Page images
PDF
EPUB

Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1862, by D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District of New York.

Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1876, by D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, in the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.

Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1880, by D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, in the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.

Entered, according to Aot of Congress, in the year 1883, by D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, in the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.

Among the Contributors to the Fifteenth Volume of the Revised Edition are

the following:

Prof. Cleveland Abbe, Washington, D. C.

[ocr errors]

Snow.
Storms.
Trade Winds.

Bvt. Brig. Gen. Henry L. Abbot, U. S. A.,
Willet's Point, N. Y.
Torpedo.

Hon. George Bancroft, Washington, D. C.
Southampton, Henry Wriothesley, Earl Of.

WlLLARD Bartlett.
SnTDR.

Tanganyika.
Tuibet.

Prof. C. W. Bennett, D. D., Syracuse University.

Sofie, Joshua.
Strong, James.
Syracuse (University).

Julius Bino.

Sicilies,

Stael-holstein, Baroness de,
Tasso, Torquato,
Thiers, Loria Adolphe,

and other articles in biography, geography, and

history.

Hon. James Black, Lancaster, Pa.

Total Abstinence.

Fbancib O. Bowman.

Sivori, Ernesto Camtllo.
SrEADivABi, Antonio.
Tttjens, Tiiirk.se.

Edward L. Burlingamk, Ph. D.
Stuart, Arabella.

Rev. CnARLES P. Bush, D. D.

Surra, Eli.
Syria (in part).

C. H. Carter, Waterbury, Conn.

Town (in part).

Robert Carter.

Stevens, Thaddeus.

Story, Joseph.

Sumner, Charles.

Tayloe, Zaciiabt.'

John D. Champion, Jr.

Shomkr, Jebel,

Slang,
Spain,
Sweden,

and other articles in biography and geography.

Prof. E. H. Clarke, M. D., Harvard University.

Squill,
Strychnia,

and other articles in materia medics.

Hon. T. M. Coolkt, LL. D., University of
Michigan, Ann Arbor.
Slaveet (in part),
Taney, Roger Brooke,
Taxes,

and other legal articles.

Prof. E. Curtis, M. D., College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York.

Spectacles.

Rev. S. S. Cutting, D. D.

Slater, Samuel.

Prof. J.'C. Dalton, M. D., College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York,

Smell,
Stomach,
Taste,
Thorax,

and other medical and physiological articles.

Rev. B. B. Drake.

TlIEOpnYLACT, Simocatta.
TOEOPUYLACT, ARCHBISHOP.

Prof. M. J. Drennan.

Siemens, Ernst Werner.
Siemens, Karl Wiluslm.
South Sra Scheme.

Eaton S. Drone.

South Carolina,
Strauss, Family Op,
Tennessee,
Trade Mark,

and other articles in American geography.

Prof. Thomas M. Brown, M. D., Lafayette
College, Easton, Pa.
Steel.

Robert T. Edens, M. D., Harvard University.

Articles in materia medics.

W. M. Ferriss.

Targums,
Trigonometry,

and articles in biography and history.

Prof. Willard Fiske, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y.

Sweden, Language And Literature Op (in part).

Joseto Fitzgerald.
Silk.
Stocking.
Straw.

Lieut. Com. Henry n. Gobeinoe, U. S. N.,
Washington, D. C.
Tarragona.
Teneriffe.
Tbibtan Da Cunha.

Prof. W. E. Gbiffis, late of the Imperial College, Tokio, Japan.

Tokio.

Tomomi Iwakuba.

Prof. James Morgan Hart.
Tkli, William.

J. W. Hawks.

Springfield, Mass., Ohio, Ill., and Mo.,
Texas,

Treston, N. J.,

and other articles in American geography.

Louis Hetlprin.

States Oenebal.
Thirty Years' War.

M. Heilpmn.

Slavonia.

Taurus.

Theace.

Prof. Joseph Henry, LL. D.
Smithson, James.
Smithsonian Institution.

G. A. Hewlett, Shreveport, La.
Shbeveport.

Prof. J. E. Hilgard, U. S. Coast Survey,
Washington, D. C.

Tides.

Thomas Ititchcock.

SWEDBEBG, JEAI'EB.
SWEDENBOBQ, L.MAMTL

CnABLKS L. Hogeboom, M. D.
SODIUM.
Sulphur,
Sulphuric Acid.

Prof. Thomas Henry Huxley, LL. D., Royal
School of Mines, London.

