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four additional slabs belonging to the same frieze as those already in the British Museum, and various fragments of other sculptures, some of them of a high order of merit, but almost all in a very mutilated condition.
We cannot attempt to follow in detail the progress of the excavations which were carried on by Mr. Newton upon the site of Halicarnassus, from the month of November 1856 till that of March 1858. Those readers who are desirous to trace his operations step by step, will find them related in the fullest detail by Mr. Newton, in his recently-published work. Our purpose in the following pages will be to examine how far the results of these long-continued labours, under the direction of so competent a scholar and archæologist as Mr. Newton, have fulfilled the hopes naturally entertained from them by the public, and have enabled us to form a more correct idea of the long-lost Mausoleum, both as regards its architectural design and the sculptures with which it was decorated. The results of these researches had been already partially communicated to the public in two official reports from Mr. Newton, addressed to the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, and laid before Parliament in March 1858 and August 1859, while many persons had become familiar with the most important of the sculptures discovered on the site, which have been for some time past deposited in the British Museum, though they are not yet accessible to the general public. But it was not until the appearance, in February last
, of Mr. Newton's elaborate volume, that the whole results of the er: pedition were laid before the public, or that it became possible for archæologists to appreciate the full extent of the advantages actually gained, and the additional materials obtained towards a knowledge of ancient architecture and sculpture.
There is indeed much in the form in which these results are even now produced by Mr. Newton to which we are disposed to take exception. The costly mode and form of publication, which have the effect of rendering the work itself inaccessible to the great majority of those who would be interested in its contents, might be excused, if it were really required for the adequate illustration of the subject; but many of the plates by which the folio volume now before us has been swelled to its present bulk might undoubtedly have been spared, without omitting anything that possesses the smallest real interest. The perilous facility which the process of photography affords for reproducing every step in the progress of such labours as those in question, has misled Mr. Newton into laying before the public many trivial and uninteresting details, which contribute nothing to our real knowledge, either of the Mausoleum itself or the sculptures with which it was adorned. But it is a still
graver defect in this volume that, while it contains much that is useless and unnecessary, it omits a great part of that which the public would have reasonably expected to see, and which would have formed a valuable addition to our knowledge.
a We find two large views of a single squared stone, and two others of a stone coffin, of the most ordinary construction; but we remark, with equal surprise and regret, that while these details are thus elaborately represented, and no less than seven plates are devoted to the illustration of the mediæval castle of Budrum, the greater part of the sculptures which form the most important result of the expedition have been unaccountably omitted. Mr. Newton has indeed figured the four additional slabs of the frieze representing the battle with the Amazons, and belonging to the same series as those previously known; but he has omitted the beautiful fragments containing a chariot race, which certainly belonged to a distinct frieze, and one apparently of far superior execution. Still more remarkable is it that he should not have thought fit to present us with the statue of Mausolus himself, the crowning-point of the whole monument; nor with the noble fragments of the horses of his chariot; nor even the admirable torso of the warrior on horseback*, by far the finest work of art discovered in the course of the excavations. We should have been glad, also, to have seen the slabs from the castle at Budrum reproduced in connexion with those newly discovered: these important sculptures are not, so far as we are aware, published in any work generally accessible to the English readerț, and certainly would have occupied with advantage some of the space now devoted to the mediæval towers and modern bastions of the Castle of St. Peter's. It is much to be regretted that the results of Mr.
* This fragment is generally considered to be that of an Amazon on horseback ; but an attentive consideration of the details of the figure has convinced us that Mr. Newton is right in describing it as that of a warrior. The anaxyrides, or close-fitting trousers, though frequently found in works of art representing Amazons, are equally applicable to any Asiatic warrior.
† Mr. Newton himself refers his readers to the engravings of these bas-reliefs, published by the Roman Institute of Archæological Correspondence, a most valuable series of publications, but unfortunately little known in this country. Considering that these marbles have now been in England for sixteen years, it is a disgrace to our artists and archæologists that they should not yet have been published in
Newton's labours should be given to the public in a form so little calculated to render them generally useful; but it is still more lamentable that a work produced in so costly and elaborate a form should fail in presenting us with a complete and satisfactory view of the results actually obtained.
Before we proceed to inquire more particularly into the architectural questions connected with the Mausoleum, and to examine the elaborate attempt at its restoration by Mr. Pullan, it may perhaps be useful to some of our readers if we give a brief account of the history of Mausolus himself, and the circumstances that led to the erection of the monument which has given immortality to his name.
Mausolus, prince or despot of Caria, was the eldest of the three sons of Hecatomnus, a Carian by birth, who had for a considerable period ruled over that country with virtually sovereign power. Of the steps by which Hecatomnus attained to power we have no information at all, nor are we able to determine with any certainty the precise nature of his relations to the supreme authority of the king of Persia. But it is probable that he availed himself of the disturbed state of the Persian empire under the reign of Artaxerxes Mnemon to establish himself in a position of practical independence, without venturing openly to disclaim allegiance to the Great King.
