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million dollars' worth of stores, followed by an abortive movement against New Orleans. The Quantrell massacre at Lawrence, Kansas, occurred on the 13th of August. Another Laird ram was launched on the 13th of September, on which occasion Mr. Adams wrote to Lord Russell: “This is war." He was then assured that orders had been issued which would prevent the rams from leaving Liverpool.
On the 15th of June the President called into the Government service, for six months, fifty thousand militia-men from Pennsylvania, ten thousand from Maryland, thirty thousand from Ohio, and ten thousand from West Virginia. The Governors of New York and New Jersey voluntarily sent a large number in addition. General Hooker, after tarrying more than a week at Centreville, broke camp, crossed the Potomac, and advanced to Frederick. His army, including fifteen thousand from the defenses of Washington and a brigade from Schenck (commanding at Baltimore), was about one hundred thousand strong, which he estimated to be less in number than the army of Lee, and earnestly urged that French's corps at Harper's Ferry (about eleven thousand) be added to his command. This was denied him, and on the 27th he telegraphed to General Halleck, asking to be relieved. This request was granted, and on the next day a confidential messenger from the War Department (Colonel Hardie) brought Hooker an order to turn over the command to Major-General George G. Meade.
On the 29th, General Lee ordered the concentration of his forces at Gettysburg. On the following day General Meade, with headquarters at Taneytown, and
five of his seven corps at or near Emmitsburg, directed a general movement towards his chosen battle-ground, a dozen miles southeastward from Gettysburg, on the line of Pipe Creek. Before these purposes were completely executed on either side, Buford's cavalry encountered Hill's advance on the Cashtown road, July 1st, three miles from Gettysburg. A stubborn fight ensued, the First Corps (Reynolds) and the Eleventh (Howard) later becoming engaged with forces of Hill and Ewell. There were severe losses on both sides, General Reynolds being among the killed. His corps (under Doubleday) at length fell back to Seminary Ridge. Howard, who was assailed in flank and routed by a division of Ewell, rallied the men of both corps on Cemetery Ridge, which he had before noticed when passing as offering a good position for defense. The enemy made no further attack that evening. Responding to urgent calls, the Third Corps (Sickles) and the Twelfth (Slocum) came up before dark. Hancock, whose corps (the Second) arrived later, had been personally sent in advance to examine the position and to assume temporary command. Meade himself was at hand before ii o'clock, already determined to make a stand at Gettysburg. All his forces in the field except the Sixth Corps (Sedgwick) — which was thirty miles off when new orders were received were present in the early morning. The Twelfth was placed on the right of the Eleventh, the Second on its left, the First, Third, and Fifth (Sykes) in this order prolonging the line to the extreme left. The Sixth appearing soon after noon, wearied with its long and rapid march, was held in reserve in the rear of the left. Gregg's cavalry
guarded the approaches on the right and Kilpatrick's on the opposite wing. Meanwhile, Ewell's corps was posted on the Confederate left, in front of Slocum and a little beyond; Hill's in the center, on Seminary Ridge; and Longstreet's on the right; the town and valley extending for miles between the two armies.
The main action of the second day began late in the afternoon. About 4 o'clock Meade, riding to the left of his lines, found that the corps of Sickles, instead of occupying the ridge directly out towards Round Top Hill, - a commanding position, which neither side had yet seized, — was more than half a mile in advance of the place intended in the orders given him, and across the Emmitsburg road, with almost half of Lee's army within striking distance. When Sickles, in reply to remonstrance, proposed to conform to the original orders as explained, Meade responded that the change would hardly be permitted by the enemy. Just then, in fact, the Confederate batteries opened a heavy fire, and after prolonged cannonading, a furious infantry charge was made on the lines of Sickles, who was driven back, with heavy losses at the “Peach Orchard " and the “Wheat Field,” as well as around the base and up the slopes of Little Round Top. The enemy was finally repulsed, and Round Top occupied and securely held.
Ewell, who had succeeded in gaining some advantage on the Union right at Culp's Hill, was attacked the next morning by Slocum, and after a brisk conflict the latter re-established his original line. Aside from this affair, there was a pause during the long summer morning of the 3d. At 1 o'clock the Confederate batteries — one hundred and fifteen guns, in front of Longstreet's
and Hill's infantry lines — opened with terrible energy on the Union center, held by Howard, Doubleday, and Hancock. This enormous cannonading and the answering guns of Meade roared and reverberated for nearly two hours. Then the fire from Cemetery Ridge slackened, and presently ceased. The Union infantry, which had meanwhile been well sheltered and suffered little, now prepared to meet the expected charge. The assailing battalions soon appeared, a long array in battle order, preceded by skirmishers and supported by reserves. The vast body of men, rapidly moving over the intervening valley with measured tread, was a grand sight to the men who stood in arms behind intrenchments to meet the onslaught. Pickett's division, with Wilcox's brigade on its right and Heth's division (under Pettigrew) on its left, formed the assaulting line. Reaching the Emmitsburg road, the assailants are met with destructive volleys from infantry posted here behind a stone wall, and with murderous missiles from the artillery on Round Top and eastward along the ridge. The Confederates still sweep forward, driving the opposing infantry from its advance position, and silencing, one by one, the guns that are most annoying in the immediate front. The Union line is broken through and a Confederate flag planted on a captured part of the intrenchments. It is but a momentary triumph. Pettigrew's men, in spite of the frantic efforts of their wounded commander, give way, and are scattered in confusion. One and another brave leader falls in Pickett's command, which is left to contend alone against the masses pouring in to recover the ground he has won.
Outflanked, Pickett finally orders a retreat, and his rapidly
thinning ranks are hotly pursued. The charge is over. Lee's repulse is complete. Ought not his entire army to be routed and destroyed? That would have been Napoleonic. But Meade, relieved to have fared no worse and glad to have gained so much, shrank from risking all to gain more.
The Union losses during the three days, as officially reported, were: Killed, 2,834; wounded, 13,709; missing, chiefly prisoners, 6,643 — total, 23,186. Jefferson Davis, in his history, conceded a Confederate loss of nineteen thousand out of a total force of sixty-two thousand, and called this "unfortunate" battle the most "eventful” one of the war. It was in truth one of the bloodiest the world has ever seen.*
The Fourth of July was a day of great rejoicing in Washington over the victory at Gettysburg, and over the capture of Vicksburg and its whole army, securing control of the Mississippi River from its source to the Gulf.
War Records : Unior-killed, 3,155; wounded, 14,529. Confederate-killed, 3,803; wounded, 18,741.