will
shall alternately speak at Ottawa