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From the Third Annual Report, for the year where too often they meet evil examples ; they ending March 31, 1856, of 148 admissions, are induced to spend their money in amusements, 103 had been domestic servants ; 23 had been &c. ; then they pawn their clothes to defray rent. living at home, and were generally too young to A night walk is insidiously suggested by an evil. have been at service; 13 needle women, 1 boot. minded acquaintance, and, in such cases, who can binder; 1 furclipper; 1 clergyman's daughter; estimate the force of example ? 1 daughter of a Baptist minister; 1 ditto of a hotel- We could cite many cases of girls lured from keeper; 4 in positions similar to the former- happy homes to London, by the arts of women making a total of 148.
who exist on infamy, under the patronage of From the Fourth Annual Report, of 194 admis- hoary-headed miscreants of rank and wealth. The sions, 153 had been domestic servants; 23 living at victim fears to return honie, even if she could, home; 8 needle-women; 2 governesses; 1 bar which is improbable; and if she do return, it is maid; 1 waitress; 1 factory girl; 1 milk-maid; often too late. When 1 field-labourer ; 1 fur cutter; 2 above the work
Fatherly, motherly ing class—making a total of 194.
Feelings are changed, It therefore appears that, of 443 persons ad.
Love, by harsh evidence, mitted during the last three years, 344 had been
Thrown from its eminence, domestic servants-a fact which may be, perhaps,
Even God's providence
Seeming estranged, partially accounted for in this way: The society offers a home and a chance of a domestic situation; what can the wretched girl do? The words of but women whose grade in life was above that of Marian Erle, who was 80 destroyed, will here a servant, will not enter the homes to mingl e with occur to all who have read Mrs. Browning's servants, and become servants themselves, probably
“ Aurora Leigh." because they are unacquainted with their duties. You nnderstand—No ? Do not look at me, Still, the above must stand a fact-borne out by a But understand
the shameful house, the night, painful array of figures.
The feeble blood, the heavy-headed grief
And yet— they brought it. persons, we come to what is the most painful part
What!“ seduced" 's your word ? of the subject :- 0f 148 in the year 1855-56, 15 Do wolves“ seduce" a wandering fawn in France ! were under fifteen years of age; 86 were above Do eagles, who liave pinched a lamb with claws, fifteen, and not exceeding twenty. The rest
“ Seduce" it-into carrion PSo witli me :
I was not ever, as you say, “ seduced ;" average somewhat less than one above, to two under, twenty-five years of age.
Of 194 in
But sincply-murdered.” the year 1856-57, 16 were under fifteen; 117 Another cause among many, is the fact that men, from fifteen to twenty; 45, twenty to twenty-five; in a grea, degree, monopoliso certain occupations, 16 above twenty-five, who are, as it were, bred
which could be better filled by women. There up to vice from their infancy. Uudoubtedly one are, comparatively speaking, in this country, very great cause of the evil is the indiscriminate herd- few things that a woman can do to get a living. ing together of the sexes, whereby decency is To the educated daughters of reduced affluence, utterly abolished, and filth, moral and pbysical, the situation of governess is open ; aud we all degradation well nigh iucredible, ensue as a know, or ought to kuow, how bitter a lot that too certain consegnence.
Orphanage, if we may often is. To the imperfectly educated girl judge from a few statistics before us, is another service; or (and this is seldom, for the reason great cause :-Of the 194 females before-mentioned, above stated), a place behind the counter-or, the 45 had lost both parents; 41 were fatherless ; 49 weary life of a sempstress; and here we have were motherless, and 59 only had both parents about exhausted her possibilities. There are far living.
more temptations (which moreover, occasionally Ignorance is not always a chief cause, as may assume the attitude of dire necessities), to make a have been supposed. The education of these 194 woman immoral than a man dishonest. females was quite up to the average of female Ought these things so to be! We talk about our society ; 123 were able to read and write (fourteen chivalrous respect for the female sex.