The policy of Hecatomnus was carried on and developed by Mausolus, who succeeded him in the year 377 B.C., and, during a reign of twenty-four years, attained to an amount of wealth and power far exceeding that of any former ruler of Caria. He not only made himself master of all the Greek cities in that province, but of several of the neighbouring islands, together with portions of the adjoining provinces of Lydia and Ionia. Neither Hecatomnus nor Mausolus, however, ventured to assume the title of king: the Persian monarch was still emphatically the ‘king' in the eyes of all the rulers of the Asiatic provinces
, whether they exercised their authority nominally as his satraps or vicegerents, or openly defied it and assumed the position of independent potentates.
It was doubtless with a view to identify himself more completely with the Greek portion of his subjects, and to promote the extension of Hellenic influences in his dominions, that Mausolus determined to transfer his capital from Mylasa
, the seat of government of Hecatomnus, to Halicarnassus, one of the most important of the Greek cíties on the coast recently added to his dominions. Though both Hecatomnus and Mausolus were of Carian origin, and would consequently have been regarded by all persons of pure Greek descent as barbarians
- a name applied by them without distinction to all races that did not speak Greek there can be little doubt that Mausolus had received, in part at least, a Greek education : and he appears to have been a man of sufficient ability to appreciate the superiority of the Greek civilisation of his time to that of the Asiatic nations by which he was surrounded. The favourable situation of Halicarnassus for commercial purposes, and the excellence of its port, as well as the natural strength of its position, were the circumstances that determined him in the choice of his residence: but not content with these advantages, he called in the assistance of Greek architects to embellish the city with splendid public buildings, and render it in all respects a capital worthy of his dominions.
So considerable were the additions thus made to the old city of Halicarnassus, that it assumed in great measure a new aspect; and it is cited with especial commendation by Vitruvius as an example of a city laid out upon a general plan so as to take the fullest advantage of the natural resources of the locality. The situation had something of the form of a theatre, formed by gentle hills rising round an oval basin in the centre, which constituted the principal port. On the low ground near the port was placed the Agora or Forum, while a broad street was carried round the curve, about half way up, so as to resemble the precinctio of a theatre. In the middle of this street stood the Mausoleum, ' a building constructed in so magnificent a
manner as to be considered one of the seven wonders of the • world.' On the summit of the citadel, which rose midway along the curve, stood a temple of Mars, while the two horns or extremities were respectively marked by conspicuous edifices
that on the right by the temple of Venus and Mercury, and that on the left by the royal palace, which was so placed as entirely to command a secret port, that served as the station of the royal fleet.
It will be observed, that in the passage just cited from Vitruvius the Mausoleum is noticed as if it formed part of the original design of Mausolus himself. There would have been nothing unsuited to the habits of Oriental thought in such a provision for his own monument, and it is not improbable that its position may have been already determined by himself, with reference to the general plan of the city. But the general testimony of ancient authors distinctly ascribes its construction to his widow, Artemisia, who succeeded him on the throne of Caria.
* Vitruvius, lib. ii. c. 8.
Artemisia was the second princess of the name who figures in the history of Caria. The exploits of the first, who commanded the contingent of Halicarnassus in the great expedition of Xerxes, will be familiar to most of our readers from the spirited narrative of them given by Herodotus. It was the energy and courage displayed by her at the battle of Salamis that called forth the exclamation from Xerxes himself, that his
men had become women, and his women men.' The second Artemisia, who was very probably descended from her namesake, though we have no positive evidence of the fact, appears to have possessed much of the same masculine vigour of character. She was the daughter of Hecatomnus, and married -according to a custom prevalent in many Oriental countries, though wholly opposed to Greek ideas — to her brother, , Mausolus, whom she succeeded on the throne of Caria. Her reign only lasted two years, during which she gave many proofs of her aptitude for command, and ruled over the dominions which she inherited from her husband with a strong and vigorous hand. The Rhodians having attempted to discard her authority, and emancipate themselves from the dependent condition to which they had been reduced by Mausolus, soon found that they had mistaken the character of the adversary with whom they had to deal, and were speedily defeated and reduced to submission.
But it is not to her military prowess, or to the vigour of her administration, that Artemisia owes her place in history. “The ' name of the Carian princess' (observes Mr. Newton) is
associated for ever with the world-famous monument by which • she has commemorated her husband's renown and her own • sorrow. Well were it, if the same lofty conception and liberal application of the noblest arts to monuments dedicated to the memory of the illustrious dead were to be met with in the structures of our own age!
• In the obsequies of Mausolus (says Mr. Newton) the refinement of Hellenic culture was happily employed in giving scope and meaning to Asiatic magnificence, and in converting an ephemeral and sumptuous pageant into an abiding monument of beauty.
‘At the funeral games, four renowned rhetoricians contended for prizes in oratory and poetry, the theme being an eulogium on the departed prince. In this competition Theodectes obtained the prize for his tragedy “ Mausolus,” and Theopompus vanquished his master in rhetoric, Isocrates. It is to be regretted that no fragments of the prize compositions have been preserved to us, as they would probably throw light on the history of the Carian dynasty, and perhaps on the motive of the sculptures of the Mausoleum.
• While rhetoric and poetry were thus invited to celebrate the