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Formation into a Territory, 427. Formation of Legislative Dis-
tricts, 429. First Territorial Legislature, 429. Second Territorial
Legislature, 430. Third Territorial Legislature, 431. Monument
to Menard, 432. Daniel P. Cook, 433.
Constitutional Convention, 433. Peculiarities of the Constitution,
434. Negroes and Mulattoes, 434. Boundaries of the State, 434.
First General Assembly-1818-20, 435. First Election of United
Kaskaskia-Vandalia- Springfield-Population of Kaskaskia in
1820-Population now- An Island of the Mississippi-Towns
which wanted the Capital-When removed from Vandalia.
Bank at Shawneetown with capital of $300,000, 440. Bank with
$4,000,000 capital, 440. Final result of the system, 441. First Can-
vass before the people for Governor, 443. Total Vote of the State,
6,309, 443. Election of Gov. Coles by a plurality of 50, 445.
Gov. Coles on Titles, 447. Gen. Lafayette's visit to Illinois, 447.
Shawneetown in 1817, 448.
CHAPTER IX-Tenth General Assembly-1824-26...
Retirement of Gov. Coles, 450.
CHAPTER X-Slavery in Illinois...
When and how Slaves were held in Illinois. 450. Gallatin County
made an Exception in the Constitution, 451. An attempt in 1822 to
make Illinois a Slave State, 452. Vote of the House of Represent-
atives on the Question, 453. A hot Campaign before the People,
454. Vote of the State against Slavery, 455.
CHAPTER XIV-Alton as a Rival to St. Louis, 460. Massacre at Mas-
sac, 461. One of the Landmarks of 1837, 462.
CHAPTER XV-State Government-1830-34..
CHAPTER XVI-Progress in Schools.......
Novel School Laws, 465. School Tax paid in Produce. 465. Alton
the first to establish a Free School, 461, Normal Schools, 467.
Colleges, 468. State Teachers' Association, 468. Prominent Edu-
cators, 469. Superintendents of Public Instruction, 469. School
CHAPTER XVII-Eighth General Assembly-1832-34.
Governor Reynolds, 470. Mormon War, 471. Killing of Joseph
and Hiram Smith, 472. Destruction of the Mormon Temple, 472.
Mormons decide to seek a home beyond the Rocky Mountains,
472. Expulsion of the Mormons from the State, 472. State Gov-
ernment-1834-38, 472. Adam Snyder, 473. Thomas Mather, 473.
Indian Wars, 473. Capture and Death of Red Bird, 473. Capture
and Death of Black Hawk, 474. Starved Rock, 475. Tenth Gen-
eral Assembly, 1836-38, 475. Col. Edward D. Baker, 476.
Duncan, 476. First and only Duel in Illinois, 477. State Govern-
How a Challenge was Avoided, 479. Twelfth General Assembly-
1840-42, 480, Chicago, 481. First Newspaper in Chicago, 481. Chi-
cago a part of Pike county, 481. First Railroad, 482. First Mayor,
482. State Government-1842-46, 483.
CHAPTER XIX-Murder of Rev. Elijah P. Lovejoy
Establishment of his Press in St. Louis, 484. Its Removal to Al-
ton, 484. Its Destruction by a Mob, 484. Re-establishment of the
Paper, 484. An Attempt to Tar and Feather Lovejoy, 485. Meet-
ing of the Citizens of Alton to Compel him to Abandon the Publi-
cation of his Paper, 485. A Brave Speech in Self-Defense, 486.
Murder of Lovejoy and Destruction of his Fourth and Last Press,
490. His Funeral, 492. Monument to his Memory, 493.
CHAPTER XX-Fourteenth General Assembly-1844-46.....
McDougall, 494. Administration of Gov. Ford, 494. Mexican War,
State Government-1846-49, 496. Constitutional Conven-
tion, 1847, 496. Peculiar Features of the Constitution, 498. Salaries
of State officers, 498. Article Relating to Negroes and Mulattoes,
498. State Government-1849-53, 499.
CHAPTER XXI-Internal Improvement System of 1837...
Appointment of Fund Commissioners, 501. Illinois and Michigan
Canal, 500. Board of Public Works, 501. System of Railroads,
502. Mail Routes, 502. Improvement of the Rivers, 502. $10,607,000
Appropriated by the General Assembly for Public Improvements,
502. Who Voted for the Bill, 502. Who Voted against the Bill, 502.
Bankruptcy, 503. General Assembly 1850–52, 504. Gov. French,
CHAPTER XXII-Our First Railroads........
Gov. Duncan's Opposition to Railroads, 505. Senator Gatewood's
Opposition, 507. Report of Committee favor Canals in Preference
to Railroads, 507. Number of Miles of Railway, 511. Number of
Miles of Canal, 511. Amount of Taxes Paid by Illinois Central
Railway, 511. Amount Paid by other Railways in 1883, 511. Gov.
Duncan's Problem Solved, 511. State Government 1853–57, 511.
Passage of the Black Laws, 512.
First Newspapers in Illinois, 512. First Books Printed, 513. Print-
ing Presses Then and Now, 514. First Daily Papers, 515, Chicago
Papers, 514. Papers at the Capital, 516. Weekly Journals, 516.
Interior Dailies, 516. Eminent Journalists, 518.
CHAPTER XXIV-Nineteenth General Assembly 1854-56........
Election of Lyman Trumbull to the United States Senate, 519.
Why Lincoln was not Elected, 520. Railroads, 520, Illinois had
but one Railroad in 1841, 520. Now she has 56, 520. More miles of
Railway than any State in the Union. 522. Manufacturing and
Mining, 522. Physical Resources, 523. Primitive Mode of Farm-
ing, 53. Public Charities, 524. Judiciary, 525.
10-Coles.- From Washburne's Sketch of Coles, by
Jansen, McClurg & Co., Chicago.
Formation of Parties-First Election of Washington without Political Sig
nificance-Election of John Adams as a Federalist-Jefferson Elected as a Republican-Madison as a Republican-Monroe as a Republican-John Quincy Adams as a Coalitionist-Jackson as a Democrat-Van Buren as & Democrat-Harrison as a Whig-Polk as a Democrat-Taylor as a Whig-Pierce as a Democrat-Buchanan as a Democrat-Only Presidents Elected by the flouse of Representatives-National ConventionsFederal Party-Democratic -National Republican-Whig-AbolitionFree Soil-Know-Nothing-Native American-Republican-Slavery Question-Election of Bissell-Dred Scott Decision-Repeal of the Missouri Compromise-Attempt to make Kansas a Slave State.
In order to intelligently lay the foundation of our history, POLITICS AND POLITICIANS OF ILLINOIS, which begins in 1856 with the campaign in which the Republican party was organized, a brief retrospect reference is made to National politics.
Historians are not agreed as to the exact time of the formation of political parties in the United States, but it is accepted that Washington, the first President, was elected in 1789 without political significance, and that at his second election, in 1792, he was denominated a Federalist. In 1796, John Adams, his successor, was elected as a Federalist. In 1800, Thomas Jefferson was elected as a Republican. There was a tie in the Electoral College between him and Aaron Burr, and the election was carried to the House of Representatives. Jefferson was elected President and Burr Vice-President. In 1804, Jefferson succeeded himself as a Republican. In 1808, James Madison was elected as a Republican. In 1812, he succeeded himself as a Republican.