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wards found in the streets that there was a widespread plot to massacre all foreigners and others opposed to the plans of the insurrectos. On the same day Aguinaldo had issued a vindictive proclamation to his followers declaring war against the Americans, which he followed up by others in a similar strain. Another complication was the attitude of the Spaniards, who encouraged Aguinaldo, and did much harm to the American cause by sending false reports regarding the acts of the army, and many, indeed, were reported to have entered the Filipino army.

The effort to create an uprising in Manila was a failure, although numerous incendiary fires occurred, the greatest damage being done in the Tonga district, the native quarters. The fires were extinguished with great difficulty as the work of the firemen was interfered with as much as possible by the natives cutting the hose and damaging the engines. At daybreak the attack was renewed, the army now being supported by the navy, which did much execution with shells hurled into the trenches of the enemy.

Against this double attack the insurgents could make no headway, and during the course of the day (February 5) their firing degenerated into intermittent skirmishes. Step by step their line was driven back until it occupied a position four to six miles further from the city. One of the objective points of the enemy was apparently the pumping station on Santolan hill, which was damaged by them but later repaired. The desperate nature of their enterprise is


indicated by this effort to destroy the water supply of a city of 500,000 inhabitants, with the untold suffering that would have followed. Fortunately, however, they were frustrated in this attempt.

As the result of the three days' fighting around Manila, San Juan del Monte, Santa Ana, San Pedro Macati, Santa Mesa, Lomia, and the Santolan pumping station fell into the hands of

the American forces.

For nearly a fortnight there were no new developments, the Americans contenting themselves with strengthening their positions, and the insurgents busying themselves in attempting to foment a general uprising. Aguinaldo issued a "most barbarous order given inhabitants of city by insurgent government to rise en masse on night of 15th; the scheme defeated by activity of provost marshal who had city well in hand.'*

In the meantime General Miller had been ordered to Iloilo, the second important city in the islands and a stronghold of the insurgents, and had been stationed there since January 1, 1899, with two regiments of infantry and a battery of artillery (18th United States Infantry; 51st Iowa Volunteers and Battery G, 6th Artillery). By specific command of President McKinley, who did not desire to precipitate a rupture with the Filipinos, no active measures were taken, the men remaining on board the transports under the guns of their convoy, the Baltimore, until the outbreak at Manila. Reinforced by the

* Gen. Otis's report to Adjutant-General, February 18.

1st Tennessee Volunteers, a landing was made February 7, and the town captured four days later. The native portion of the town was burned, but no damage done to foreign residents. The logic of events thus conspired to verify the President's cautious attitude. Already by these acts the Filipino leaders had revealed their true characteristics, and it became clear to the President that the uprising must be suppressed with no uncertain hand, or the Philippine Islands for an indefinite period would prove a curse to their people and to the people of the United States. In spite of the fact, therefore, that he was bitterly assailed in the press and on the platform as a military despot, the President called upon Congress to enact legislation increasing the regular army to 65,000 men, and to permit the calling for 35,000 volunteers for service in the Philippines. This request was granted in the act of March 2, 1899, and the administration was free to plan for the suppression of the Tagalog revolt, and for the future. welfare of the islands.

That the uprising was both powerful and widespread was evident from the developments at Manila, and General Otis began preparations for a campaign planned to suppress the revolt in the entire island of Luzon. The defenses of Manila were strengthened so that they could be held by a smaller force, thus permitting the organization of a strong army for the field operations. The main body of the Filipinos was massed to the north of Manila, their headquarters being at Malolos, the capital of the Filipino

government, 30 miles away on the line of the Manila and Dagupan Railway. It was planned to direct two columns against this place. It was reported that Malolos, and its near neighbors, Calumpit and Baliuag, were being strongly fortified, and made depots for munitions of war, in readiness for a movement against Manila. The Filipinos numbered some 10,000 men, and were under the leadership of the one really able general in the army, General Luna. It was planned to advance against these points by the way of Novaliches, a stronghold of the enemy a few miles nearer Manila. In pursuance of this plan, the American forces were divided into two divisions: one under General Lawton, who had recently arrived with reinforcements; the other, under General MacArthur. General Lawton's division was formed of the brigades of Generals Ovenshine, King and Wheaton; that of General MacArthur, the brigades of Generals Hall, H. G. Otis, and Hale.