We of whom were well educated); 13 could read write verses, as Shakespears says, to our “misonly; 28 could neither read nor write. Of these tress' eye brow;" —Yet we are the first to call 194, 158 had attended Sunday schools (1 had her hard names, if she in any way try to vindicate been a teacher). 36 had not attended Sunday, or the dignity of womanhood by seeking to obtain a possibly any schools. Not a few of the servants livelihood through any other channels than those owed their ruin to the evil influence of their mas- so narrowly prescribed for her by the self-styled ters; more to being thrown out of a situation ;
“ lords of the creation.” Of a truth, in too many and here we would remind our readers that there cases, we are verily guilty concerning our sister.” are nearly one million female servants in the Another cause of the evil is marriage late in kingdom ; more than one hundred thousand in life, in onr artificial state of society. Let it not London ; and of these len thousand always out of be for one moment imagined that we are here place, or changing places ; they take lodgings, advocating basty marriages, in which there is but
a brief transition between the altar and the werk. | imagination may be identical. The fate of both house. But we do say that the conventionality, may be nearly alike in some cases, and without which bars so many advisable marriages, on the music of course, of the loosely-written, shameful the plea of “imprudence," is as evil in its opera. But there is this difference in society's workings as false in its premises. If there be one-sided decision. Vice, when personated, is inlove, and a little more than enough, to maintain teresting, edifying—nay, more, a pleasing subject both at starting, ideas of luxury ought to be for one's wife and virtuous daughters to descant thrown aside, while comfort—sound, true comfort, upon in the pit-stalls or private box; but vice in is attainable. Love ought not to be rated wholly real life is low, disgusting, and therefore-mark at a per centage of £ s. d. And now listen to what follows. Applaud, if you please, the stage the editor of the Lancet on this head :
Traviata till the roof rings, shower down bouquets It has grown into a custom to oppose to marriage every till the stage looks like a flower-garden, call the resistance that the most overstrained prudence can suggest ; prima donna, who so well impersonates the courteexcept under circumstances seldom attained until middle life by a man of good and even high social position. In again, till her knees are weary with curtseying to,
zan for an hour, before the curtain again, and yet the meantime society cares little what may be his private
as her ears life during the long years that he is ineligible. It has even
are deasened with your plaudits. invented a lying, wicked phrase about his "sowing his wild But the street Traviata—what of her ? Thisoats,” (as though God had freighted him with wickedness avert your eyes from ber, pass her by as you would which must perforce be scattered abroad), in order to shift the burden from his shoulders, andt us avoid the recollection let it be in virtuous horror and due contumely;
a leper, in silence, or, if you would speak of ber, that every incentive to immorality is encouraged to lead bim astray, and that even if he would av oid the “ social sin that forget that she was once a child like you at á wars agaist the strength of youth,” his resolves are combated mother's knee; forget all the. sore trials which by temptation from which there is no escape, and vice that drove her weakness to despair and the street; dogs his very footsteps in the streets, and solicits him to evil
sneer down every hope that would point to a By unchaste looks, loose gesture, and foul talk.
