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for a series of years there was an open state of warfare existing between them and the "gentiles." Their leaders were repeatedly arrested for violations of law. In June, 1844, there was an uprising of the Mormons against the laws of the State, and Gov. Ford took the field in person, with a militia force, to keep the peace. Joseph Smith and Hiram, his brother, and two or three other leaders, were surrendered to the Governor, upon his pledge of the honor of the State that they should have a fair trial. They were lodged in jail at Carthage, but during the afternoon of June 27th, a mob of 200 disguised men assembled at the jail, overpowered the guard, and shot and killed both of the Smiths. (See Ford's History.)

At the death of Joseph Smith, Brigham Young was elected President, and he hurried forward the building of the great temple, which had been begun by Smith, but from that time forward there was a reign of terror in that section, and Nauvoo was fairly besieged. The temple was completed one day and demolished the next. The war was varied by arson and secret murder, on both sides. In January, 1846, the "high council" announced that a final home was to be sought beyond the Rocky Mountains. The emigration commenced in the following month, but in September, the impatient people of the neighborhood poured in and drove out the little remnant with fie and sword. They settled at Salt Lake, Utah, which was then a part of the possessions of Mexico, and since it became a Territory of the United States, the Mormons have given the General Government quite as much trouble as they gave Illinois.


The fifth State government was inaugurated December 3, 1834, with Joseph Duncan, of Morgan, as Governor; Alex. M. Jenkins, of Jackson, Lieutenant-Governor; Alex. P. Field, of Union, Secretary of State; James P. B. Stapp,

of Fayette, Auditor of Public Accounts; John Dement, of Franklin, Treasurer; Ninian W. Edwards, of Sangamon, Attorney-General.

The Ninth General Assembly convened December 1, 1834, and adjourned February 13, 1835. It convened again December 7, 1835, and adjourned January 18, 1836. Lieut.Gov. Jenkins presided over the Senate, and Leonard White was elected Secretary. James Semple was elected Speaker of the House, and David Prickett Clerk.

One of the eminent men of this General Assembly was Adam W. Snyder, of Belleville. He was the Democratic nominee for Governor in 1842, but died before the election, when Thomas Ford was nominated in his stead. He was buried at Belleville, and on his tombstone is inscribed these words: "Ye men of genius, tread lightly o'er his grave: he was your kinsman."

Thomas Mather was another member of this body who became widely known, and exercised a controlling influence in the political affairs of the State.


Like all the Territories of the United States, Illinois had her trials with the Indians, of which there were many tribes, whose conflicts among themselves were more frequent than with the whites, which kept the Territorial, State and National authorities under arms for many years in order to subdue them. In 1827, we had what is called the Winnebago War. In June of that year we had an engagement with the Winnebagoes in the Galena country, in which their Chief, Red Bird, was compelled to surrender, which terminated the war. Red Bird was kept in jail a long time, and we are told by Ford that he died in prison the victim of regret and sorrow for the loss of his liberty. The Black Hawk War, which is minutely described by Ford, prevailed from the spring of 1831 to

ugust 1832, and culminated in the battle of Bad Axe, on

the Mississippi river, August 2, in which the Indians were utterly routed. Black Hawk and a number of his tribe were taken prisoners, and afterward conveyed to Washington, where they had an interview with President Jackson, whom Black Hawk addressed as follows:


"I am a man and you are another. We did not expect to conquer the white people. I took up the hatchet to revenge injuries, which could no longer be borne. Had I borne them longer, my people would have said, Black Hawk is a squaw,-he is too old to be a chief,-he is no Sac. This caused me to raise the war-whoop. I say no more of it All is known to you. Keokuk once was here; you took him by the hand, and when he wanted to return you sent him back to his nation. Black Hawk expects that, like Keokuk, we will be permitted to return, too."

From Washington they were taken to Fortress Monroe, where they remained prisoners until the 4th of June, 1833, when they were returned to their own country, by order of the President. Black Hawk lived until the 3d of October, 1840, when he was gathered to his fathers at the age of eighty years, and was buried on the banks of the great river where he had spent most of his life.

