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ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA.

LOO

00 (formerly called LANTERLOO), a round game of from five to seven makes the best game. "Three-card loo" is the game usually played. A pack of fifty-two cards is required. The players being seated, the pack is shuffled and a card dealt face upwards to each. The player to whom a knave falls has the first deal, the player to his left deals next, and so on in rotation. Each player is entitled to a deal, i.e., the game should not be abandoned till it returns to the original dealer; but, if there is a loo in the last deal of a round, the game continues till there is a hand without a loo. The pack is cut to the dealer, who deals three cards to each player and an extra hand called miss. The dealer turns up the top of the undealt cards for trumps. The dealer is sometimes permitted to deal the cards in any order he pleases; but the best rule is to require that the cards be dealt one at a time in rotation, as at whist. During the deal each player contributes to the pool a sum previously agreed upon, the dealer contributing double. The unit for a single stake should be divisible by three without a remainder, e.g., three counters or three pence. The players are bound to put in the stake before the deal is completed; sometimes a penalty is enforced for neglect. The deal being completed and the pool formed, each player in rotation, beginning from the dealer's left, looks at his cards, and declares whether he will play, resign, or take miss. If the former, he says "I play." If he takes miss he places his cards face downwards in the middle of the table, and takes up the extra hand. If he resigns, he similarly places his cards face downwards in the middle of the table. If miss is taken, the subsequent players only have the option of playing or resigning. A player who takes miss must play. Those who have declared to play, and the one-if there is one-who has taken miss, then play one card each in rotation, beginning from the dealer's left, the cards thus played constituting a trick The trick is won by the highest card of the suit led, or, if trumped, by the highest trump, the cards ranking as at whist. The winner of the trick leads to the next, and so on, until the hand is played out. The cards remain face upwards in front of the persons playing them.

Rules of Play.-If the leader holds ace of trumps he must lead it (or king, if ace is turned up). If the leader has two trumps

he must lead one of them, and if one is ace (or king, ace being bound to lead his highest trump if more than two declare to play; one trump must lead the highest. Except with trumps as above but if there are only two declared players the leader with more than stated he may lead any card he chooses. The subsequent players must head the trick if able, and must follow suit if able. Holding none of the suit led, they must head the trick with a trump, if able. Otherwise they may play any card they please. The winner of the first trick is subject to the rules already stated respecting the lead, and in addition he must lead a trump if able (called trump after trick).

When the hand has been played out, the winners of the tricks trick. If only one declared to play, the dealer plays miss either for divide the pool, ecch receiving one-third of the amount for each himself or for the pool. If he plays for the pool he must declare before seeing miss that he does not play for himself. Any tricks he may win, when playing for the pool, remain there as an addition to the next pool.

If each declared player wins at least one trick it is a single, i.e., a fresh pool is made as already described; but if one of the declared players fails to make a trick he is looed. Then, only the player who is looed contributes to the next pool, together with the dealer, who puts in a single stake. If more than one player is looed, each has to contribute. At unlimited loo each player looed has to put in the amount there was in the pool. But it is generally agreed to limit the loo, so that it shall not exceed a certain fixed sum. Thus, at eighteen-penny loo, the loo is generally limited to half a guinea. If there is less than the limit in the pool the payment is regulated as before; but if there is more than the limit, the loo is the fixed sum agreed on.

The game is sometimes varied by forces, i.e., by compelling every one to play, either whenever there is no loo the previous deal (a single), or whenever clubs are trumps (club law). When there is a force no miss is dealt. Irish loo is played by allowing declared players to exchange some or all of their cards for cards dealt from the top of the pack. There is no miss, and it is not compulsory to lead a trump with two trumps, unless there are only two declared players. At five-card loo each player has five cards instead of three, and a single stake should be divisible by five. Pam (knave of clubs) ranks as the highest trump, whatever suit is turned up. There is no miss, and cards may be exchanged as at Irish loo. If ace of trumps is led, the leader says "Pam be civil," when the holder of that card must pass the trick if he can do so without revoking. A flush (five cards of the same suit, or four with Pam) loos the board, i.e., the holder receives the amount of a loo from every one, and the hand is not played. A trump flush takes precedence of flushes in other suits. If more than one flush is held, or if Pam is held, the holder is exempted from payment. As between two flushes which do not take precedence, the elder hand wins.

Declaring to Play, and Playing (three-card loo).-Play on two trumps. The first to declare should play on an honour in trumps XV.

