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cating slaves of disloyal owners in certain cases, and enjoined obedience to these statutes in the army and navy services.]

And the Executive will, in due time, recommend that all citizens of the United States who shall have remained loyal thereto throughout the rebellion, shall (upon the restoration of the constitutional relation between the United States and their respective States and people, if the relation shall have been suspended or disturbed) be compensated for all losses by acts of the United States, including the loss of slaves.

CHAPTER IX.

1862.

Confederates Aggressive at the West Bragg and Buell

Perryville - Van Dorn and Rosecrans - Corinth Missouri and Arkansas - Prairie Grove.

In the West, after the occupation of Corinth and Memphis, Buell returned to his special task in Tennessee. Weeks passed with little progress on his part in approaching Chattanooga. Raids began to be made on his communications; in July, Forrest surprised and captured Murfreesboro; Clarksville, with a large amount of military stores, was taken on the 18th of August; while John Morgan harassed other parts of Tennessee and ranged widely through Kentucky. These were scattering drops preceding the storm. Emboldened by their success at Richmond, the Confederates were everywhere assuming the aggressive, intent upon carrying the war into the borders of their

enemy. Buell had been languidly holding Stevenson, Bridgeport, McMinnville, and Cumberland Gap. Bragg, succeeding Beauregard in command at the West, had occupied Chattanooga, retaining there the two corps of Hardee and Polk, while Kirby Smith was given a separate command at Knoxville. After his cavalry had well scoured the country in Buell's rear, Bragg crossed the

Tennessee above Chattanooga on the 24th of August, and, moving rapidly up the Sequatchie Valley, was across the State line in Kentucky on the 5th of September. Kirby Smith meanwhile advanced from Knoxville by Big Creek Gap, broke up General Nelson's encampment near Richmond, Kentucky, on the 30th of August, and reached Lexington on the 4th of September. Moving thence by Paris, he paused at Cynthiana, menacing both Louisville and Cincinnati, then advanced a force to Latonia Springs, within seven miles of the latter city. On the 12th he retreated, and was pursued as far as Florence by General Lew Wallace, who had been sent to Cincinnati with troops from Grant's command. Bragg, advancing rapidly to the Louisville and Nashville Railway, captured the force guarding the bridge over Green River at Munfordsville on the 17th -- the day on which McClellan and Lee were fighting at Antietam Creek. The next day Bragg issued a manifesto calling on the people of Kentucky (after the manner of Lee in Maryland) to make common cause with the Southern Confederates. Meanwhile his foraging parties and those of Kirby Smith, farther north, improved every hour in accumulating supplies of grain and live stock from Kentucky's abundance. Bragg reached Frankfort on the ist of October; was joined there by Smith; and the weary soldiers were refreshed with the spectacle of inaugurating a “ Provisional Governor of Kentucky.” Neither the new Governor (Mr. Hawes) nor the army, however, stayed long at the State capital. General Buell, when he found out that his adversary was in his rear, gathered his forces and turned northward also. Starting from Nashville on the 15th of September,– to “run a race with Bragg for Louisville," people said, Buell's troops began arriving in that city on the 25th.

Mr. Joshua Speed gave the following reminiscence of this period of anxiety and excitement at the West, when Kentucky was overrun by Bragg and Kirby Smith, and “ Nelson had been beaten in battle near Richmond, and lay wounded in Cincinnati":

Ohio, Indiana and Illinois were alarmed, and Kentucky aroused. A self-constituted committee of distinguished gentlemen determined to go and advise with the President as to what was best to be done. I happened to be present at the interview. Senator Lane opened for Indiana, Garrett Davis followed for Kentucky, and other gentlemen for Ohio and Illinois. They all had complaints to make of the conduct of the war in the West. Like the expression in the prayer-book, the Government was doing everything it ought not to do, and leaving undone everything it ought to do.

The President sat on a revolving .chair, looking at every one till they were done. I never saw him exhibit more tact or talent than he did on this occasion. He said: “Now, gentlemen, I am going to make you a curious kind of speech. I announce to you that I am not going to do one single thing that any of

you has asked me to do. But it is due to myself and to you that I should give my reasons.” He then from his seat answered each man, taking them in the order in which they spoke, never forgetting a point that any one had made. When he was done, he rose from his chair and .said: “ Judge List, this reminds me of an anecdote which I heard a son of yours tell in Burlington, in Iowa. He was trying to enforce upon his hearers the truth of the old adage that three moves are worse than a fire. As an illustration he gave an account of a family who started from Western Pennsylvania, pretty well off in this world's goods when they started. But they moved, and moved, having less and less every time they moved, till after a while they could carry everything in one wagon. He said that the

chickens of the family got so used to being moved, that whenever they saw the wagon sheets brought out they laid themselves on their backs and crossed their legs, ready to be tied. Now, gentlemen, if I were to listen to every committee that comes in at that door, I had just as well cross my hands and let you tie me. Nevertheless, I am glad to see you.” He left them in good humor and all were satisfied.

The invaders caused a great scare; materially strengthened the Opposition party at the polls in three large States that held elections in October, and — what was of no slight value — they were to take away with them an ample supply of fine horses, mules, neat cattle, corn, and other commodities much needed for the coming winter. The conduct of Buell through the summer, and especially in these later affairs, was so unsatisfactory to the President that, while the army lay at Louisville, an order was issued transferring the command to Major-General George H. Thomas. The latter, however, generously urged the retention of Buell, and made such representations that the order was withdrawn.

While the invaders were having their diversions at Frankfort, Buell was again getting his army in motion. In the evening of October 7th, the advance of Gilbert's corps — pursuing the now retreating enemy — found a body of Confederates (Polk's corps) strongly posted on the hills overlooking the Chaplin River valley, near Perryville. Buell, who was with Gilbert in person, made no attempt to dislodge his opponents that night, but at once ordered McCook and Crittenden to come to the support of Gilbert. In the morning, Jackson's division was furiously assailed by Cheatham. Jackson

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