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any part in the controversy. The reasons for this forbearance are three : First, that so far as spiritual or ecclesiastical matters enter into the question they are beyond your province, for you are a political representative only. Second, so far as it is a question affecting the Roman States it is a domestic one, and we are a foreign nation. Third, so far as it is a political question merely, it is at the same time purely an European one, and you are an American minister, bound to avoid all entangling connexion with the politics of that continent.
This line of conduct will nevertheless allow you to express, and you are therefore instructed to express, to His Holiness the assurances of the best wishes of the government and of the people of the United States for his health and happiness, and for the safety and prosperity and happiness of the Roman people. And you will further assure him that the United States constantly preserves a lively remembrance of the many generous and liberal manifestations they have received of his good will and friendship, and that he may confidently rely upon them for the practice of all the duties which grow out of the relations of the two countries as independent members of the family of nations.
You will find Rome a resort and temporary residence of intellectual persons from all parts of the world. Among them are many who, in various degrees, exercise an influence upon the opinions, and, perhaps in some cases, upon the policies of nations. It will be a pleasing duty for you at this moment, when our unhappy domestic conflict is a subject of universal discussion, to vindicate the justice, the wisdom, and the moderation of the government and loyal people of the United States against those who, from interest, prejudice, or passion, are directing their efforts to the overthrow of a republic which, we must continue to think, still holds in its keeping the best hopes of the human race. I am, sir, your obedient servant,
WILLIAM H. SEWARD. RICHARD M. BLATCHFORD, Esq., &c., c., &c.
Mr. Seward to Mr. Blatchford. No. 3.
DEPARTMENT OF STATE,
Washington, October 13, 1862. Sir: A despatch which bears the date of September 16 has been received from our consul, Mr. Stillman, who, for some time has been performing the duties of the legation at Rome.
The President learns, with much satisfaction, from that paper that the interruptions of the public peace have ceased, and that tranquility prevails at that capital.
The conversation with Cardinal Antonelli, which Mr. Stillman reports, is full of interest. The good wishes expressed by that statesman are such as this government expected from him, and his convictions that in rejecting all ideas of concession or compromise with our domestic enemies this govern. ment is pursuing its proper and necessary policy are as creditable to his Eminence as they are gratifying to the United States
The military situation of the country has much improved within the few days which have elapsed since your departure, and the public mind has be come more tranquil and confident of ultimate success. I am your obedient servant,
WILLIAM H. SEWARD. RICHARD M. BLATCHFORD, Esq., fr., Sc., &c., Rome.
Mr. Thayer to Mr. Scward.
UNITED STATES Consulate General.,
Alexandria, November 13, 1861. Sir: I have the honor to announce that the viceroy of Egypt has again shown his good will to the United States, by directing the captain of the port of Alexandria to exclude all vessels bearing an unrecognized flag from the harbors of Egypt. Instructions to this effect, I am informed by the minister of foreign affairs, were issued about two weeks ago, in consequence of a suggestion addressed to his highness by this consulate general. At an interview which I had with him on the 3d instant, at Cairo, his highness also assured me that no privateer in the service of the domestic enemies of the United States will be allowed to be fitted out, or to bring its prizes in any port of his dominions.
The following passages, translated from a note sent to me by his excellency Nubar Bey, in behalf of the viceroy, show that in the facilities for obtaining Egyptian cotton our manufacturers are placed on an equal footing with those of Great Britain. The note is dated October 18th, and is in reply to some inter| rogatories which I had verbally made to the secretary.
· MONSIEUR Le Consul GÉNÉRAL: I have had the honor to report to his highness, conformably to your desire, what you have said to me on the subject of the words addressed by his highness to the deputation of the Manchester Association for the Extension of the Culture of Cotton.
"His highness has charged me to inform you, Monsieur, that what he has said for any association which may be formed in England, for the above mentioned purpose, he says equally to any which your countrymen may organize."
