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LAWTON KILLED; AGUINALDO CAPTURED.
Lawton called in one of his dispatches, a lovely battle." The enemy, to the number of 3,000, were entrenched along the river in trenches that were virtually bomb-proof, and in addition were led by a man who was impelled by the bravery of fanaticism. By the aid of the gunboats, however, the Filipinos were finally driven from their position, but instead of taking to their heels as was their wont in other engagements, they stood their ground and contested every inch. Their opponents, however, were not less brave and pressing forward finally drove the enemy a mile to the rear of their original position. The Filipino loss was heavy; the American forces losing 9 killed and 30 wounded.
After this serious defeat the Fili
soldier of the most perfect type. His
For two years the insurgents held out against the American authority, keeping up guerrilla warfare until by wounds, disease and disaffection all
The situation is best expressed by the letter written by General Wheeler (December, 1899) in tendering his resignation as a general in the volunteer army:
"The insurgent government is virtually destroyed. Aguinaldo is a fugitive in the northern provinces; his Cabinet and Congress are scattered. The president of the Filipino Congress is here, and from what he says I think it will be impossible for their Congress ever to reconThe various commands of the insurgent generals are reduced to mere skeletons and fly before us so fast that it is almost impossible to get within gun range."
pinos fell back to Imus, which, how-organized opposition was destroyed. ever, was occupied without resistance by General Wheaton's brigade on June 18. The next day, a mile from Imus, occurred the last collision of importance in the Tagalog revolt. At this place General Wheaton's brigade engaged a force of 2,500 Filipinos, which was utterly dispersed. As the result of this last campaign of Lawton, the territory surrounding Manila was cleared of organized opposition to American authority, and it is one of the strangely tragic facts of the war, that the man who should have done most to bring it to an end should lose his life in a trifling skirmish with a small body of the enemy at San Mateo. By the death of General H. W. Lawton, the United States lost a
The last chapter of the Tagalog revolt was closed by the capture of Aguinaldo by Colonel Funston, who by the means of a subterfuge, justifiable perhaps in war, captured the Filipino leader and brought him in
triumph to Manila. It was clear, however, that Aguinaldo had had enough punishment; his dreams of a Philippine republic or dictatorship were all dissipated, and therefore on April 2, 1901, he took the oath of alle
giance, and became a citizen of the country he had fought so long. With this he disappears from history. In reward for this and other daring enterprises Colonel Funston was made a brigadier-general.
THE END OF AN ERA.
Expansion of the United States - Porto Rico Reforms in Cuba and the establishment of the Cuban Republic - Partition of the Samoan Islands, and the annexation of Guam - Dewey's welcome "Embalmed beef" hearings, and the Schley Court of Inquiry - The Boxer uprising -The situation in the Philippines - The campaign of 1900, and re-election of President McKinley The effects of the War with Spain- The currency act of 1900-The assassination of President McKinley.
The theory that a nation is only an aggregate of individual units held together by some sort of an expressed or implied compact is denied by history. The one fact that stands forth clear and definite, when all accessory facts are eliminated is that a nation is organic, reproducing in a larger sense the conditions that hold with respect to the individual; and like the individual, it also passes through the periods of childhood, youth, manhood and old age. The duration of these periods vary from a generation to centuries, depending partly upon external conditions, but mainly upon the spirit and quality of the people itself. It is evident, in addition, that the passing from one plane to another. brings to the nation new responsibilities and new perils. Never has a nation developed with such tremendous
swiftness as the United States. During the course of a single century, with the exception of the small strip on the eastern coast comprising the original thirteen colonies, it has passed through all the stages of development that other nations have taken long periods of time to experience. In America today the primitive cabin of the pioneer still stands side by side with the palace of the promoter of enterprises beyond the dreams of conquering spirits of the past.
It was clear from the very beginning that the spirit of America could not be restricted by any very definite boundaries. Almost in spite of itself, and in spite of vast territories unused by its people, the area of the United States has gradually extended westward and southward, first by the Louisiana purchase, then by the ac
1. GUNBOAT CORADONGA ON THE RIO GRANDE RIVER. 2. THE "KANSAS AND UTAH SHORT LINE," A DUMMY TRAIN WHICH TRANSPORTED TROOPS TO THE FRONT FROM MANILA TO CALOOCAN. 3. AMERICAN SOLDIER LAID AT REST IN THE OLD TONDO CATHEDRAL. 4. ARTILLERY BOAT OESTE IN ACTIVE OPERATION ON THE PAMPANGA RIVER. 5. TROOPS FIRING FROM TRENCHES ON INSURGENTS. 6. GEN. HARRISON G. OTIS AND STAFF AT CALOOCAN.