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addition to the main guard-house at the church, each equidistant from the main guard and the bunds, for the accommodation of the sentries.
That the whole line shall be flanked by block-houses at either end, one covering the bridge by Smith's market over the Yang-king-pang, the other on the bund of the Soochow creek. These blockhouses to consist of an upper chamber supported on posts, with the space below enclosed by barricades after the manner of the street barricades, with double gates, and forming a small fort when closed.
3. That the line of the Shakloo road shall be opened through to the Soochow creek, by the aid of the Chinese authorities, where the land belongs to Chinese, and under the provisions in the land regulations, where owned by foreigners, compensation being made for the houses, but not for the land, as the owners will be fully repaid by the increased value of that which is left.
That barricades similar to those on the Barrier road shall be crected at the opening of each street towards the west as it leaves the Shakloo road. Any open spaces, or unsubstantial houses, or lanes or alleys, to be closed by rough palisades of Chinese poles.
4. That on the outer line of defence the creek shall be widened from opposite the Ningpo Joss House, at the NW. angle of the city wall, along the whole length, to 50 feet at the top, with sides sloping at an angle of 45 degrees, and the creek be carried through to the Soochow creek in the same line.
That along this line, then extending from the city wall to the Soochow creek, there shall be a bund of 40 feet width, and three drawbridges across the creek at suitable points.
5. That this line shall be fortified by three low towers, 12 feet high on 4-feet foundation, ultimately to be built of hewn stone, placed equidistant between the city wall and the Soochow creek, each tower mounted with one 32-pound shell gun upon a pivot, and traversing in all directions.
But as these will be some time in construction, that three temporary towers of Singapore timber, properly braced and protected, shall be at once erected for use meantime.
6. That a hulk shall be purchased to serve as a magazine for the warlike munitions of the settlement, and anchored in a safe place below the shipping.
7. That as these various means of defence will be of a permanent character, and will need oversight when not in active use, to preserve from decay and injury, that a reserved fund shall be devoted to this purpose and placed in the
bank on interest, the income serving to meet the expenses. The estimated cost of these measures is as follows:
T'ls. Eighteen barricades in the Barrier and Shakloo roads, 350 tls. each.. 6, 300 Two block-houses-one 3,000, one 2,000...
5, 000 Opening the Shakloo..
10,000 Extra barricades on the Shakloo road.
Making on the inner line... Three towers of wood—3,000 each.
9,000 Deepening and extending the creek, including purchase of land 10,000
19, 000 1,500
Three drawbridges, 10 feet wide_500 tls..
feet thick-5,000 each...
15, 000 2,000 3,000 20,000
We think the time required for these defences, excluding the stone towers, would be from four to six weeks.
We recommend these measures of defence for your acceptance with confidence, for they were mainly suggested, and have been again approved, by the military authorities as entirely sutticient for the repulse of any Chinese force, while they are the most economical works for their efficiency which could be constructed. There is nothing wasted in useless strength where it is not wanted.
It is not supposed that any attacking force would penetrate beyond the outer line; and the barricades and blockhouses are mainly to control the native population from the effect of a panic, and to put down with greater ease any internal disorder which might arise in concert with an attacking force.
The settlement would be divided by these two inner lines into three equal sections, each extending longitudinally from creek to creek. The residents in each would be confined within their own section, and the fearful rush of an immense body of panic-struck people be effectually prevented. These lines, it is presumed, would be guarded by the volunteers and police-lier Majesty's troops being altogether upon the line of outer defences.
The question of ways and means for these defences has had the earnest atten. tion of the committee. While well aware of the readiness of the community to meet any just demands upon them for the general welfare, as shown lately in the response to the call for subscriptions for the volunteer movement, they were unanimous from the commencement in thinking that this charge should be borne solely by the Chinese.
The imperial government being bound by treaty and by the usages of nations to afford us protection, it strengthens rather than invalidates our claim upon it for these expenses that we have taken upon ourselves the charge which their incapacity abandons to our hands. It was intimated to us by her Majesty's consul
claim would be acknowledged by the Taoutai of Shanghai ; but at the same time we learned from unquestionable sources that the native merchants and bankers, now congregated in great numbers within the Yang-king-pang, would readily furnish the necessary means if some mode of contribution was suggested. For reasons unnecessary to state here, it is as repugnant to the foreign residents as to the Chinese to allow the Taoutai any influence within the bounds of the foreign settlement, beyond the collection of the dues to his government, and we encouraged the disposition thus evinced. A deputation accordingly met the committee, learned our views, and agreed to call a consoo of the principal Chinese in the different departments of trade, that the matter might be properly discussed, and the contribution, if made, justly apportioned.