At the interview to which I have referred the viceroy repeated this assurance in person to me, saying that he had never intended to exclude my compatriots from an equal share in the privileges accorded to the capitalists of Great Britain.
I may add that at the same interview his highness manifested the liveliest interest in our national affairs, the journals, as he said, being filled with nothing else.
He seemed to appreciate the difference in resources between the government and its enemies, and had no doubt that the government, sustained as it was by so large a majority of the people, would successfully quell the insurrection, though, in consequence of the extent of our southern territory, the contest might be protracted, His highness approved the large scale of our military preparations, saying that the only policy was to push the war, once begun, vigorously to the end, and that half-way measures were as bad in war as in anything else.
The viceroy, who is the son of the celebrated Mehemet Ali, may speak with hereditary authority on questions of this kind. It was very plain, from the tone of his remarks, that our government has lost none of its prestige in his estimation.
A significant piece of news here is that the receipt of intelligence that a squad ron had been sent, by the authorities at Washington, to open the southern ports caused cotton to fall in one day from twenty-five dollars to twenty-one dollars a cantar, (hundred weight.) Twenty-five dollars a cantar is the highest price ever known in Egypt. Prior to this time, the highest figure was twenty-three dollars, the result of the Crimean war. The price is now about eighteen or nineteen dollars the cantar.
The Englishmen have begun to make advances to fellahs on the security of their coming cotton crops, in accordance with the concessions of the viceroy. I have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servant,
WM. S. THAYER. Hon. WILLIAM H. Seward, Secretary of State.
Mr. Thayer to Mr. Seward.
UNITED States CONSULATE GENERAL.,
Alexandria, November 26, 1861. SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of the despatch of October 9, (No. 4,) in which you are pleased to testify the government's approbation of my proceedings for the punishment of the outrage inflicted by the mob of Osint on an agent of the American missionaries here.
I have also the honor to send herewith the reply of Mohammed Said, viceroy of Egypt, to the letter of the President of the United States, accompany. ing your despatch of October 9, as well as the letter of the viceroy's minister of foreign affairs, on the subject of excluding privateers from the harbors of Egypt. It will be seen that the viceroy's order of exclusion applies expressly not to all privateers, but only to privateers and vessels bearing an unrecognized flag, so that our domestic enemies are thus deprived of those belligerent rights which are very properly accorded to ourselves. The government of his highness is too friendly to the United States to affect not to know the difference in the status of the two contending parties in our civil contest. Copies of the letters of the viceroy and of his minister (marked A and B) are appended to this despatch. I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
WM. S. THAYER. Hon. W. H. SEWARD,
Secretary of State, Washington, D. C.
HONORABLE SIR AND FRIEND: Mr. Thayer, consul general of the United States at Alexandria, has presented me the letter you were pleased to write me expressing your feelings of satisfaction for the punishment which I have inflicted on some individuals guilty of evil and cruel treatment towards an agent of certain Christian missionaries in Upper Egypt.
Mr. Thayer, who, I am happy to say, entertains with me the most friendly relations, had already expressed to me the feelings of your government.
In this case, honorable sir and friend, I have only executed the rule which I
have always endeavored to follow in protecting in an equal way, and without consideration of creed, all those who, either by inclination or for the fulfilment of a duty, sojourn in the country submitted to my administration.
I am profoundly sensible of the friendly manner in which you express your sentiments both to myself and to my government, and I pray you, honorable sir and friend, to accept with this offering of my thanks my sincere wishes for the success, perpetuity, and integrity of the American Union, which, I hope, under your able presidency, will soon see an end of the trials with which the Almighty has been pleased to afflict it. Your most devoted friend,
MOHAMMED SAID. Hon. ABRAHAM LINCOLN,
President of the United States of America.