The movement was initiated on March 25, the advance of the 2d division under General MacArthur being hampered not only by the constant attacks of the enemy, but also by the natural difficulties of the region. The land was elevated only a few feet above the level of the sea, which extended many tidal rivers and estuaries into the district occupied by the soldiers. In many cases these were very deep, and as the Filipinos made it a point to destroy all the bridges they could on the line of retreat, it


was often necessary for the soldiers to swim the streams. Flooded rice fields and dense jungles added to the dangers and discomforts of the campaign. Every inch of the advance was stubbornly contested by the Filipinos. In these operations against Malolos, MacArthur had, in addition to his regularly assigned brigades, that of General Wheaton, who was directed to advance along the railway and join the main force at Novaliches. A strong force of the enemy was met by him at Malinta, which was captured March 25-26, and heavy losses were experienced at the bridge crossing the Tuliahan river, the gallant Colonel Egbert of the 22d Infantry being one of the victims. On March 26, Wheaton's brigade united with the main body, and the combined forces attacked Polo, capturing the same and driving the enemy back with heavy losses. The twelve or more miles from Polo to Malolos was a continuous battle, collisions occurring at Mariloa, Bocave, and a last desperate stand was made by the Filipinos about a mile from their capital. Their works, however, were carried, and the American forces entered Malolos on March 31, only to find a deserted and burning town, with the enemy in full retreat towards Calumpit and Quingua. Aguinaldo then established his headquarters and capital at San Fernando, some 40 miles north of Malolos.

To gain Malolos, however, was one thing, but to hold it was quite another. The enemy had been driven back on


every occasion, yet at a fearful cost, the dead and wounded for the campaign being 534. The attempt to surround the Filipino forces by a combined flank and frontal attack had been a failure, the enemy retreating to safety before the movement was well under way. Nevertheless, the territory along the coast and the line of the railway for 50 miles was cleared of the enemy, so that future operations towards the north would be unhampered. The campaign had been an arduous one both on officers and men, and so, after the capture of Malolos, MacArthur's division remained inactive at that point until April 25.

The enemy,

But the position was far from a secure one, and should the enemy succeed in establishing themselves between Malolos and Manila, MacArthur's entire force would be endangered. To prevent such a movement, Generals Hale and Wheaton were directed to advance against Calumpit and San Fernando. under General Luna, were strongly entrenched at the former place, and as they had destroyed the bridge, it was impossible to drive them from their position. The problem was solved, nevertheless, by the Kansas regiment under command of Colonel Funston, which attained the opposite bank by swimming in spite of a fierce musketry fire. By the means of boats found on the other side the entire force was transferred. The advance against San Fernando was begun May 4, General Hale's brigade march

ing through a territory almost waistdeep in mud. There was no very strong effort to prevent the movement, although the enemy kept up a sort of guerrilla attack throughout the day, causing the loss of a number of men. On the next morning San Fernando, Aguinaldo's second capital, was occupied, and he was again in flight with his archives and treasury to farther north and deeper into the jungles of Luzon.

During MacArthur's advance against Malolos, General Lawton made a raid against Santa Cruz in order to capture a gunboat and some launches possessed by the insurgents. This was successfully done, but no effort was made to establish a force at Santa Cruz, as General Otis sent word to Lawton, April 15, to return to Manila, as his command was needed in other parts of the field of war. He was accordingly directed to organize a movement against the main body of the insurrectos, who were now stationed in the neighborhood of San Isidro, about thirty miles from Malolos. With his men in light marching order, General Lawton on April 22 began his advance to the north. Taking advantage of his experience gained in the Indian wars, this daring soldier began a whirlwind campaign that was in effect the death-blow to the cause of Aguinaldo. He took in succession Novaliches, San Juan del Monte, Norzagaray, Angat, Balinag, San Luis, Maasim, Ildefonso, Arayat, and on the 17th of May Aguinaldo was fleeing from the victorious columns, his last

capital, San Isidro, in the hands of the American forces. On May 24 Lawton joined General MacArthur's command, within one month having marched 120 miles, fought 22 battles. taken 28 towns, destroyed 300,000 bushels of rice, with a loss of only 5 killed and 35 wounded.

The chief characteristic of the Filipino is his elusiveness. The transition from a harmless peasant to an active insurgent apparently could be instantaneous, so as the insurrection was being hammered out of existence in the north, it sprang up anew in the south. At Las Pinas, only four miles from Manila, it became known that a strong force was being gathered under command of the notorious General Pilar. General Lawton, after his astonishing campaign against San Isidro, was directed to take the field against Pilar. against Pilar. With him were the brigades of Wheaton and Ovenshine, the advance being towards Paranaque, a few miles south of Manila, and just across Bacoor bay from Cavite. The position of the enemy being on the coast, the Monadnock, the Helena and the Napidan joined with the soldiers in the attack. After a short conflict, General Ovenshine's brigade entered Paranaque. This, however, was but the prelude to the real battle. On June 13, General Lawton with two companies of the 21st Infantry made a reconnoissance towards Bacoor, finding the enemy strongly entrenched at Zapote bridge. Reinforcements were sent for, and at this point occurred what General

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