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Illinois, 3; in the Western States, 11. In whites; but measures have since been in England, the density of the population is progress for removing those within the about 230 persons to the square mile; in limits of the states to a region on the France, 160 ; in Germany, it varies from western borders of Arkansas territory; 100 to 200.* The number of Indians and we have no certain data as to the within the U. States was estimated, in actual number now remaining within the 1830, at about 313,000, of which upwards settled parts of the U. States. Many of of 215,000 were to the west of the limits those who remain have become so above described as inhabited by the much intermingled with blacks, that they
* The following curious speculations concern- the same rate. The Mexican Indians, and probing the future progress of the population of the ably the Peruvians, bave also been increasing, American continent are deserving of attention. but slowly, while nearly all the independent They are taken from the Encyclopædia Britannica, tribes have been mouldering away. The black now publishing in Edinburgh, article America. population does not maintain its numbers in the " Humboldt gives the following estimate of the West Indies : it is rather increasing in Brazil, entire population of America in 1823 :
and in the U. States it grows rapidly. Setting Proportion.
aside the West Indies, where the negroes do not Whites, ..........13,471,000 38 per cent.
increase, and attending to the continent merely, Indians, 8,610,000 25
let us take the number of each class as it stands slaves, · 5,000,000 ?
at present, and see what the result will be in a Negroes,
19 free, 1,433,000
course of years, assuming the rate of increase to Mixed races,...... 6,428,000 18
be three per cent. for the whites, one and a half
per cent. for the negroes, and one per cent. for 34,912,000
ihe civilized Indians. If the whole population is If we assume the annual ratio of increase to be two
40,000.000 at present, the continental whites will per cent. per annum upon the whole, the entire
be about 16,000,000, the Indians about 9,500,000, population in 1830 will be about 40,000,000, dis
the negroes 5,000,000, and the mixed race tributed as follows :
7,000,000. In Spanish America, it may be as
sumed that the mixed race, consisting almost enBrazil, 5,000,000 | British Amer
tirely of mestizoes, will merge into the white, and Colombia, 2,860,000
1,870,000 increase nearly in the same ratio. We shall
21,000,000 Paraguay, 250,000 Danish America, 40,000
42,000,000 Banda Oriental, 100,000 Dutch America, 114,000
84,000,000 Guglimala, 2,000,000 Independent
1905, ...168,000,000 Mexico, 8,000,000 Indians, 1,400,000
1930, ...336,000,000 U.States, 12,000,000
As the difficulty of providing for the growing The black population of America forms three
annual increment of inhabitants must increase groups, the centres of which are in the southern with the inagnitude of the population, let us asparts of the U. States, in the West India islands, sume that, ai the end of a century, the rate of inand in the eastern parts of Brazil :
crease falls to two per cent. The period of
doubling will then be ihirty-six years. U. States,..
.2,000,000 West Indies,.....
2002,.... .1.344,000,000 Brazil,. . .2,800,000
. 2,380,000,000 7,200,000
Thus, in two centuries, the whites now in Ameri. The number of blacks in all other parts of Ameri- ca would multiply to a mass of people three ca probably does not amount to 100,000.-One times as great as are at present on the whole surof the most interesting questions connected with face of the globe. The new continent, though America, relates to the increase and probable less than hali' the size of the old, contains at least amount, at a future period, of its inhabitants. It
an equal quantity of useful soil, and much more was the astonishing progress of the U. States that than an equal amount of productive power. Of first clearly unfolded the principles on which the the 31,000,000 of square miles which compose multiplication of human beings depends. We the three eastern continents, we cannot find that know with certainty that a prosperous community, the productive soil constitutes so much as one possessing abundance of unoccupied land, will third, and of that third a part is poor. Now, in double its numbers in 25 (23) years, without any estimating the useful soil of America, we rejert, aid from emigration ; and as the scale ascends in 1. all the region northward of the latitude of 53• a geometrical ratio, a short time necessarily pro- amounting to 2.600,000 square miles; 2. a belt duces a wonderful change. It is to be observed, of barren land about 300 miles broad by 1000 in however, that the whites, possessing the advan- length, or 300,000 square miles, lying on the east tages of superior industry, order, and forethought, side of the Rocky mountains; 3. a beli of arid land, naturally increase faster than the other classes. of similar extent, situated on the east side of the In the U. Stales, this part of the population in- Andes, between 24° and 40' of south latitude ; creases at the rate of three per ceni. (5!) per an- 4. the desert shore of Peru, equal to 100,000 num; and when the Spanish American republics square miles; 5. an extent of 100,000 square have settled down into a tranquil state, there is no miles for the arid country of California and doubt that their white inhabitants will multiply at Sonora; and 6. an extent of 500,000 square
may be more properly designated as col- Nantucket, . . 7,202 Newport, . 8,010 ored persons than as Indians. (See In- Springfield, · 6,784 Scituate, ... 6,853 dians, American; Indian Languages of Lowell,(1832)10,000 Warwick, . . 5,529 America ; and Tsulakees.)