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and an ace in plain suits. Play also on king of trumps; but some players throw up king of trumps single unless with it another king or a guarded queen is held. Also play on one trump with two other cards as high as queens; some players throw up this hand. Holding a trump and two aces, lead the trump if three others declare to play; but otherwise lead an ace. Do not play on a hand without a trump; except, play on any cards that give a reasonable chance of a trick, or take miss, if the amount in the pool is considerable, and the loo is limited. If the number of players is less than five, or if several throw up, weaker hands may be played; on the other side, if several have declared to play, only a very strong hand should be risked. If there are only three left in, all others having thrown up, miss should be taken, but not when there are more than two to follow the player whose turn it is to declare.

Laws of Loo.-These vary greatly, and should be agreed on before commencing to play. The ordinary rules, which loo the player for nearly every error, are very bad. The following are based on the laws of the late Blenheim Člub. 1. First knave deals.

2. Each player has a right to shuffle. 3. The player to the dealer's
right cuts the pack. 4. The dealer must deliver the cards, one by
one, in rotation, as at whist, and must deal one card for miss at the
end of each round; he must turn up the top card of the undealt cards
for trumps. 5. If the dealer deals without having the pack cut,
or shuffles after it is cut, or deals except as provided in law 4, or
deals two cards together and then deals a third without rectifying
the error, or exposes a card, or deals too many cards, he forfeits a
single to the pool, and deals again. 6. The player to the left of
the dealer deals next. If a player deals out of turn, he may be
stopped before the trump card is turned, otherwise the deal stands
good, and the player to his left deals next. 7. Players must declare
to play in rotation, beginning to the dealer's left. A player looking
at his cards before his turn forfeits a single to the pool. 8. A
player who declares before his turn, or who exposes a card, forfeits
a single to the pool, and must throw up his hand. 9. If a declared
player exposes a card before his turn to play, or plays out of turn,
or before all have declared, or detaches a card so that it can be
named by any other declared player, or revokes, he must leave in
the pool any tricks he may make, and forfeit four times the amount
of a single. If he makes no trick he is looed, and there is no further
penalty. 10. If the leader holds ace of trumps and does not lead
it (or king, ace being turned up), or if he holds two trumps and
does not lead one, or the highest of two or more trumps when there
are only two declared players (unless his cards are sequence cards
or cards of equal value), or if a player does not head the trick
when able, or if he does not lead trump after trick (if he holds a
trump), he is liable to the same penalty as in law 9.3 11. In case
of revokes or errors in play the hand must be replayed if so desired
by any one except the offender. 12. The place of an aftercomer is
decided by dealing a card between every two of the players. The
aftercomer sits where the first knave falls.
(H. J.)

LOOCHOO. See LEW-CHEW ISLANDS.
LOOM. See WEAVING.

LOOM, or LOON (Icelandic, Lómr), a name applied to water-birds of three distinct Families, all remarkable for their clumsy gait on land. The first of them is the Colymbida, to which the term DIVER (q.v.) is nowadays usually restricted in books; the second the Podicipedida, or GREBES (see vol. xi. p. 30); and the third the Alcide. The form Loon is most commonly used both in the British Islands and in North America for all the species of the genus Colymbus, or Eudytes according to some ornithologists, frequently with the prefix Sprat, indicating the kind of fish on which they are supposed to prey; though it is the local name of the Great Crested Grebe (Podiceps cristatus) wherever that bird is sufficiently well known to have one; and, as appears from Grew (Mas. Reg. Soc., p. 69), it was formerly given to the Little Grebe or Dabchick (P. fluviatilis or minor) as well.

The other form Loom seems The law which loos a player for misdealing is atrocious, and should always be opposed.

2 Forfeits of a single go to increase the pool already formed, and see note to law 5.

9 Tricks left in the pool and fines under laws 9 and 10 go to the next pool and not to the pool already formed. Many players inflict the penalty of a loo for the offences named in laws 9 and 10; but the rule above, as played at the Blenheim, is the best.

The word also takes the form "Lumme" (fide Montagu), and, as Professor Skeat observes, is probably connected with lame. The signification of loon, a clumsy fellow, and metaphorically a simpleton, is obvious to any one who has seen the attempt of the birds to which the name is given to walk.

more confined in its application to the north, and is said by Mr T. Edmonston (Etym. Gloss. Shetl. and Orkn. Dialect, p. 67) to be the proper name in Shetland of Colymbus septentrionalis; but it has come into commen use among Arctic seamen as the name of the species of Guillemot (Alca arra or bruennichi) which in thousands throngs the cliffs of far northern lands, from whose (bence called) "loomeries" they obtain a considerable stock of wholesome food, while the writer believes he has heard the word locally applied to the RAZORBILL (q.v.). (A. N.)