possible reformation even for such as she ; forget The manner in which unfortunate women are the inild wisdom of One who said, “ Judge not treated by society is a national shame. Too vile that ye be not judged;" try to ignore the unforare they in the estimation of the lying world to be tunate girl's very existence as a loathsome, cared for. Yet it is little more than eighteen painful thought if you can ; and crush her with hundred years ago, since One, greater than man, your cruel contempt, if you cannot; shut the door said of and to the woman taken in adultery: “Let of mercy by barring, in your mock modesty, the him that is without sin among you cast the first avenues of repentance by your wilful ignorance or stone,” and,“ neither do I condemn thee; go, and selfish indifference; see her dying daily, inch by sin no more.” Society knows that they have inch, in the streets, and then see her—" last scene sinned, and blindly refuses to believe that they of all which ends this strange, eventsul history," — would repair the error, if they could. Strangely dying or dead in a workhouse, hospital, or worse inconsistent is society. Take an illustration, one — far, far worse—among the thieves and drabs, of many, in support of that assertion. We know gamblers, and black legs, according as she may well enough, that the hundreds of well-dressed bave been placed; and then, with all this in your women, wives and mothers, with happy bomes and beart, go home and say you do well in so speaking peaceful firesides of their own, to win them to and thinking. Can you so think in your heart respectability, who, some months ago, filled the of hearts ? Yet you act as if you did. Truly the opera house nightly, that their respectable ears breed of those Pharisees, whom the Saviour so oft might be tickled with the sweetest notes of Picco. reproved, is not yet extinct upon this earth of ours ! lomini, who so prettily warbled forth the love. The effect of this cruelty on the part of society scenes in the life of a sentimental barlot—we use tends to demoralise those poor women still more, great plainness of speech in the too notorious by destroying what little self-respect they possess. opera, “ Traviata,"—would have shrunk aghast at Tell a woman she is bad, tell her kindly, point the bare idea of any possible contact with the out a better path, and she may yet go on that originals of that character in the streets. Vice, as better path rejoicing; but tell her she is not only pourtrayed at the Italian Opera, with all scenic bad, but must be bad altogether, and you destroy accessories to lift it from its mire, with the hope. gilding of false sentiment thick upon it to win We now come to the prevention, or amelioralistening ears, with a prima donna and a good tion of the evil; and to prevention first. This is orchestra to render it more attractive, is not, says in the case before us, as in most others, in the society, the vice of, or in any way related to, the words of the hackneyed truism, “better than cure." vice of the Haymarket and elsewhere.
And towards the Society for the “Rescue of Traviata of the Opera could not possibly ac- | Young Women and Children," we look with knowledge a sister Traviata of real life in Gray's earnest interest, as, under God, being one of the Inn Lane. And yet the evils which both illustrate great preventives. For not only does this society the oue in real life in blind, bitter earnest in care for those who have actually fallen, but also the cold street; the other in operatic guise at a fo: those, who, by reason of evil accidents, positiou very fine salary before the footlights but ini.. life, bad example at home and out of doors,
and the arts of designing persons, are likely to fall, Others less destitute, having clothing and a good characinto this ruin. Great good is doubtless done by ter, are eligible for the advantages of a Free Registry, and the penitentiaries—but this does not come under domestic training, preparatory to going to situations.
if necessary, are admitted into the Homes for a few weeks' the head of preventive good. The good done by
Yonng persons are eligible, who have been placed in them has reference to the cure of evil-where service from other Institutions whose rules do not allow of evil had previously been developed. The present their being re-admitted. society does more. It nips evfl in the very bud
Being addicted to theft does not preclude the admission of ere the bud blossoms into the ripened fruit of young females into any of the establishments, except the
. utter misery. The loss of character by theft ex:
On no account are those who have strayed from the path cludes a girl from many, or most penitentiaries. of virtue admitted into the first fonr Homes. A situation lost by theft is the stepping-stone to A proper classification of the young women and girls, is this vice, in quick succession. This society cares
one of the Society's most important principles; and one great for such cases. The friendless condition of poor of London, is that girls associated with bad companions may
object of having the Homes situated in widely different parts girls thrown out of place, comes under its con- be removed to an opposite part of London from that in which sideration. For these cases the society provides, they live. by either writing to the friends of such girls, or Of the good done by this society, an idea may by removing them, should they apply to them, to be formed from the fact that more than six thoulodgings, till they can be placed in a situation. sand females bave been received into one or other The position of girls left orphans, or exposed to of these homes-thirty-six thousand have been evil home-influence, is also provided for in like registered, free of expense, and the greater part manuer. Four “Family Homes" (such is the provided with situations. term) for girls of the last description, from the age
The amelioration and mitigation of the evil, as of twelve to sixteen, have already been founded we find it, in our highways and byways, early and by this society. The principles of the “Family late, are most difficult questions. The remedies Homes” generally are these, in the words of the suggested by thinkers on this subject may resolve prospectus for 1857 :
themselves into positive and negative legislation. As regards positive legislation first : The con
tinental system of licensing objectionable houses. Tus Society, instead of being exclusively devoted to the
one which, we imagine, in spite of the many reclamation of fallen females, admits both fallen and un. fallen.
