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July 20-21, in which the 6th Maryland regiment and some of the United States regulars were stoned, but the rioters were put down by the government troops sent at the request of Governor Carroll of Maryland. In Pittsburg the Philadelphia militia was attacked by a mob on July 21-22 and the troops were fired upon. Many were killed on both sides. The troops took refuge in a roundhouse but they were besieged and the roundhouse burned by the mob and in the end the troops were compelled to leave the city. The mob then destroyed 125 locomotives and nearly 1,600 cars, the Pennsylvania Railroad sustaining a loss of nearly $2,000,000. Riots also occurred at Buffalo, St. Louis, Chicago, Columbus and San Francisco.*

During the summer of 1877 occurred a short war with the Nez Percé Indians of Idaho. The government had forced them several years before to take a chief who was not of their selection to the exclusion of a member of one of the illustrious families of the

tribe-Joseph. They then became discontented and restless. Joseph, however, did not relinquish his claim to the chieftancy and when a portion of the tribe were removed to a reservation, Joseph and his band, denying the right of the government to disposses them, refused to go. In 1871 Joseph died and his son of the same name became his successor.

* Carroll D. Wright, Industrial Evolution of the United States, pp. 301-306; Ezra H. Heywood, The Great Strike.


White settlers now began to encroach on Joseph's domain, and in 1875 he was peremptorily ordered to leave. Joseph refused and troops were sent to drive him out, despite the remonstrance of General O. 0. Howard. Hearing of the advance of the troops Joseph resolved to strike the first blow and in the early part of June, 1877, took the warpath. By July 10 more than 30 lives had been sacrificed, chiefly Chinamen, but the troops were now pressing the Indians hard and the latter experienced difficulty in eluding the soldiers. On July 12 the first engagement occurred and 11 soldiers were killed. The Indians

maintained the contest for many weeks until General Miles was sent against them. He succeeded in cornering them early in October and on the 5th of that month Joseph and his band surrendered at Eagle Creek, Montana.*

After Sitting Bull, the Sioux chief, had destroyed Custer's command (as recorded in a previous chapter) he eluded the other troops and escaped As the government could not send troops into British territory to capture the Indians and

into Canada. As the

as the Indians could not be enticed across the line again, a commission was appointed to negotiate a treaty of peace and friendship with the old chief. As word had now been received of the surrender of the Nez Percés, the commission consisting of General A. H. Terry and A. G. Lawrence, con

*Miles, Personal Recollections, pp. 259-280.

sidered the time favorable for negotiating their treaty. They met Sitting Bull on October 17, 1877, but could not come to any satisfactory agreement and returned. The Indians then remained quiet until 1880.

Sitting Bull now experienced trouble from another quarter, for the Canadian authorities notified him that unless he and his tribe moved from Canadian territory troops would be sent to expel him. Perceiving that he could no longer successfully resist and as the extreme cold was causing much suffering among the members of his tribe, he expressed a desire to make terms with the United States authorities. In the autumn of 1880, Rain-inthe-Face and about 1,000 of Sitting Bull's warriors surrendered; others gradually followed this example but the wily chief himself feared for his life and still refused to surrender. He was finally pursuaded by General Miles to accept the proferred amnesty and on July 19, 1881, returned to the United States where he remained quiet for several years.'

In the summer of 1878 there was

and bloody fighting the tribes were finally conquered. The Cheyennes also went on the warpath and in September massacred many whites in eastern Colorado. United States troops were sent after them also and the Indians, after suffering a crushing defeat, fled into Nebraska. They were then imprisoned at Fort Robinson, Nebraska, but escaped from that place in January, 1879. The troops which set out in pursuit finally surrounded them and after surrender had been refused, almost exterminated the band.

The Utes on the western frontier of Colorado now took their turn in making trouble, and under chief Ouray broke out into active hostility in the early autumn of 1879. In September, N. C. Meeker, the Indian agent at White River, complained that the Utes resisted his agricultural operations and he appealed to the national government for protection. Major Thornburg, with three companies of cavalry, was sent to Meeker's aid, but

while on the march the detachment was ambuscaded by the Utes, at Milk more trouble with the Indians, this Creek, Colorado, on September 29, time with the Shoshones and Bannocks of northern Oregon. These tribes, in the early part of June, went on the warpath against the whites, but United States troops under Generals Howard and Miles were sent against them, and after three months of severe

Judson E. Walker, Campaigns of General Custer in the Northwest and the Final Surrender of Sitting Bull, pp. 59-76; Miles, Personal Recollec tions, pp. 306–318.

and the commander and several of his men were killed and about twenty wounded. Beside this the Indians killed about three-fourths of the trooper's horses and burned a wagon train. The troops thereupon intrenched and for six days were surrounded by the Indians, but they held out until relieved by troops under

* Miles, Personal Recollections, pp. 294-301.


Colonel Merritt who repulsed the Utes on October 5. In the meantime, however, the Indians had murdered Meeker and the whites at the White River agency and carried off the and carried off the women and children into captivity, but upon the arrival of reënforcements these were surrendered by the Indians to General Adams. After several months the Utes who were guilty of the massacre were surrendered and by a treaty of peace between the national government and chief Ouray, in September, 1880, the Utes sold their lands.*

The Apache Indians also caused the government much concern during 1879 and 1880. Under the leadership of their chief, Victorio, these Indians overran New Mexico, and beside destroying and confiscating much property, also killed many whites. Victorio successfully combatted the efforts of the United States and Mexican authorities to capture him for a long time, but in October, 1880, the Mexican troops cornered the band and Victorio and many of his warriors were killed and the others captured.†

Foreign affairs also occupied the attention of President Hayes and his Cabinet and an important dispute the fishery dispute was apparently settled during his term of office.

By the terms of the Treaty of Washington concluded in 1871 the fishery dispute was to be settled by a commission of three members, one each

* Miles, Personal Recollections, p. 319. †S. M. Barrett, Geronimo's Story of his Life, pp. 98-104.


appointed by the United States and Great Britain, the two then selecting the third member. There was also a provision that if the first two could not agree upon the third commissioner within a period of three months after the article should take effect, the minister of Austria-Hungary at London should name him.

This dispute had awaited settlement for many years. As finally signed on September 3, 1783, Article III of the Treaty of Paris gave our fishers the same rights in British North American waters that they had before the Revolution. But when the commissioners were discussing the terms for the second treaty of peace at Ghent in 1814 the fishery clause was the subject of much wrangling and was finally omitted altogether from the treaty. In October, 1818, a convention was signed, by the terms of which the former privileges were again restored to the Americans on condition (Article I) that they should neither "take, dry or cure fish on or within three marine miles of the coasts, bays, creeks or harbors" of Canada. Then came the reciprocity treaty of June 5, 1854, executed by Secretary of State Marcy and Lord Elgin, Governor-General of Canada as plenipotentiary of Great Britain. By this treaty the Americans were to enjoy the use of the inshore fisheries of the Canadian waters, and the Canadians were given certain privileges of free trade with us, heavy duties being laid on our principal articles of export to Canada in favor of British merchants, whereas the

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