LOPE DE VEGA. See VEGA CARPIO. LOPEZ, CARLOS ANTONIO (1790-1862), a Paraguayan ruler of great ability, born at Asuncion, November 4, 1790, was educated in the ecclesiastical seminary of that city, and by his ability attracted the hostility of the dictator, Francia, in consequence of which he was forced to keep in hiding for several years. He acquired, however, by study, so unusual a knowledge of law and governmental affairs that, on Francia's death in 1840, he soon acquired an he maintained uninterruptedly until his own death in 1862. almost undisputed control of the Paraguayan state, which He was successively secretary of the ruling military junta (1840-41), one of the two consuls (1841-44), and president with dictatorial powers (1844-1862) by successive elections for ten and three years, and in 1857 again for ten years, with power to nominate his own successor. Though nominally a president acting under a republican constitution, he ruled despotically, the congress assembling only rarely and on his call, and then only to ratify his decrees. His government was in general directed with wise energy towards developing the material resources and strengthening the military power of the country. His jealousy of foreign approach several times involved him in diplomatic disputes with Brazil, England, and the United States, which nearly resulted in war, but each time he extricated himself by skilful evasions. Paraguay rapidly advanced under his firm and, on the whole, patriotic administration. He died September 10, 1862.

LOPEZ, FRANCISCO SOLANO (1826-1870), eldest son of Carlos Antonio Lopez above noticed, was born near Asuncion, Paraguay, July 24, 1826. During his boyhood his father was in hiding, and in consequence his education was wholly neglected. Soon after his father's accession to made commander-in-chief of the Paraguayan army, during the presidency, Francisco, then in his nineteenth year, was the spasmodic hostilities then prevailing with the Argentine Republic. After receiving successively the highest offices of the state, he was sent in 1853 as minister to England, France, and Italy, to ratify formally treaties made with these powers the previous year. He spent a year and a half in Europe, and succeeded in purchasing large quantities of arms and military supplies, together with several steamers, and organized a project for building a railroad and establishing a French colony in Paraguay. He also formed the acquaintance of Madame Lynch, an Irish adventuress of many talents and popular qualities, who became his mistress, and strongly influenced his later ambitious schemes. Returning to Paraguay, he became

in 1855 minister of war, and on his father's death in 1862 at once assumed the reins of government as vice-president, in accordance with a provision of his father's will, and called a congress by which he was chosen president for ten years. He had long cherished ambitious designs, and now set himself to enlarge the army, and purchase in Europe large quantities of military stores. In 1864 he began open aggression on Brazil by demanding, in his self-styled capacity of "protector of the equilibrium of the La Plata,” that Brazil should abandon her armed interference in a

,,

5 Dunn and Saxby, however, agree in giving "Rain-Goose as the name of this species in Shetland.

pality was 52,934 in 1877.

revolutionary struggle then in progress in Uruguay. No | involve, is insignificant. The population of the munici attention being paid to his demand, he treacherously seized a Brazilian merchant steamer in the harbour of Asuncion, and threw into prison the Brazilian governor of the province of Matto Grosso who was on board. In the following month (December 1864) he despatched a force to invade Matto Grosso, which seized and sacked its capital Cuyabá, and took possession of the province and its diamond mines. Lopez next sought to send an army to the relief of the Uruguayan president Aguirro against the revolutionary aspirant Flores, who was supported by Brazilian troops. The refusal of the Argentine president, Mitre, to allow this force to cross the intervening province of Corrientes, was seized upon by Lopez as an occasion for war with the Argentine Republic.

A congress, hastily summoned and composed of his own nominees, bestowed upon Lopez the title of marshal, with extraordinary war powers, and on April 13, 1865, he declared war, at the same time seizing two Argentine warvessels in the bay of Corrientes, and on the next day occupied the town of Corrientes, instituted a provisional government of his Argentine partisans, and summarily announced the annexation to Paraguay of the provinces of Corrientes and Entre Rios. Meantime the party of Flores had been successful in Uruguay, and that state on April 18 united with the Argentine Republic in a declaration of war on Paraguay, the news of the treacherous proceedings of Lopez having then but just reached Buenos Ayres. On May 1st Brazil joined these two states in a secret alliance, which stipulated that they should unitedly prosecute the war "until the existing government of Paraguay should be overthrown," and "until no arms or elements of war should be left to it." This agreement was literally carried out.