plausible arguments urged in favour of it, will
never be adopted in this country. The English No. 1, 2, 3, and 4 Family Homes are for girls from twelve nation shrinks from assuming that heavy load of to sisteen years of age, who have not strayed from the path responsibility. of virtue.
The usual defenders of the French system are No. 5, 6, 7, and 8 Homes provide a temporary abode for men, for the most part, who look upon this verata those who have strayed from the path of virtne until admis. qnæstio from a secular point of view entirely; and sion can be procured for them io Penitentiaries, or they can be restored to friends or recommended to situations.
undoubtedly, if we could set Christianity aside, No. 9 Home is for Servants of good character, who are they have strong argument--on the ground of admitted only upon the recommendations of respectable expediency, that bugbear to morality. Their persons.
views are, we apprehend, these : The Private Homes with Christian Families are for those
You have an enormous existing evil; if you fallen ones who, because not depraved, are liable to be injured by associating with those more corrupted.
cannot wholly stop, you are at least bound to
mitigate it. Would it not be better, if the evil Young girls are eligible for the Family Homes who have must, in spite of you exist, to limit its sphere of lost one or both parents ; but should the remaining parent operations; to specify and enforce certain punishor relatives be in a position, payment is required according ments in the way of fine and imprisonment, to their means.
Those, too, are admissible who have both parents living for breach of sanitary and social regulations, to be should those parents be of loose character. In this case laid down by governmental order. · You would payment is required when the parents or relatives can thereby strike a heavy blow at the evil as at afford it. The Homes are not for refractory children whose parents free from such pests of society. You would check
present existing. You would keep your streets profess to have set a good example to them, and can afford to maintain them; but in extreme cases, where a girl is as
disease ; and, morally and physically, would be sociated with bad companions, she is eligible by payment. doing a good. Vice would then require to be
Girls from prison (especially from model prisons where no sought after; and would not, as now, thrust itself corruption can have taken place) are, under certain circum- upon those who, but for the lack of such salutary cumstances, admissible into the Home.
Friendless girls from the country are peculiarly eligible jurisdiction, might never have fallen into its snares, for the Homes, from which they are either restored to friends What we ourselves say in pursuance of the latter or placed in service.
argument, is this: without saying where these Young women, or girls of good character, who are not unfortunates shall ply their fearful trade, let it be able to go to situations irom want of clothing, are provided distinctly understood, where they shall not (i.c.). with outfits, and situations are procured for them.
Clothing is also given to friendless servants, who have in the streets. We are aware that this is, in part, recovered from illness in hospitals, and have necessarily being done now by the police, but altogether pawned their apparel.
inefficiently. We do occasionally hear of an unfor
THOSE ELIGIBLE FOR THE FAMILY HOMES.
tupate being taken into custody for annoying some these claims, be exposed peculiarly to this temptageutleman, but let any man who thinks that tion; but we cannot set aside these statistics. sufficient, take the trouble of visiting Regent The ladies of Christian churches would not find Street by day, and the Haymarket by night, and themselves exceedingly harassed, we suppose, if he will speedily change his hastily formed opinion. they would charge themselves with the moral su
It is objected that the expulsion of such women perintendence of one girl each from this unfortunate from our thoroughfares would be a breach of the class, before they have fallen into dangerous and much talked of, little understood, “liberty of the evil courses ; for it is not possible that orphanage subject”—a liberty, in this case, degenerating into can exist in any street without the circumstance licentiousness. The police have recently made a being well known. Even where nothing better crusade against street-hawkers. Let a poor girl can be accomplished. a small payment would endeavour to sell fruit on some genteel pavement, secure a home to female orphans in one of those and an officious policeman will soon remove her asylums where the children are educated into and her wares together to the station-house. Why gratitude to society-instead of being pushed is it that, to England's shame be it spoken--a through the bard and harsh, or even cold and respectable woman, in the most enlightened capital joyless training of a workhouse. of the world, cannot, with propriety, venture into This vice-nearly every vice-is increased by our streets after nightfall ? Let those who “turn our intemperate habits, and the injudicious manthe cold shoulder on any wise scheme for re- ner in which they are indulged. In London to a medying such things, answer that query.
