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PAGE 223. PORTRAIT OF H. W. SLOCUM . 399 274. EDMUND RHETT'S HOUSE

483 224. PORTRAIT OF JEFFERSON C. DAVIS 359 275. INITIAL LETTER

484 2:23. BATTLE-GROUND NEAR JONESBORO'

393 276. Map-BOMBARDMENT OF FORT FISHER. 486 226. SHERMAN'S HEAD-QUARTERS IN ATLANTA 894 277. INTERIOR OF FORT FISHER

488 227. ALLATOONA Pass 397 278. PORTRAIT OF J. M. SCHOFIELD

490 225. MAP-CAMPAIGN FROM DALTON TO ATLANTA 400 279. MAP-SHERMAN'S MARCH

502 229. BringE AT RESACA . 401 280. RAILWAY BRIDGE OVER THE CATAWBA

505 230. RUINS OF MILITARY INSTITUTE 403 281. INITIAL LETTER-SEAL OF ALABAMA

506 231, TAIL-PIECE-TANK AT JONESBORO'

404 282. MAP-FORTIFICATIONS AROUND MOBILE 507 232. INITIAL LETTER 405 283. REDOUBT AND DITCH AT MOBILE.

507 233. Mar-MaecII FROM ATLANTA TO THE SEA 409 284. MAP-DEFENSES OF MOBILE ON THE East234. PRISONER-PEN AT MILLEN

410
ERN SHORE

511 235. LIARDEE'S HEAD-QUARTERS, SAVANNAH 413 285. BATTERY GLADDEN

513 286. SHERMAN'S HEAD-QUARTERS, SAVANNAH 414 | 286. MAP-SELMA AND ITS DEFENSES

516 237. Thomas's HEAD-QUARTERS, NASHVILLE 417 287. RUINS OF CONFEDERATE FOUNDERY

515 239. PORTRAIT OF T. J. WOOD 418 288. UNION PRISON AT CAHAWBA

519 239. SCHOFI ELD'S HEAD-QUARTERS, FRANKLIN 420 289. FORT TYLER

520 240. MAP-BATTLE OF FRANKLIN 421 290, RUINS AT SELMA

524 241, BATTLE-GROUND AT FRANKLIN 423 1 291. FLOATING BATTERY

524 242. Wood's HEAD-QUARTERS 424 292. TAIL-PIECE-ARTESIAN WELL

525 243. Map-NASHVILLE BATTLE-GROUND 427 293. INITIAL LETTER

526 244. RUINS ON MONTGOMERY HILL 431 294. PORTRAIT OF ROBERT OULD

526 245. INITIAL LETTER 432 295. FORT DARLING .

531 246. ARMSTRONG Gux 432 296. RIFLE BATTERY, Fort DARLING

532 247. FIRE BALL. 433 297. LEE'S RESIDENCE IN RICHMOND

38.5 248. HOT-METAL SHELL 433 298. FORT STEADMAN

537 249, GREEK-FIRE SHELL

483 299. SIGNAL Tower. 230. PORTAIT OF J. A. WINSLOW 435 800. SIGNALING-PLATE I.

5417 251. MAP-NAVAL BATTLE OFF CHERBOURG 436 301. SIGNALING COMPANY

545 252. STERN-POST OF THE - KEARSARGE" 437 | 302. SIGNALING--PLATE II.

548 253. VIEW At Grant's Pass. 440 803. CAPITOL AT RICHMOND

549 254. ENTRANCE TO MOBILE BAY 411 304. INITIAL LETTER-UNION PERPETUAL

552 255. Fort MorGAN LIGHT-HOUSE. 443 305. MAP-LEE'S RETREAT

554 956. INITIAL LETTER-STOCKADE GATE 456 306. MOLEAN's House

558 257. Hardee's HEAD-QUARTERS IN CHARLESTON 457 307. CAPITULATION TABLE

555 235. NEW STATE-HOUSE AT COLUMBIA 460 808. SIGNATURE OF U. S. GRANT

559 259. Ruixs IX CHARLESTON 463 309. SIGNATURE OF R. E. LEE

559 260, BREECH OF BLAKELY GUN 463 310. THE GRANT MEDAL.

561 261. BLAKELY Bolt. 464 811. TORPEDO NET

561 262, GRAINS OF GUNPOWDER . 464 812. PERCUSSION TORPEDO

562 263. INTERIOR OF FORT SUNTER

465 313. MEDAL FROM THE FRENCH DEMOCRATS 568 264. PLYMOUTH IN 1864 470814. PLACE OF JOHNSTON'S SURRENDER

575 265. PORTRAIT OF LIEUTENANT CUSHING

472 315. Dávis's Prison, IN FORTRESS MONROE 578 266. THE RAN ALBEMARLE 473 316. THE NATIONAL CAPITOL.

581 267. NEW IRONSIDES AND MONITOR

474 317. INTERIOR OF CHRISTIAN COMMISSION CHAPEL 586 268. PORTRAIT OF H. C. WHITING 475 319. INITIAL LETTER-PEACE.

559 269. LAND AND SEA FRONTS OF FORT FISHER 475 319. THE RICHMOND "Bridge of Sighs"

597 270. MOUND BATTERY 478 320. THE JARVIS HOSPITAL

605 271. POWDER SHIP 478 321. PORTRAIT OF H. W. BELLOWS

605 272. SALLY-PORT OF FORT MOULTRIE 482 322. SEAL OF THE SANITARY COMMISSION

609 278. SECESSION GUN 483 323. PORTRAIT OF VINCENT COLYER

610

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THE CIVIL WA R.
Τ

OHAPTER I.

OPERATIONS IN VIRGINIA.–BATTLE OF CHANCELLORSVILLE.-SIEGE OF SUFFOLK.