Connecticut. Towns with a Population of more than Cambridge, . 6,071 New Haven, 10,678 5000.
Taunton, · 6,045 Hartford, . . . 9,789
Roxbury,. . . 5,219 Middletown,. 6,892 Portland . . 12,601 Boston, 61,392 Marblehead, . 5,150 Norwich,. . . 5,169
Salem, New Hampshire. Charlestown, 8,787 13,886 Middleboro', . 5,008
New York. Portsmouth, . 8,082 New Bedford, 7,592
New York, 203,007 Dover, ... 5,449 Gloucester, . . 7,513 Providence, 16,882 Brooklyn, · 15,396
miles for the summits of the Andes and the sources of America were fully developed, it would southern extremity of Patagonia. These make afford sustenance to 3,600,000,000 of inhabitants, an aggregate of 3,900,000 square miles, which, a number five times as great as the entire mass of deducted from 13,900,000, the whole surface of human beings existing at present upon the globe. the American continent, leaves 10,000,000 square And, what is more surprising, there is every probmiles as the quantity of useful soil. Now, what ability that this prodigious population will be in relation does the fruitfulness of the ground bear to existence within three, or, at most, four centuries. the latitude of the place? The productive pow. The imagination is lost in contemplating a state ers of the soil depend on two circumstances, of things which will make so great and rapid a heat and moisture ; and these increase as we ap- change in the condition of the world. We almost proach the equator. First, the warm regions of fancy that it is a dream; and yet the result is the globe yield larger returns of those plants based on principles quite as certain as those which they have in common with the temperate which govern the conduct of men in their ordinary zones; and, next, they have peculiar plants, which pursuits. There are many elements of disorder afford a much greater proportion of nourishment now operating in Spanish America, but these are from the same extent of surface. Thus maize, merely the dregs left by the old Spanish despot. which produces 40 or 50 for 1 in France, pro- ism; and the Anglo-American republic is a pole. duces 150 for 1, on an average, in Mexico ; and star to guide the people in their course towards Humboldt computes that an arpent (five sixths freedom and prosperity. Nearly all social imof an acre), which will scarcely support two provements spring from the reciprocal influence men when sown with wheat, will support fifty of condensed numbers and diffused intelligence. when planted with bananas. From a considera- What, then, will be the state of society in America tion or these and other facts, we infer that the two centuries hence, when a thousand or two nutritive powers of the soil will be pretty correct- thousand millions of civilized men are crowded ly indicated by combining the ratios of the heat into a space comparatively so narrow, and when and moisture, expressing the former of these in this immense mass of human beings speak only degrees of the centigrade scale.
two languages ! We take for granted that the Annual Rain. Mean An-1 Latitude.
Portuguese will merge into the Spanish; and it is Product. Ratio.
clear to us that the Russian will never obtain a 600 16
112 4 footing in the new world. Such a state of things 45 14 406
may be said to undo the curse of Babel, and re96
2688 100 store the great mass of mankind to their pristine Thus the same extent of ground which supports facility of intercourse ; for the languages spoken four persons at the latitude of 60° would support by the communities of Europe and Asia will be as fifteen at the latitude of 45°, and 100 at the equa
unimportant then, in the general scale of the globe, But the food preferred will not always be
as the dialects of Hungary, Finland and Bohethat which the land yields in greatest abundance; mia are in Europe at this day. History shows and the power of the human frame to sustain
that wealth, power, science, literature, all follow labor is greatly diminished in hot climates. On
in the train of numbers, general intelligence and these grounds, we shall consider the capacity of freedom. The same causes which transferred the land to support population as proportional to
the sceptre of civilization from the banks of the Euthe third power of the cosine for the latitude. It phrates and the Nile to Western Europe, must, in will therefore stand thus :
ihe course of no long
period,carry it from the latter
to the plains of the Mississippi and the Amazon. Latitude, .......
30° 45° 609 Society, after all, is in its infaney; the habitable Productiveness,...100
35 124 world, when its productive powers are regarded, Assuming that the number of persons whom a may be said hitherto to have been an untenanted square mile can sustain withoui pressure is 150 waste. If any one suspects us of drawing on our at the latitude of 50', we have 26 as the sum fancy, we would request him to examine thorwhich expresses the productiveness of this paral- oughly the condition and past progress of the lel. Then, taking, for the sake of simplicity, 35 North American republic. Let him look at is as the index of the productiveness of the useful amazing strides in wealth, intelligence and social soil beyond 30° in America, and 85 as that of the improvements ; at its indestructible liberty; and, country within the parallel of 30° on each side of above all, at the prodigious growth of its popathe equator, we have about 4,100,000 square miles, Jation ; and let him answer the question to himeach capable of supporting 20 persons, and selt, what power can stop the tide of civilizatios 5,700,000 square miles, each capable of support. which is pouring from this single source over an ing 190
persons. It follows that, if the natural re- unoccupied world."
Albany, 24,238 Delaware.