SPECIES.

Lieut. Henry Jackson, U. S. A., Office of Chief
Signal Officer, Washington, D. C.
Signal Service.

RossrrKR Johnson.

Tennyson, Alfred,

Thackeray, William Makepeace,

and other articles in literary biography.

Prof. C. A. Joy, Ph. D., Columbia College,
New York.
Silicon,

and other chemical articles.

Joseph C. G. Kennedy, LL. D., Washington, D. C.

Siiubrick, William Crawford.

Prof. S. Kneeland, M. D., Mass. Inst, of

Technology, Boston.

/ Silkworm,
Stag,
Swallow,
Tortoise,

and other articles in zoulogy.

Prof. S. P. Langley, Allegheny Observatory,
Allegheny, Pa.
Sun (in part).

Charles Lindsey, Toronto, Canada.

Toronto.

Prof. Joseph Lovering, Harvard University. Telegraph Tin part).

Capt. S. B. Lee, U. S. K, U. S. Navy Yard, Boston.

Signals, Natal. Prof. Alfred M. Mayer, Stevens Inst. of Technology, Hoboken, N. J. SorND. Spectrum. Stereoscopr.

Rev. Andrew B. Morse, Danbury, Conn.

Si A M (fa part).

Rev. Franklin Noble.

Spuroeon, Charles II Addon,
Sunday Schools,

TnANKSGIVINO Dat,

Tract And Publication Societies,

and articles in biography and geography.

Rev. Bernard O'reilly, D. D.
Sisterhoods, Roman Catholic,
Syllabus,
Trappibts,

and other articles in ecclesiastical history.

Prof. 8. F. Peckham, University of Minnesota,
Minneapolis, Minn.

Tallow.
Tar (in part).

Edward T. Peters, Bureau of Statistics,
Washington, D. C.
Trades Union.

Richard A. Proctor, A. M., London.
Spectrum Analysis,
Star,

Sun (in part\
Telescope (in part),
Transit (in part).
Transit Circle (in part),

and other astronomical articles.

Prof. Rossiteb W. Raymond, Ph. D., Editor of the "Engineering and Mining Journal."

Silver.
Tin.

Philip Ripley.

Stock Exchange.
Swimming.
Tichboene Trial.

Richard E. Roberts, "Y Drych" Office, Utica, N. Y.

Stanley, Henry M.

Thomas T. Sabine, M. D.

Stone.

Surgery (in part).

Epes Sargent, Boston, Mass.
Spibituausm.

Prof. A. J. Sotem.

SiBTRRnooDS, Protestant,
Switzerland (in part),
Tueologt (in part).

and various articles In geography and history.

J. G. SnEA, LL. D.

Shoshones,

Sioux,

Tecumbfh.

and other articles on American Indians.

Prof. J. A. Spencer, D. D., College of the
City of New York.
Temple, Frederick.
Thomson, William.
Trbgelles, Samuel Petdeaux.
Tbench, Richard Chexxvix.

E. C. Stedman.

Stoddard, RicnABD Hexby.
Taylor, Bayard.

Prof. Frank H. Stores, College of Agricultural Chemistry, Harvard University. Symbols, Chemical (in part).

Homer D. L. Sweet, Syracuse, N. Y.

Syracuse, N. Y. Bayard Taylor.

Stedman, Edmund Clarence.

Prof. George Thcbbeb.

SoBGnuM,

Stbawuebby.

Sundew,

Tea,

Tobacco,

Torrey, John,

and other botanical articles.

Prof. Robert H. Thurston, Stevens Inst. of Technology, Hoboken, N. J.

Stram.

Steam Boileb.
Steam Carriage.
Steam Engine.
Steam Navigation.
Stbength of Materials.

Prof. G. A. F. Van Rhyn, Ph. D.

SlAM, LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE OF,
TlIEBEB,

TlScnENDOBF, LOBEGOTT,

and other archaeological, oriental, and philological articles.

C. S. Weyman.

Sidney, Algernon.
Sidney. Sir Philip.
Spain, Wineb Of.

Prof. Junius B. Wheeler, U. S. M. A., West
Point.

Siege.

Prof. W. D. Whitney, LL. D., Yale College, New Haven, Conn.

Syriac Language And Literature.

Prof. E. L. Youmans.

f. Spencer, Herbert.

THE

AMERICAN CYCLOPAEDIA.

