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the State wherein these offices were located. He called upon the Senate to reject Robertson because Garfield in presenting his name had acted contrary to the "courtesy of the Senate." Conkling succeeded in withholding the consent of the Senate, but Garfield refused to make another nomination, and the two Senators from New York --Conkling and Platt-resigned their seats (May 16) as a protest, supposing that their immediate re-election would rebuke Garfield sufficiently to induce him to withdraw Robertson's name.

The conflict was now transferred to Albany and carried on with much bitterness, even Vice-President Arthur stooping to mingle in the fray. But greatly to their surprise, instead of being endorsed and re-elected by the State legislature, Conkling and Platt were rejected and retired from public life for a season. Garfield had won.*

Garfield, however, did not enjoy the fruits of his victory very long, for soon after this political struggle had ended he was struck down by the hand of an assassin. On July 2 the President had determined to leave Washington for a brief holiday and in company with Secretary Blaine awaiting the arrival of the train in the railway station, when an assassin, Charles J. Guiteau, crept stealthily behind the President and shot him in the back. Garfield fell to the ground,


* Conwell's Garfield, pp. 346-348; Conkling, Life of Conkling, pp. 638-643; Crawford's Blaine, pp. 488-492; Boutwell's Reminiscences, vol. ii., pp. 260-276; McClure's Recollections, pp. 111113; Andrews, Last Quarter-Century, vol. i., pp. 319-329.


but after examination it was ascertained that the wound was not fatal and that he was still alive. Guiteau was arrested and conveyed to prison to await the result of his deed.

The President was removed to the White House and the best medical and surgical skill employed in an endeavor to save his life. He gradually became weaker, however, and as the White House was considered unhealthy he was removed to the seacoast at Elberon, New Jersey. There for a few days he seemed to gain strength, but the hope was vain as neither change of place nor of climate proved to be of lasting benefit. He lost strength daily and finally died September 19.*

The assassin was brought to trial before Judge. Cox in the District of Columbia, on November 14, and the case lasted until January 25, 1882, because of the obstructive tactics em

ployed by counsel. He was found guilty, and on February 3 was sentenced to be executed.t

Immediately after President Garfield's death was announced VicePresident Arthur took the oath of office as President in his home in New York, and two days afterward was sworn in by Chief Justice Waite at Washington. Garfield's Cabinet then tendered their resignations, as is usual under such circumstances, but they were requested by the new President

* Conwell's Garfield, pp. 349–376; Bundy's Garfield, pp. 233-274; Crawford's Blaine, pp. 498


Andrews, Last Quarter-Century, vol. i., pp.


to retain their positions until competent successors could be found. Mr. Windom, Secretary of the Treasury, was the first of the officials to leave the Cabinet. He resigned in order to represent Minnesota in the Senate, and was succeeded on November 15, 1881, by Judge Charles J. Folger, of New York. Folger died in 1884 and Gresham was transferred to the Treasury portfolio, but he soon resigned and was succeeded by Hugh McCulloch. In December, 1881, At-, torney-General MacVeagh gave way to Benjamin H. Brewster, of Pennsylvania. On January 5, 1882, Timothy D. Howe, of Wisconsin, became Postmaster-General, but in April, 1883, Walter Q. Gresham, of Indiana, took his place. Upon Folger's death, as we have seen, Gresham became Secretary of the Treasury and the Postmaster-Generalship was filled in October, 1884, by Frank Hatton, of Iowa. In April, 1882, William E. Chandler, of New Hampshire, succeeded Mr. Hunt as Secretary of the Navy; and in the same month Henry M. Teller, of Colorado, took the place of Mr. Kirkwood as Secretary of the Interior. The final withdrawal of Mr. Blaine took place late in 1881, and he was succeeded as Secretary of State by Frederick T. Frelinghuysen, of New Jersey, whose views were more in harmony with those of the new President than Mr. Blaine's had been.

Before Blaine relinquished his office, however, several important matfers in connection with our foreign relations had come up for consideration.

Blaine was particularly desirous of establishing closer relations with the Central and South American republics and two events which now transpired confirmed his opinion that stronger friendship with these countries would be mutually advantageous.

The question of national rights in connection with the projected Panama canal was one of these things. In a circular letter to the American representatives in Europe Mr. Blaine very forcibly expressed his adherence to the

Monroe Doctrine."* In November, 1881, in a dispatch to Minister Lowell, he proposed a revision or revocation of the Clayton-Bulwer treaty by the terms of which any interoceanic canal was to be under the guarantee of the two contracting powers and of any others who might join them in the project. Mr. Blaine claimed that the United States should have jurisdiction over the territory and that it should be under our guarantee and protection.

The British government, however, declined to accept the amendments suggested by Mr. Blaine, and considerable diplomatic correspondence ensued with Blaine and with his successor, Mr. Frelinghuysen.‡ The latter held that as Great Britain had violated the treaty, it was voidable at the option of the United States. He also said that the canal needed a protectorate only of the United States

* Diplomatic Correspondence, 1881, p. 537. Ibid, 1881, p. 554; Crawford's Blaine, pp. 510-514; Snow, Treaties and Topics, pp. 341-342.

Senate Ex. Doc. No. 194, 47th Congress, 1st session; Senate Ex. Doc. No. 26, 48th Congress. 1st session; Tucker, Monroe Doctrine, pp. 55-76.

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