The Winnebago War terminated under the Administration of Gov. Edwards, and the Black Hawk under that of Gov. Reynolds.

After the battle of Bad Axe the several Indian tribes turned their faces toward the setting sun, and we have now no visible recollections of them save through the mounds they builded, the counties, rivers, towns and cities which bear their names, and "Starved Rock," a most wonderful memento, which is situated on the east side of the Illinois river, a mile distant from Utica, LaSalle county. It stands two hundred feet above the level of the river, and its surface is equal to a half acre of ground, and is heavily studded with timber. It is perpendicular on all sides, except the southeast, where a natural rock stairway leads to the cavern, high up in the rock, which is capable of holding

many persons. Peck's Gazetteer of Illinois, issued in 1834, has this to say of an incident connected with this famous rock, and from which it derived its name:

"Tradition says that after the Illinois Indians had killed Pontiac, the French Governor, at Detroit, the northern Indians made war upon them. A band of the Illinois, in attempting to escape, took shelter on this rock, which they soon made inaccessible to their enemies, and where they were closely besieged. They had secured provisions, but their only resource for water was by letting down vessels with bark ropes to the river. The wily besiegers contrived to come in canoes under the rock and cut off their buckets, by which means the unfortunate Illinois were starved to death. Many years after, their bones were whitening on this summit."


The Tenth General Assembly convened December 15, 1846, and adjourned March 6, 1837. It convened again July 10, 1837, and adjourned July 22, 1837. Lieut-Gov. Jenkins having resigned, William H. Davidson was elected President pro tempore of the Senate, and Jesse B. Thomas, Jr., Secretary. James Semple was elected Speaker of the House, and David Prickett Clerk.

This was the General Assembly which put in operation the Internal Improvement system of 1837, of which we speak in detail in a subsequent chapter. In this body were many able, intellectual men. In the Senate, O. H. Browning, Cyrus Edwards, William J. Gatewood and John Whiteside; and in the House, Edward D. Baker, John Dement, John Dougherty, Stephen A. Douglas, Jesse K. Dubois, Ninian W. Edwards, Wm. L. D. Ewing, Augustus C. French, John J. Hardin, Abraham Lincoln, U. F. Linder, John A. McClernand, William A. Richardson, James Semple and James Shields,-all of whom afterward won distinction.

We have spoken elsewhere of most all these men, and will be excused if we digress to say a word of Col. Edward D. Baker, who was born in England, brought to this country when a child, and was early left an orphan in Philadelphia. His father was a weaver, and when a boy he worked at that business himself. He obtained an education under many difficulties; first studied for the ministry, but soon turned his attention to the law, becoming famous as an advocate. He was serving in Congress when the Mexican war ensued, but resigned his seat and went to Mexico as a Colonel of volunteers, acquitting himself with credit at the battle of Cerro Gordo. On his return to Illinois he was re-elected to Congress from the Galena district. In 1852, he settled in San Francisco, devoting himself to his profession; he subsequently removed to Oregon, which State he represented as a Senator in Congress, taking his seat in March, 1861. At the outbreak of the Rebellion he raised a regiment, and while gallantly leading it in battle at Leesburg, Virginia, against a superior force, he was shot from his horse and killed, October 21, 1861. Col. Baker was a man of great intellectual ability, and in his day was not excelled as an orator.

Governor Duncan was born in Kentucky in 1790; he was self-educated; was an ensign at the brilliant defense of Fort Stephenson under Col. Croghan, for which he received from Congress the testimonial of a sword, February 13, 1835. He settled in Illinois, and was soon elected Major-General of Militia. Prior to his election as Governor, he was a Senator in the Legislature, and originated the law which established common schools in the State, and was a Representative in Congress from 1827 to 1835, resigning his seat to become Governor. He died at Jacksonville, Florida, January 15, 1844.

Jesse B. Thomas, Jr., became Attorney-General February 12, 1835; Walter B. Scates succeeded him January

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