972 Troy, 11,405 Wilmington, . 6,628 Brunswick, Me.,
3,747 Rochester, *. . 9,269
3,526 Buffalo, 8,653
2,523 Utica, 8,323
1,155 Fishkill, 8,292 Baltimore, . 80,625 ,
Chillicothe, Ohio, 2,846 Johnstown, 7,700
1,076 Gates, 7,484 District of Columbia. Columbia, S. C.,
3,310 Manlius, ...7,375 Washington, 18,827 Columbus, Ohio,
2,437 Poughkeepsie, 7,222 Georgetown, 8,441 Concord, N. H.,
3,727 Salina, .... 6,929 Alexandria, 8,263 Crown Point, N. Y., 2,041 Brighton, * . . 6,519
Detroit, Michigan, 2,222 Newburgh, 6,424 Virginia.
6,215 Richmond,. 16,060 Fayetteville, N. C. 2,868 Seneca,. . 6,161 Norfolk, . . . 9,816
1,680 Bethlehem,. . 6,092 Petersburg, 8,322
4,427 Brookhaven, . 6,095 Wheeling, . . 5,221
Fredericksburg, Va., 3,307 Sempronius, . 5,705
Germantown, Penn., 4,642 Onondaga, 5,668 South Carolina.
2,344 Huntington, · 5,582 Charleston, 30,289
Hagerstown, Md. 3,371 Iludson, 5,395
Hanover, N. H., : 2,361 Ellisburgh,. . 5,292 Georgia.
Indianapolis, Ind., 1,200 Ithaca, 5,270 Savannah,
Lebanon, New, N. Y., 7,303
2,695 Hector, . 5,212
Lexington, Mass., . 1,541 Dryden, 5,206 Augusta, 6,696
Litchfield, Conn., . 4,458 Oyster Bay, . 5,193 Louisiana. Canandaigua, 5,162
There are in the U. States 205 towns Schoharie, 5,146
New Orleans, 46,310 with a population of upwards of 3000 New Paltz, . . 5,105
and less than 5000 inhabitants, 64 with
Tennessee. Lenox, . 5,039
upwards of 5,000 and less than 10,000, Warwick, .. 5,013 Nashville, . . 5,566 and 20 with upwards of 10,000. New Jersey.
Kentucky. 3. Commerce, Manufactures, AgriculNewark, . . 10,953 Louisville
, . 10,352 ture, and Mechanic Arts. We have alNew Brunswick, 7,831 Lexington, . . 6,104 ready treated, at considerable length, of
the commerce and agriculture of the U. Paterson, 7,731 Ohio.
States, the articles Commerce of the Pennsylvania. Cincinnati (1831),
World, Agriculture, and Horticulture, to
which we refer the reader for further inPhiladelphia, 167,811
28,014 formation on these subjects. The followPittsburg, 17,000
Missouri. Lancaster, . . 7,704
ing tables will serve to show, in some
degree, the progress of the commerce of Reading, 5,859 St. Louis, 5,852 the country, and the nature of the articles
'exported and imported. There are a number of towns described in the early volumes of this work, which Commerce of the Colonies. were prinied before the census of 1830
Exports to Imports from was taken. We take this opportunity to
G. Britain. G. Britain. give their population according to that 1701,
£309,136 £343,828 census, with that of a few in later
249,816 293,662 volumes.
468,190 319,705 1730,
662,586 536,862 Andover, Mass., 4,540 1740,
718,418 813,384 Annapolis, Md., 2,623 1750,
804,770 1,313,076 Athens, Ohio,
761,101 2,611,766 Augusta, Me., 3,980 1770,
1,015,538 3,725,575 Ballston Spa, N. Y., 2,113
1,369,232 1,979,416 Bennington, Vt., 3,419
The village of Rochester is situated in the It should be remarked, in regard to this townships of Gates and Brighton.
table, that there was a very active trade
Year. duce or Manufacture
kept up with other countries by the colo- Summary Statement of the Value of the
Manufacture of the U. States, during
the Year commencing on the 1st of Oc-
eign Produce exported from the U. September, 1831.
Dried fish, or cod fisheries, . $625,393
Pickled fish, or river fisheries,
Total Value of -herring, shad, salmon,
Whale and other fish oil,
Product of Wood-
Masts and spars,
Oak bark and other dye-stuffs, 99,116
All manufactures of wood, .. 275,219
Rye, oats, and other small
grain and pulse,
Biscuit, or ship bread, 250,533
Fire engines and apparatus, 5,630
Manufactures of glass, .
of pewter and lead, 6,422
of marble and stone, 3,588
of gold and silver,
and gold leaf,
Gold and silver coin,
Artificial flowers and jewelry,. . 11,439
ARTICLES NOT ENUMERATED.
96,931 Articles not enumerated, .. 1,109,992
Total, . 61,277,057
Deduct gold and silver coin, . 2,058,474
facture of the U. States, . . $59,218,583
The exports of foreign produce for the
same period amounted to $20,033,526.
American and Foreign Tonnage employed in the Coasting, Foreign and Fishing
Trade, from 1790 to 1825.
228,496 26,439 937,806 121,403
700,500 375,207 33,223 1,108,930 217,413