SOOMER

SOOXEB, Jebel, an inland division of Arabia, between lat. 25° 40' and 32° N., and Ion. 37° 20' and 47° 20' E., bounded N. by the Syrian desert, N. E. by Irak Arabi, S. E. and S. by the Wahabeo sultanate, and W. by Turkish Arabia. It is divided into the provinces of Jebel Shomer, Jowf, Kheybar, Upper Kasim, and Teyma, with a total population estimated by Palgrave in 1862 at 440,000, including 166,000 nomadic Bedouins. Jebel Shomer in its general aspect is a flat table land, a large part of which is desert, with occasional oases. These are merely depressions in the desert surface, and take sometimes the form of a long valley covered with a thin soil, under which water may generally be found at the depth of a few feet. Fruits, bushes, herbs, and coarse grass grow in sufficient quantities to supply food for the Bedouins and their camels and flocks. The entire N. portion is covered by a rocky desert. On the E. border, abont lat. 81°, is a long valley, called Wady 8irhan or Serhan (valley of the wolf), which extends from near Bozrah in Syria in a S. E. direction to about lat. 29° 20' in Arabia, where its base rests on Wady Jowf, a deep valley lying E. and W., and which may be considered the porch or vestibule of central Arabia. (See Jowf.) The Wady Sirhan is the common route for caravans to and from Syria. S. and E. of Jowf lies a wide expanse of sandy desert. The caravan route to the province of Jebel Shomer lies across this wasto in a 8. E. direction through what is called the Nefud or Sand pass, consisting of parallel ridges of loose reddish sand 200 to 800 ft. high, where no water can be obtained for nearly 100 m. The route runs beside a small range of hills called Jebel Jobbah, a cluster of black granite rocks streaked with red, about 700 ft. high. Beyond them, on the south, is a barren plain, partly white and incmsted with salt, partly green and studded with palm groves, among

which is the small village of Jobbah. From the heights overlooking Jobbah are visible in the southeast the main range of Jebel Shomer, and in the southwest the palm groves of Teyma, famed in Arab history, and supposed by some to be identical with the Teman of Scripture. Beyond Jobbah the undulations are not so deep, and the sand has occasional shrubs and tufts of grass. The plain gradually rises as it approaches the mountain ranges, which, stretching N. E. and 8. W., cross two thirds of upper Arabia. These ranges, Jebel Adja on the north, the mountains of Upper Kasini on the south, and Jebel Solma between, lie nearly parallel, and are separated by broad plains covered with grass and shrubbery. Within their limits is the chief centre of population of Shomer. Hayel, the capital, lies in an extensive plain between Adja and Solma, girt on every side by a high mountain rampart. The only approach from the north is by a narrow winding defile through Jebel Adja, which 50 men could defend against thousands. The range of Jebel Adja, or Jebel Shomer as it is now more generally called, is a ragged granitic mass, piled up in fantastic disorder, attaining at times an elevation of 1,400 ft. above tho plain, but Solma does not rise more than 700 or 800 ft. Good crops of grain, fruits, and vegetables are raised by a laborious system of artificial irrigation. The date is the principal fruit. There is a considerable trade by caravans between Hayel and Medina on the southwest, and Riyad, the capital of Nedjed, on the southeast. Many howes and asses are exported. Upper Kasim, the southernmost province of Shomer, is an elevated plateau, forming part of a long upland belt that crosses diagonally the northern half of tho peninsula, one extremity reaching nearly to Zobeyr, near the head of the Persian gulf, and the other to the neighborhood of Medina. Its surface is covered with shrubs and brushwood, and in spring and summer with grass. This great plateau is intersected at intervals by long broad valleys, which contain villages built around wells, surrounded by palm groves, gardens, and fields, and varying in population from 500 to 3,000. Dates are exported in large quantities to Yemen and Hedjaz, and cotton is raised to a small extent.—The sultanate of Jebel Shomer originated in the present century. In 1818 Abdallah, an ambitious chief of the family Rashid, was driven out of Hayel by his rival Beyt Ali, who assumed the sovereignty. Abdallah took refuge at the court of the Wahabee monarch, who was then reconstructing his father's dominions, and for his services to him was made absolute governor of Shomer, with right of succession, and supplied with the means to establish his rule. Beyt Ali and his family were cut off, and Abdallah made himself master of the whole mountain district. He died about 1845, and was succeeded by his son Telal, who extended his dominions, subdued the Bedouins, invited trade from abroad, and established law and order. Under his rule the country has made rapid advances in civilization and prosperity, and has become virtually independent.