The war which ensued, lasting until April 1, 1870, was on the largest scale of any that South America had experienced, and was carried on with great stubbornness and with alternating fortunes, though with a steadily increasing tide of disasters to Lopez (see PARAGUAY). In 1868, when the allies were pressing him hard before the various strongholds still remaining to him in Paraguay, his mind, naturally suspicious and revengeful, led him to conceive that a conspiracy had been formed against his life in his own capital and by his chief adherents. His bloodthirsty rage knew no bounds. In a short time several hundred of the chief Paraguayan citizens were seized and executed by his order, including his brothers and brothers-in-law, cabinet ministers, judges, prefects, military officers of the highest grade, the bishops and priests, and nine-tenths of the civil officers, together with more than two hundred foreigners, among them several members of the different diplomatic legations:

Lopez was at last driven with a mere handful of troops to the northern frontier of Paraguay, where on April 1, 1870, he was surprised by a Brazilian force and killed as he was endeavouring to escape by swimming the river Aquidaban. His ill-starred ambition had in a few years reduced Paraguay from the prosperity which it had enjoyed under his father to a condition of hopeless weakness, and it has since remained a virtual dependency of Brazil.

LORCA, a town of Spain, in the province of Murcia, on the right side of the Sangonera (here called the Guadalentin), by which it is separated from the suburb or quarter of San Cristobal. It is situated about 38 miles west from Cartagena, and 37 south-west from Murcia, at the foot of the Sierra del Caño. The principal buildings are the collegiate church of San Patricio, with a Corinthian façade, and the parish church of Santa Maria, in the Gothic style. The principal manufactures are soda, saltpetre, gunpowder, and cloth; the trade, apart from that which these articles

Lorca (Arab. Lurka) is the Eliocroca of the Itin. Ant., and probably also the Ilorci of Pliny (iii. 3). It was the key of Murcia during the Moorish wars, and was frequently taken and retaken. reservoir known as the Pantano de Puentes, in which the waters of On April 30, 1802, it suffered severely by the bursting of the the Guadalentin were stored for purposes of irrigation; the Barrio de San Cristobal was completely ruined, and more than six hundred persons perished in the disaster. In 1810 it suffered greatly from

the French.

LORENZO MARQUES, or LOURENÇO MARQUES, the chief place, and indeed the only European settlement, in the district of its own name in the Portuguese province of Mozambique in south-eastern Africa, is situated on Delagoa Bay, at the mouth of the Lorenzo Marques or English River, in 25° 58′ S. lat. and 32° 30′ E. long. At the time of Mr Erskine's visit in 1871 it was a poor place, with narrow streets, fairly good flat-roofed houses, grass huts, decayed forts, and rusty cannon, enclosed by a wall 6 feet high recently erected and protected by bastions at intervals. In 1878 Governor Castelho returned the white population of all the district (whose area is estimated at 210,000 square miles) as 458, and the natives as from 50,000 to 80,000. A commission sent by the Government in 1876 to drain the marshy land near the settlement, to plant the blue gum tree, and to build a hospital and church, only partly accomplished its task, and other commissions have succeeded it. In 1878-79 a survey was taken for a railway from Lorenzo Marques to the Transvaal (see Bol. da Soc. de Geogr. de Lisboa, 1880), and the completion of this enterprise will make the settlement (which already possesses the best harbour on the African coast between the Cape and Zanzibar) a place of considerable importance. It became a regular port of call for the steamers of the British India Steam Navigation Company in 1879, and for those of the Donald Currie line in 1880. Since 1879 it is also a station on the telegraph line between Aden and South Africa. Both Germany and England maintain consular agents in the settlement.

See DELAGOA BAY, vol. vii. p. 40; and Lobo de Bulhaes, Les Colonies portugaises (Lisbon, 1878).