greater extent than in other large towns, domestic The subject is one that will not soon obtain a servants are sent, at late hours, to beer- houses, legislative remedy. The time may come when that their masters or mistresses, after family worthat also can be gained; because, although in a ship perhaps, may have their beer for supper general publication, we are bound, as others con- from the wood. The servant dislikes the message sider themselves bound, to exclude medical state- at first, but like every other piece of work, it ments, yet no doubt whatever exists that this becoines familiar. She begius rather to like it. great social evil undermines the health, strength, She meets acquaintances and friends at the bar of and vitality of the population. At present, we the beer-shop ---drinks a little-only a very little presume that the country is ready for the severest herself—and to her this most thoughtless errand punishment in those cases when persons absolutely becomes the beginning of the end. live and trade upon the supply of victims to The customs of society are chargeable with a wealthy-we regret to write sometimes, legis- dangerous degree of extravagance and vanity, in lative-hoary, titled senators and sinners. The female attire; and young female operatives do not moral feeling of the country, if moral people would dress now so economically as their grandmothers take any trouble on the subject, could mitigate if did at the same time of life. The evil does pot it did not overthrow, these practices. The few always commence with the wearers. Soine ladies statistics which we have copied, show that two believe that their servants should not only spend classes add to this great army of the lost, in a all their wages, but something more, on dress, for manner that reflects no credit whatever upon the credit of their establishment, while they are the members of Christian churches, who pro- in their service; and a cruel compulsion to extrabably suppose that at least in this capacity vagance is involved in this opinion. No good they have nothing to do with the matter. One of can be done by the revival of sumptuary laws, these classes is Sabbath-school scholars.
even as laws of opinion. All persons should be really know very little good that, bumanly speak- encouraged to wear, Arst clean, and next neat, ing, can be expected from Sabbath-schools, insti. attire; but that is quite consistent with the tuted to convey religious instruction, if the teachers cconomy which keeps expenditure at a safe distance will take no further interest in their classes than within income. is implied by attendance at these weekly meetings. The evil is enhanced greatly by the apathy of The first day is beaten often by the six that the public towards practical politics. This nation follow; and the female scholars evidently leave, possesses capital, labour, and skill in quantities and are forgotten. We need not occupy space that may be deemed inexhaustible. by explaining the different means that might be, Bad or careless laws prevent the combination of and, in some cases, have been, adopted to extend these three elements of prosperity in a manner the connexion once formed between the Church calculated to employ all healthy and industrious and the individual pupil ; but we have no hesita- men on work that would leave open to females tion whatever in saying, that they must not only many avocations from which they are debarred. extend to mental benefits and inducements, but That subject is too voluminous for discussion in condescend a little to the affairs of this present this place, but it is one to which we will revert orld.
subsequently, for the independence of females in A second class is orphans. It is horrible to general society hangs upon the facilities afforded suppose that those who have peculiar claims upon them of earning, by honest labour, a fair livelithe aid of all men, should, from the existence of hood.
SCOTLAND AND THE CURRENCY.