SHOOTING STABS. See Meteor.

SHORE, Jane, an English woman, the wife of Matthew or William Shore, a goldsmith in London, and mistress of King Edward IV. She was beautiful and amiable, and Sir Thomas More says that the king's favor "she never abused to any man's hurt, but to many a man's comfort and relief." After the death of the king she became attached to Lord Hastings; and when Richard III. had resolved on the destruction of that nobleman, he acoused Jane Shore of witchcraft and of having withered his arm by soroery. The king, though he sent her to prison and confiscated her goods, did not attempt to maintain his charge of witchcraft; but the bishop of London caused her to do public penance for impiety and adultery. After the death of Hastings, Thomas Lynom, the king's solicitor, desired to marry her, but was prevented by the king. She lived till the time of Henry VIII., and tradition represents her as dying of hunger in a ditch. A celebrated tragedy by Rowe is founded on her story.

SHOSHONE, the N. county of Idaho, bounded S. by the Clearwater river, and intersected in the north by Clarke's fork of the Columbia and the Kootenay river; area, about 12,000 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 722, of whom 468 were Chinese. It is watered by tributaries of the Clearwater river and by the Spokane river, and contains Cceur d'Alene and Pend d'Oreille lakes. The surface is mountainous. There is fertile land around the lakes and along the streams. Timber is abundant, and there are extensive placer gold mines. Capital, Pierce City.

SHOSHOXFS, or Snakes, a family of North American Indians, embracing the Shoshones proper, the Utes, Comanches, Moquis, Chemehueves, Cahuillo, and the Kechi, Kizh, and Ne

tela of California. The Shoshones proper are a large and widespread people. According to their tradition, they came from the south, and when met by Lewis and Clarke in 1805 they had been driven beyond the Rocky mountains. The various Shoshone bands have gone by numerous names. The most important were the Koolsatiksfra or Buffalo Eaters, who have long defended their homes on Wind river, and the Tookarika or Mountain Sheep Eaters, a fierce tribe in the Salmon river country and upper Snake river valley. The western Snakes near Fort Boise were separated from the others by the kindred Bannacks. The Shoshocos (footmen), called also White Knives, from the fine white flint knives they formerly used, were digger tribes on Humboldt river and Goose creek, and included apparently most of those in the basin of Great Salt lake. These bands were generally mild and inoffensive, lurking in the mountains and barren parts, and having little intercourse with the whites. About 1849 they were in open war, and the peace made with some of the bands at Salt Lake, in September 1855, did not end it. In 1862 California volunteers, under Col. Connor, nearly exterminated the Hokandikah or Salt Lake Diggers in a battle on Bear river. Waushakee's and other bands of the Koolsatikara Shoshones made peace at Fort Bridger, July 2, 1863; Pokatello's and other bands of the Tookarika at Box Elder, July 30; the Shoshooo or Tosowitch at Ruby valley, Oct. 1; and the Shoshones and Bannacks at Soda Springs, Oct. 14. In 1864 the Yahooskin Snakes made peace, and with the Klamaths and Modocs ceded their lands; and on Aug. 12, 1865, the Wohlpapes also submitted. The government did not promptly carry out these treaties, and many of the bands renewed hostilities. In 1867, in the campaign of Gen. Steele, a number of Indians were killed, and immense stores of provisions laid up by the Shoshones were destroyed. Gen. Augur at last allowed them to come in and make peace at Fort Bridger. The government then attempted to collect the whole nation and restrict the Shoshone bands to certain reservations. The Yahooskin and Wohlpape Snakes had prospered on the Klamath reservation, although their crops frequently failed. The Fort Hall reservation in Idaho was begun in 1867 for the Bannacks, and several bands of Shoshones, about 1,200 in all. The Shoshone reservation in Wyoming, set apart under treaty of July 8, 1868, for Waushakee's and other bands of eastern Shoshones and Bannacks, is exposed to attacks from the Sioux, and only about 800 have united there. There are also the northwestern Shoshones in Nevada and Utah, estimated at from 2,000 to 3,000, and a band of 400 in the N. W. part of Idaho.—Vocabularies have been obtained from various bands of the Shoshones, but no critical study of their language has appeared. The Episcopalians have a mission on the reservation in Wyoming.

« PreviousContinue »