ALEXANDRIA, November 21, 1861. MONSIEUR LE CONSUL GÉNÉRAL: In addition to my private letter in reply to your communication of the 19th of October last, respecting the foreign vessels which may present themselves in the neighborhood of Alexandria under an unrecognized flag, I have the honor to inform you that the order of his highness the viceroy is that the captain of the port of this city shall notify them to remain outside of the said port until he can receive instructions from the local government on the subject; that whether they conform to that injunction or enter the harbor notwithstanding such notice, official information shall be taken from each of the consulates general residing in Egypt, and that if the nationality of these vessels be not owned by either one of them they shall be excluded from the port, in accordance with the rules in force.
Be pleased to accept, monsieur le consul général, the assurances of my high consideration.
The Minister of Foreign Affairs. Monsieur Wm. L. THAYER,
Consul General of the United States of America, Alexandria.
Mr. Thayer to Mr. Seward.
UNITED STATES CONSULATE GENBRAL,
Alexandria, March 13, 1862. SIR: The agitation so adverse to American shipping, caused by the presence of the privateer Sumter in these waters, has sensibly diminished, owing to the arrival of federal men-of-war off Gibraltar. The recognition by European powers of the efficiency of our blockade, coupled with the late brilliant successes of our army at home, has also been most auspicious.
Public opinion here, which was somewhat unfavorably affected by the pro-. longation of our domestic struggle, has taken a better turn. This desirable result is enhanced by the publication of the State Department's correspondence with foreign powers, which has dissipated many prevalent errors as to the nature and pretensions of our government, and as to the purpose and ability of our nation to maintain its integrity. The enlightenment of mankind on this subject
will not be the smallest compensation for the evils which the insurrection has brought upon us. Many intelligent and influential Europeans are constantly passing through or sojourning here, and Egypt, therefore, affords excellent opportunities to obtain the average sense of the civilized world on our affairs.
Apprehensions of privateers having to some extent subsided, all but two of the American ships freighted here have cleared. Cotton, in consequence of expected peace in the United States, has fallen, and is now quoted at $15 the cantar.
The Prince of Wales, who arrived about three weeks ago, is in Upper Egypt. He was received with hospitalities by the government at Cairo, the prince making the first call at the palace of the viceroy.
An invitation to the viceroy to be present at the Great Industrial Exhibition at London, in May, has been accepted, and his highness has contributed to the exhibition from the agricultural and manufacturing products of Egypt.
A new railway, the carriages to be drawn by horses, is in process of construction from Alexandria to Ramleh, a sea-side resort some five miles from here. Thence it will, perhaps, be extended to Rosetta. Both in its charter and in common parlance it is known by the name of “The American Railway.” It is the first of its kind attempted in Africa.
The American missionaries are putting in order the very large and handsome building (referred to in my despatch No. 12) which has been granted to them in fee simple by the viceroy. It fronts the Esbekieh, or public square of Cairo, the most eligible part of the city. It comprises not less than twenty-five spacious rooms, three of them measuring forty-five feet by sixteen each, and the estimated value of the property is not far from $50,000.
I mention this as an event which strongly testifies to the respect felt for the American name by the government of Egypt. The first motive of the gift was a suggestion made by this consulate general to the viceroy, that American missionaries had not shared in the bounty so generously accorded by his highness to the religious missionaries of Europe. There is no ground for such a remark now. I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
WM. S. THAYER. Hon. Wm. H. SEWARD,
Secretary of State, Washington, D. C.
Mr. Seward to Mr. Thayer.
DEPARTMENT OF STATE,
Washington, April 8, 1862. SIR: Your despatch of March 13 (No. 17) has been received.
The President is highly gratified with the information it brings concerning the liberality exercised by his highness the Pacha to American citizens and American missionaries.
The sensible relief of our merchants and seamen from their recent apprehensions of danger to our shipping in the Mediterranean comes home to us as a new argument to re-enforce the determination of the government to maintain the integrity of the republic. The progress of the Union forces continues to be eminently successful. I am, sir, your obedient servant,
WILLIAM H. SEWARD. Wu. S. THAYER, Esq., &c., &c., &c., Alexandria.