Some difficulty has been experienced in determining upon this apportionment, and a conclusion has not yet been reached, not because of any indisposition on the part of the Chinese residents to meet the exigency, but through desire that those benefitted should all and equally contribute according to their means.
The committee have not thought it advisable to delay their report in consequence, as they have full confidence that the amount required will be furnished without recourse to the Taoutai.
Mr. Seward to Mr. Burlingame.
DEPARTMENT OF STATE,
Washington, March 6, 1862. Sir: Your despatch of December 24th, No. 6, has been received. It gives us an account of the capture and occupation of the city of Ningpo by rebels, and of the proceedings adopted on that occasion by the American consul there in concert with the British and French representatives.
No one here could draw any inference of the condition of things at Ningpo now, from even the fullest information of what it was so long ago. Revolutions are apt to effect sudden and even great changes in very short periods. In such a case you ought not to be trammelled with arbitrary instructions, especially in view of the peculiar character and habits of the Chinese people and government. In a different case the President would certainly instruct you to refrain most carefully from adopting -any means which might disturb the confidence of the imperial government or give it any cause of solicitude, even though it might seem to be required for the safety of the property and interests of American citizens. But how can we know here what ability the imperial government may have, or even what disposition, to extend the protection to foreigners which it had stipulated ? Nevertheless I think that it is your duty to act in the spirit which governs us in our intercourse with all friendly nations, and especially to lend no aid, encouragement, or countenance to sedition or rebellion against the imperial authority. This direction, however, must not be followed so far as to put in jeopardy the lives or property of American citizens in China. Great Britain and France are not only represented in China by diplomatic agents, but their agents are supported by land and naval forces, while, unfortunately, yon are not. The interests of this country in China, so far as I understand them, are identical with those of the two other nations I have mentioned. There is no reason to doubt that the British and French ministers are acting in such a manner as will best promote the interests of all the western nations. You are therefore instructed to consult and co-operate with them, unless, in special cases, there shall be very satisfactory reasons for separating from them, and in every aspect of affairs you will keep me well advised. Our domestic affairs are improving very rapidly, and I trust we shall soon be able to send a war steamer to your support. I am, sir, your obedient servant,
WILLIAM H. SEWARD. ANSON BURLINGAME, Esq., 8c., &c., Sc.
Mr. Burlingame to Mr. Seward.
SHANGHAI, March 22, 1862. SIR: I have the honor to inform you that receiving notice last month from Messrs. Olyphant & Co., depositaries of claims at Hong Kong, that there was a sufficient sum in their hands to pay all that was due on the awards made by the commissioners of claims, I directed Mr. Williams to superintend the payment of same to the claimants. This he did to the amount of $37,176 15, leaving a balance in the hands of the depositaries of $5,471 93. The entire amount of the awards was $489,694 78, which has been rateably paid to the claimants, in five instalments, within less than two years.
As to the disposition of the balance in hand, with that yet to be derived from the Chinese government through customs received at the port of Canton alone, probably within two or three years, I will take the liberty in an early despatch of making such suggestions as shall occur to me.
The rebellion still ragns, but as yet it has made no direct assault upon Sbang. hai. Since the 22 of February, six battles have been fought within thirty miles of this place, with great loss to the rebels. This is the order in which they occurred : Yankin-dong, Tai-mosan, Kon-jon, Seo-dong, Suk-kein, and Chuk. kein. At Kon-jon the English and French participated, acting as a reserve to Colonel Ward. They were commanded by Admirals Hope and Protet. Chnkkein was fought by her Majesty's gunboat Flamer. Without giving you all the details of these battles, I will write, in general terms, that while there were not more than twelve hundred men at any one time on the side of the imperialists, there were said to be from five to twenty thousand men on the side of the rebels; and while the rebels are superior to the imperial soldiers in this part of the empire, and nearly always beat them when the imperialists are led by native officers, they are unequal to the Chinese trained and led by Europeans or Americans. They were beaten in every battle with great slaughter.
