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lators rather than by manufacturers and traders."'*

But in the spring of 1884 a slump in the prices of agricultural products had also occurred. The wheat crops of the world were larger than ever before and as a result the price fell below that of 1878. The decreased price produced a stagnant condition in interior trade because the Western farmers would not ship their produce East but preferred to hold it for more favorable market conditions. As a consequence railway freight traffic was greatly diminished. Dividends on railroad stocks, therefore, were greatly reduced and in many cases passed, and consequently investors hesitated to embark in railroad enterprises of great magnitude.†

The situation was thus a double handicap to the Republicans in the coming presidential election, for they must account for a financial panic in the East and depression in the Western agricultural markets. They were also called upon to explain governmental extravagancies and the prevalence of corruption.

The presidential and vice-presidential candidates were as follows:

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The Republican platform demanded that the imposition of duties on foreign imports shall be made, not 'for revenue only,' but that in raising the requisite revenues for the government such duties shall be so levied as to afford security to our diversified industries and protection to the rights and wages of the laborer." The party pledged itself to a readjustment of the tariff, urged the establishment of an international standard in the coinage of gold and silver, and the enactment of laws for the regulation of railways, and denounced the importation of contract labor.

The Democrats denounced the Republican party as "an organization for enriching those who control its machinery," and called attention to the many pledges of former years that the Republicans had not redeemed. The platform pledged the party to


purify the Administration from corruption, to restore economy, to revive respect for law and to reduce taxation to the lowest limit consistent with due regard to the preservation of the faith of the nation to its creditors and pensioners." It further pledged a revision of the tariff; recommended more intimate commercial relations with the North, Central and South American republics; favored the enactment of laws by which labor organizations might be incorporated; and demanded a broader policy toward the American merchant marine. In this election the ranks of the Republican party were rent by internal disputes, for the reform element was


bitterly opposed to Blaine. These reformers, called "mugwumps, led by Carl Schurz and G. W. Curtis and were represented in the press by the New York Times and Harper's Weekly. They repudiated the party nominees and platform, endorsed Cleveland, and threw all their influence on his side. This bitterly fought campaign was characterized and disgraced by gross personalities, and the result was close.

At a meeting of clergy, in which all denominations were supposed to be represented, held at the Fifth Avenue Hotel, New York, in the interests of the Republicans, one of the ministers, Rev. R. B. Burchard, in a speech declared the Democratic party to be the party of "Rum, Romanism and Rebellion." This unfortunate and misdirected remark created much excitement and did untold harm to the Republican cause, for though Blaine denied any responsibility for it the Democrats had spread millions of circulars bearing the charge broadcast over the land and the denial came too late. Cleveland was elected, receiving

219 electoral votes against 182 for Blaine.*

The year 1884 was also noted because of the opening of the Brooklyn Bridge, at that time the largest wire suspension bridge in the world. In this year also Alaska was constituted a regularly organized territory of the United States.

On Saturday, February 21, 1885, the great Washington Monument, at the national capitol, was dedicated with imposing ceremonies. The orator of the occasion was Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, of Massachusetts, who in 1848 had been the orator when the cornerstone of the same monument was laid. The monument is 555 feet high and cost about $1,500,000.+

* Stanwood, History of Presidential Elections, pp. 375-411, and History of the Presidency, pp. 419-449; McClure, Our Presidents and How We Make Them, pp. 288-315; McPherson, Handbook of Politics, 1884, pp. 197-222; Blaine, vol. ii., pp. 572-593; Sherman, vol. ii., pp. 885-890; Hoar, Autobiography, vol. i., pp. 405-408; lives of Cleveland by W. U. Hensel, pp. 93-120; W. 0. Stoddard, pp. 166-198; J. L. Whittle, pp. 56-66; lives of Blaine by Crawford, pp. 553-583; Hamilton, pp. 572-593; Stanwood, pp. 267-295; Ridpath, pp. 146-152.

Sherman, vol. ii., pp. 897-902, where speeches are given.






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President Cleveland inaugurated - His Cabinet-Death of Vice-President Hendricks - The Presi dential succession - Dispute between President and Senate - Repeal of Tenure-of-Office ActPension bills-The Hatch Act - Newfoundland fisheries dispute once more revived - Canadians seize American vessels Commission appointed and treaty signed Rejected by Senate - Modus vivendi agreed upon - The Samoan dispute Treaties signed by Samoans German aggressions Conference between Great Britain, Germany and the United States- - Independence of islands guaranteed by three powers-Disaster at Apia-Statute of Liberty presented to the United States by France - Edmunds-Tucker anti-polygamy bill passed - Charleston earthquake — Death of Chief Justice Waite - Fuller appointed - Department of Labor created Washington, Montana, North and South Dakota admitted - Johnstown flood - Indian troubles -Interstate Commerce Act Condition of finances - Mills tariff debate Labor conditions - Boycotts - Hay. market massacre - Decline of prices - Treasury surplus used to reduce interest-bearing debt

Elections of 1888.

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Grover Cleveland was sworn into office March 4, 1885. In his inaugural address he urged that public expenditures be limited to actual needs; he said that taxation ought to be reduced by a readjustment of the revenue schedules; and earnestly hoped that the country would continue on its course of peace, commerce and honest friendship with all nations."'* The members of the Cabinet were Thomas F. Bayard, of Delaware, Secretary of State; Daniel Manning, of New York, Secretary of the Treasury, succeeded by Charles S. Fairchild, of New York, in 1887; William C. Whitney, of New York, Secretary of the Navy; William C. Endicott, of Massachusetts, Secretary of War; L. Q. C. Lamar, of Mississippi, Secretary of

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the Interior, succeeded by William F. Vilas, of Wisconsin, in 1888; Augustus H. Garland, of Arkansas, AttorneyGeneral; and William F. Vilas, of Wisconsin, Postmaster-General, succeeded by Don M. Dickinson, of Michigan, in 1888, when Vilas became Secretary of the Interior.

On November 25 Vice-President Hendricks died, and the question of Presidential succession came under discussion. Congress when in session could, under the Constitution, make provision in case either the President or Vice-President should die or be removed from office, but should both these officials die at the same time while Congress was not in session, the country would be without executive guidance. President Cleveland, therefore, recommended in his annual message of December 8, 1885, to the first

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