It

LORETO, a city in the province and circondario of Ancona, Italy, is situated some 15 miles by rail south-west from Ancona on the Ancona-Foggia railway, 16 miles north-east from Macerata, and 3 from the sea. lies upon the right bank of the Musone, at some distance from the railway station, on a hill-side commanding splendid views from the Apennines to the Adriatic. The city itself consists of little more than one long narrow street, lined with booths for the sale of rosaries, medals, crucifixes, and similar objects, the manufacture of which is the sole industry of the place. The population in 1871 was only 1241; but, when the suburbs Montereale, Porta Marina, and Casette are included, the population is given as 4755, that of the commune being 8083. The number of pilgrims is said to amount to about 500,000 annually. The principal buildings, occupying the four sides of the piazza, are the college of the Jesuits, the Palazzo Apostolico (designed by Bramante), and the architecturally insignificant cathedral church of the Holy House (Chiesa della Casa Santa). The handsome façade of the church was erected under Sixtus V., who fortified Loreto and gave it the privileges of a town (1586); his colossal statue stands in the middle of the flight of steps in front. Over the principal doorway is a life-size bronze statue of the Virgin and Child by Girolamo Lombardo; the three superb bronze doors executed under Paul V. (1605-21) are also by Lombardo, his sons, and his pupils. The richly decorated campanile, by Vanvitelli, is of great height; the principal bell, presented by Leo X. in 1516, weighs 11 tons. The

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interior of the church has mosaics by Domenichino and Guido Reni, a beautiful bronze font and other works of art; but the chief object of interest is the Holy House itself, which occupies a central place. It is a plain brick building, measuring 28 feet by 121, and 13 feet in height; it has a door on the north side and a window on the west; and a niche contains a small black image of the Virgin and Child, in Lebanon cedar, and richly adorned with Jewels St Luke is alleged to have been the sculptor; its workmanship suggests the latter half of the 15th century. Around the Santa Casa is a lofty marble screen, designed by Bramante, and executed under Popes Leo X., Clement VII., and Paul III., by Andrea Sansovino, Girolamo Lombardo, Bandinelli, Guglielmo della Porta, and others. The four sides represent the Annunciation, the Nativity, the Arrival of the Santa Casa at Loreto, and the Nativity of the Virgin respectively. The treasury of the church contains a large variety of rich and curious votive offerings.

64

certain Teremannus, contained in the Opera Omnia (1576) of Bap

The legend of the Holy House, by which Loreto became what has been not inappropriately called the Christian Mecca, seems to have sprung up, how is not exactly known, at the close of the crusading period. It is briefly referred to in the Italia Illustrata of Flavius Blondus, secretary to Popes Eugenius IV., Nicholas V., Calixtus III., and Pius II. (ob. 1464); it is to be read in all its fulness in the 'Redemptoris mundi Matris Ecclesiæ Lauretana historia," by a tista Mantuanus. According to this narrative the house at Nazareth in which Mary had been born and brought up, had received the annunciation, and had lived during the childhood of Jesus and after His ascension, was converted into a church by the apostles, and worship continued to be held in it until the fall of the kingdom of Jerusalem. Threatened with destruction by the Turks, it was carried by angels through the air and deposited (1291) in the first instance on a hill at Tersato in Dalmatia (some miles inland from Zengg), where an appearance of the Virgin and numerous miraculous cures attested its sacredness, which was confirmed by investigations made at Nazareth by messengers from the governor of Dalmatia. In 1294 the angels carried it across the Adriatic to a wood near Recanati; from this wood (lauretum), or from the name of its proprietrix (Laureta), the chapel derived the name which it still retains (sacellum gloriosæ Virginis in Laureto "). From this spot it was afterwards (1295) removed to the present hill, one other slight adjustment being required to fix it in its actual site. Bulls in favour of the shrine at Loreto were issued by Sixtus IV. in 1491 and by Julius II. in 1507, the last alluding to the translation of the house with some caution ("ut pie creditur et fama est"). The recognition of the sanctuary by subsequent pontiffs has already been alluded to. In the end of the 17th century Innocent XII. appointed a "missa cum officio proprio" for the feast of the Translation of the Holy House, and the Festum

Translationis Alma Domus Lauretana B. M. V. is still enjoined in the Spanish Breviary as a "duplex majus " (December 10). In the sixth lesson it is stated that "the house in which the Virgin was born, having been consecrated to the divine mysteries, was by the ministry of angels removed from the power of the infidels first to Dalmatia and afterwards to the Lauretan field during the pontificate of Celestine V. That it is the identical house in which the Word

was made flesh and dwelt among men is attested by papal documents, by the veneration of all the world, by continued miracles, and by the grace of heavenly blessings."