Admiral Hope informs me that he was astonished at the courage of the Chinese, led by Colonel Ward at Kon-jon. It is thought by many that they are superior to the sepoys, and that they, when properly instructed, will not only be capable of detending themselves, but equal to aggressive war. I send you a copy of a communication, marked A, received from Sieh, lieutenant governor of the province of Kiang-sce, informing me that the imperialists propose to attack Ning-po, now in the hands of the rebels, and requesting me to give notice to my countrymen, so that they may avoid the “flying balls," and find means of escape, lest “ pearls and stones” may be destroyed together. I am happy to call your attention to another communication from Sieh, containing the gratify. ing information that the Emperor, on the 21st of the first moon, (February 19,) gave his consent that the ports of Tung-chow and New-chang should be open for the export of beans and bean-cakes. The trade in these is very large and important to our shipping interests, and by the 5th article of the supplementary treaty was not permitted to foreigners.
I have appointed Franklin B. Forbes acting consul at Tein-Tsin. This nearly completes the appointments necessary for the conducting of our business at the treaty ports. I have taken great care to recommend no one to the government who was not strongly recominended and thought to be worthy of the place for which he was selected. It is quite difficult to get men without pay to take those places, and yet our increasing trade renders it highly important that we should have consuls at all the treaty ports, and that these should not be mere adventurers. I have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servant,
A. BURLINGAME. Hon. William H. SEWARD,
Secretary of State.
Sieh, lieutenant governor of the province of Kiang-see, hereby begs to inform your excellency that he has received a despatch from his government, through the minister of foreign affairs, in reference to the occupation of Ningpo, in the province of Cheh Kiang, by robbers; and I am ordered at once to raise troops for the purpose of hemming them in and destroying them. This renders necessary for the foreign merchants, resident at Ningpo, to remove to a distance in order to secure their own safety. A communication has been addressed to the
representative of England requesting him to give instructions to the English consul at Ningpo to take necessary measures to secure this object.
I am also instructed to furnish your excellency with a copy of that communication, that you also may take such measures as are necessary on this account.
Ningpo being in the hands of the robbers, it is necessary that the imperial armies should immediately take means for their destruction. Merchants and others of your honorable countrymen residing there should act in accordance with the suggestion of the Chinese minister of foreign affairs, in the communication referred to, and remove, at once, to a distance, in order that they may secure their own safety. I therefore enclose herewith a copy of the communication to the English minister, in order that your excellency may issue such instructions as you may think proper to the consul at Ningpo, so that the American residents there may remove to a distance.
I shall be glad to receive an early reply.
Communication from the minister of foreign affairs to the British minister.
The minister of foreign affairs would inform the English minister that information has been received of the occupation of the city of Ningpo by robbers. It may be difficult to prevent them from extending their power and collecting vessels so as to obtain possession of other ports on the sea-coast. It will therefore be necessary to guard with the greatest vigilance the ports in the vicinity of Ningpo, and the officers in command of the imperial troops are to collect their forces and station them in such places as may be necessary to repel the robbers.
The vessels of foreign countries therefore cannot enter and depart. Ningpo being already in the hands of the robbers, it is all the more necessary to exterminate them; therefore military officers cannot but endeavor to accomplish it to the utmost of their power. It is therefore inconvenient, on many accounts, for vessels of your
honorable country to frequent this port. Hereafter, if our soldiers should come together in clouds and engage the robbers, there would be great danger of these vessels being injured by the flying balls. If notice should be given beforehand of the approach of an attacking force, it might come to the knowledge of the robbers and put them on their guard against it. Should I not give previous notice to the merchants, then the vessels might not at the time of the attack be able to find means of escape, so that pearls and stones might be burnt up together, i. e. good and [bad) men be alike destroyed. The merchants have brought their property from a great distance. Would it not be lamentable if they should be involved in such calamity? Out of regard for the interests of the merchants I make this communication to your excellency, in order that you may communicate with the consul, and take such measures as you deem proper to enable the merchants to escape to a distance in good time.
I should be glad of an early reply.
Sich, licutenant governor of the province of Kiangsu, has received a communication from the minister of foreign affairs to the following effect:
According to the fifth article of the treaty foreign vessels are not permitted to load at the ports of Tung-chow and New-chang with beans and bean-cakes;