We referred in our last number to the then notes to £957,700—a smaller sum than they had present panic, and it is the present panic still, ever previously held; a dangerous sum, which deepened, enlarged and extended in its conse- a few cheques might have altogethor put out of quences. We mentioned the state of business as existence. illustrative of our opinions on the currency law of The measure has not been merely useful. It 1844, which is defended by its votaries still, after was absolutely requisite. Some authorities say its second suspension. The poetic idea "Twice that the Bank' Directors did not ask for it. If he slew the slaiu, may be realised in monetary they made no inquiry directly on the subject, and prosaic experience ; unless more vigour be dis. others must have spoken for them. They were played for freedom to trade in money, as in not compelled to transgress the law by its suspenmoney's worth; than has been hitherto exhibited sion. They had obtained permission; but they even with idleness and want, ruins and wreck on were not ordered to use this permisson. Yet they every side, famine and fever closing up the did immediately use it : saved thereby the credit prospect. The ministry suspended the bill with of several gigantic houses, and prevented stoppages marked reluctance, and they will maintain its which must have led to an appalling number of provisions to the uttermost, unless they learn from smaller suspensions. the public and their representatives that this The Ministry deserve no credit for the course uttermost is past.
adopted by them. They delayed to the last, The present panic is not caused entirely by and are responsible for all the consequences of the Bank Act of 1844. In this respect it differs that delay. They will ask a bill of indemnity for materially from the panic of 1847. At that time the breach of the law which has occurred. Their the country had suffered no heavy losses out of letter was issued on the 12th ultimo, and it was its own borders. A great loss of one crop in followed immediately by the convocation of ParliaIreland had occurred. Similar losses were inflicted ment for the third instead of the seventeenth cura upon the agriculture of England and Scotland; rent; but as Parliament would not have assembled similar in character is not in extent. Famine was on the seventeenth, and was never meant to meet in the land. An extraordinary quantity of corn on that day, the session was really advanced by six had to be imported and paid ; contemporaueously weeks. They are to ask indemnity for doing too with an uncommon expenditure on public works late what should have been done before the close of at home. The case is altogether different now. : October. They should certainly bave no indemnity The crop at home is a full average, or much more for delaying the suspension of the Act, for a day than an average.
Our losses, and even stupid after the directors found a minimum rate of eight investments, are foreign and not home affairs. per cent. requisite. That course would probably The two cases are entirely distinct.
have prevented some of those heavy suspensions They are distinct in their causes, but identical which have occurred, and have scattered more disin their results. Ruin marked the one, marks the may and wonder than we remember in the comother, with an appalling boldness of hand-marks mercial history of this country. The Banking broad and deep.
stoppages have been alone sufficient for any one The Bank of England registered the progress of crisis. The Liverpool Borough Bank closed the panic by raising its minimum rate of discount its doors with liabilities of four millions. The paid on the 5th ultimo to nine per cent. That was the up capital of one million is supposed to be greatly highest rate which had ever previously been charged. reduced; but no doubt was ever expressed The 9th of November brought a higher rate still, respecting the ultimate safety of the creditors. or ten per cent. ; at which it has since remained. The suspension of the Western Bank of Scotland The Directors of the Bank celebrated the Gun followed, and its liabilities are five and a half powder Plot and the Lord Mayor's day in a pecu- millions. The City of Glasgow Bank followed liarly unpleasant manner. To themselves, we quickly with liabilities of four millions. The believe that no choice was left; and they were fourth is the Wolverhampton and Staffordshire merely logs on the stream, showing the strength Bank, with debts of one million. The sixth, of the current. It is true, however, that the the Northumberland and Durham District Bankcurrent drifted the logs into a very agreeable ing Company, with debts for more than three profit.
millions. Sanderson and Company, bill brokers, These proceedings were insufficient to check the of London, with liabilities for than demand for notes at the Bank, and a further two millions
may be reckoned
the rise would bave been indecorous. Upon the 12th seventh, giving a total sum of twenty millions the Government, by letter, licensed the Bank locked up during the month by the suspension of Directors to overstep the Act of 1844. On that banks. The ultimale payment of that money is day they suspended the Act for the second time in not doubtful in the case of the joint stock banks; its history. The Bank had reduced the reserve of but very great energy is necessary for their