LORIENT, capital of an arrondissement in the department of Morbihan, and of one of the five maritime prefectures of France, a military port and fortified place, stands on the right bank of the Scorff, at its confluence with the Blavet, in 47° 45′ N. lat. and 3° 31′ W. long., on the railway line from Nantes to Brest, at a distance of 117 miles from the former and 111 from the latter. The town, which is modern and regularly built, contains no buildings of special architectural or antiquarian interest; it derives all its importance from its naval establishments lining the right bank of the river, which include sail-making works, cooperages, and shops for all kinds of ship carpentry. The rope-work forms a parallelogram more than 1000 feet in length by 100 broad. The foundries, fitting shops, and smiths' shops are on an equally extensive scale, the forges numbering eighty-four. Of the graving docks the largest is 509 feet in length, about 98 in breadth, and more than 26 feet in depth below low-water mark. The Prée, an

area of 40 acres reclaimed from the sea, contains boatbuilding yards, steam saw-mills, and wood stores; a floating bridge 900 feet long connects it with the shipbuilding establishments of Caudan, which occupy the peninsula formed by the confluence of the Scorff and the Blavet. Apart from its naval constructions, in which Lorient holds the first rank in France, it has an important place in the manufacture of marine artillery. Private industry is also engaged in engine making. The trade in fresh fish and sardines within the arrondissement reaches an annual value of 35 millions of francs. South from the town, also on the Scorff, is the harbour, which comprises a dry dock and a wet dock, measuring about 1650 feet by 200. The roadstead, formed by the estuary of the Blavet, is accessible to vessels of the largest size; the entrance, 3 or 4 miles south from Lorient, which is defended by numerous forts, is marked on the east by the peninsula of Gâvre (an artillery practising ground) and the fortified town of Port Louis; on the west are the fort of Loqueltas, and, higher up, the battery of Kernevel. In the middle of the channel is the granite rock of St Michel, occupied by a powder magazine. Opposite it, on the right bank of the Blavet, is the mouth of the river Ter, with fish and oyster breeding establishments, from which 10 millions of oysters are annually obtained. Above Lorient on the Scorff, here spanned by a suspension bridge, is Kerantrech, a pretty village surrounded by numerous country houses. population of Lorient in 1876 was 35,165, including 6360 of the military and official class.

The

Lorient has taken the place of Port Louis as the port of the Blavet. The latter stands on the site of an ancient hamlet which was fortified during the wars of the League and handed over by Mercœur to the Spaniards. After the treaty of Vervins it was restored to France, and it received its name of Port Louis under Richelieu. Some Breton merchants trading with the Indies had established themselves first at Port Louis, but in 1628 they built their warehouses on the other bank. The Compagnie des Indes, created in 1664, took possession of these, giving them the name of Lorient. In 1745 the company, then at the acme of its prosperity, owned thirty-five ships of the largest class and many others of considerable size. The failure of the attempt of the English under Lestock against Lorient is still commemorated by the inhabitants by an annual procession on the first Sunday of October. decadence of the company dates from 1753. In 1782 the town was acquired by purchase by Louis XVI., on the bankruptcy of its former owners, the Rohan-Guéméné family.

The

LORRAINE (LOTHARINGIA, LOTHRINGEN) is geographically the extensive Austrasian portion of the realm allotted by the partition treaty of Verdun in August 843 to the emperor Lothair I., and inherited by his second son, King Lothair II., 855-869, from whose days the name Regnum Lotharii first arose. This border-land between the realms of the Eastern and Western Franks in its original extent took in most of the Frisian lowlands between the mouths of the Rhine and the Ems, and a strip of the right shore of the Rhine to within a few miles of Bonn. In the neighbourhood of Bingen it receded from the left shore of the river so as to exclude the dioceses of Worms and Spires, but to admit a certain connexion with Alsace. Towards the west it included nearly the whole territory which is watered by the rivers Moselle and Meuse, and spread over the dioceses of Cologne, Treves, Metz, Toul, Verdun, Liége, and Cambrai. Hence this artificial realm embraced, broadly speaking, almost all modern Holland and Belgium (with the exception of Flanders), part of the Prussian Rhine provinces, and what is still called Lorraine, partly French and partly German, divided, however, from Alsace and the Palatinate by the natural frontier line of the Vosges and the Haardt mountains. Its inhabitants were soon called Hlotharii, Lotharienses, Lotharingi. Lotharingia, as the designation of the country, hardly appears before the middle of the 10th century.

Up to this time Lorraine had belonged alternately to

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