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HILE a portion of the

National troops were achieving important victories on the banks

of the Lower Mississippi,' those composing the Army of the Potomac were winning an equally

a July, 1868. important victory, not far

from the banks of the Susquehannah. We left that army in charge of General

Joseph Hooker, after sad disasters at Fredericksburg, encamped near the Rappa

hannock;' let us now observe its movements from that time until its triumphs in the conflict at Gettysburg, between the Susquehannah and the

Potomac rivers.
During three months after General Hooker took com-

mand of the army, no active operations were undertaken by either party in the strife, excepting in some cavalry move

ments, which were few and comparatively feeble. This inaction was caused partly by the wretched condition of the Virginia roads,

and partly because of the exhaustion of both armies after a most fatiguing and wasting campaign. The Army of the Potomac, lying at Falmouth, nearly opposite Fredericksburg, when Hooker took the command, was weak and demoralized. Despondency, arising from discouragement on account of recent disasters, and withering homesickness, almost universally prevailed, and desertions averaged two hundred a day. The relatives and friends of the soldiers, at home, were equally despondent, and these, anxious for the return of their loved ones, filled the express trains with packages

1 See the closing chapter of volume II.

VOL. III.—80

? Page 497, volume II.

18

INFLUENCES OF THE PEACE FACTION.

containing citizens' clothing, in which the latter might escape from the service. Great numbers fled in these disguises.

At the time we are considering (close of January, 1863), Hooker found the number of absentees to be two thousand nine hundred and twenty-two commissioned officers, and eighty-one thousand nine hundred and sixty-four

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non-commissioned officers and privates. These were scattered all over the country, and were everywhere met and influenced by the politicians opposed to the war.

These politicians, and especially the faction known as the Peace Party, taking advantage of the public disappointment caused by the ill-success of the armies under McClellan and Buell in the summer and early autumn of 1862, had charged all failures to suppress the rebellion to the inefficiency of the Government, whose hands they had continually striven to weaken. They had succeeded in spreading general alarm and distrust among the people; and, during the despondency that prevailed after the failure of the campaign of the Army of the Potomac, ending in inaction after the Battle of Antietam,' and of the Army of the Ohio in Kentucky, when Bragg and his forces were allowed to escape to a stronghold near Nashville, elections were held in ten Free-labor States, and, in the absence of the votes of the soldiers (two-thirds of whom were friends of the administration), resulted in favor of the Opposition. In these ten States Mr. Lincoln's majority in 1860 was 208,066. In 1862, the Opposition not only overcame this, but secured a majority of 35,781.

The expectation of conscription to carry on the contest, increased taxation, high prices of fabrics and food, and a depreciated currency were made powerful instruments in turning the public mind to thoughts of peace by means of compromise ; especially when, after the Emancipation Proclamation was issued, the Peace Faction, assuming to speak for the entire Opposition, declared, with seeming plausibility, that “the war for the preservation

1 This is from a photograph by Gardner, taken from the Stafford side of the Rappahannock, and showing the ruins of the railway bridge, near the spot where the troops crossed on the pontoon bridges, in December, 1861. See page 489, volume II.

? Testimony of General Hooker before the Committee on the Conduct of the War, April 11, 1865. The total of absentees doubtless included all the desertions since the organization of the Army of the Potomac, and the siok and wounded in the hospitals. It is estimated that 50,000 men, on the rolls of the army at the time we are considering, were absent. 3 See chapter XVIII., volume II.

* See page 511, volume II.

REORGANIZATION OF THE ARMY.

19

the army.

of the Union had been perverted to a war for the negro.” The political battle-cry of the Opposition, before the elections, was, “ A more vigorous prosecution of the war !” Now the Peace Faction that gave complexion to the general policy of that Opposition, discouraged further attempts to save the Republic. In this they seem to have been encouraged by army officers, a large proportion of whom, in the Army of the Potomac, and especially of those of high rank, were, it is said, hostile to the policy of the Government in the conduct of the war. The Emancipation Proclamation had quickly developed, in full vigor, the pro-slavery element among these officers, many of whom openly declared that they never would have engaged in the war had they anticipated this action of the Government. While the army was now at rest, the influence of these military leaders was powerful in and out of camp,' and, acting with the general despondency in the public feeling, had an ill effect, for a little while, upon

Hooker's first care was to prevent desertions, secure the return of absentees, and to weed out the army of noxious materials. The express trains were examined by the provost-marshals, and all citizens' clothing was burned. Disloyal officers were dismissed so soon as they were discovered, and the evils of idleness were prevented by keeping the soldiers employed. Vigilance was everywhere wide awake, especially anong the outlying pickets, whose rude huts of sticks, brush, and earth, at times white with snow, dotted the landscape for miles around the camp. Important changes were made in the organization of the army, and in the various staff departments; and the cavalry, hitherto scattered among the Grand Divisions, and without organization as a corps, were consolidated, and soon placed in a state of greater efficiency than had ever before been known in the service. To improve them, they were sent out upon raids within the Confederate lines whenever the state of the roads would permit, and for several weeks the region between Bull's Run and the Rapid Anna was the theater of many daring exploits by the cavalry of both

armies. Finally, at the middle of April, Hooker's ranks were well filled by the return of absentees, and at the close of that month, when he felt prepared for a campaign, his army was in fine spirits, thoroughly disciplined, and numbered one hun

dred and ten thousand THE LACY HOUSE-HOOKER'S HEAD-QUARTERS. 4

infantry and artillery,

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PIOKET HUT.

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1 Hooker's testimony before the Committee on the Conduct of the War.

2 The same. : See page 485, volm e II. * This is a view of the Lacy House, opposite Fredericksburg, from which Sumner observed the opera

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