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ing to the port* instead of the starboard carried the latter so far from the Teresa that the folly of such an endeavor became apparent immediately. The punishment, too, being received by the Teresa was becoming so terrible that any offensive movement was beyond the question. Before the entire fleet had cleared the channel she had received her death-blow, due to the explosion of two 13-inch projectiles on the deck, breaking the steam and water pipes, and decreasing the speed of the vessel perceptibly. Says her commander, Capt. Concas y Palau:

"The steam permeated the poop, cutting it off completely, and invaded the turret, rendering it untenable. The fires increased, as we could not reach them. The crew of one of the small-caliber ammunition hoists were suffocated; a number of brave men who attempted to pass through the after gangways, led by a valiant officer, perished in the fire.

* *

I fell

"At this moment, while, from the bridge, I was addressing the men who were fighting furiously amidst the frightful chaos which the deck of the cruiser presented, and was trying to ascertain what had occurred on the poop, severely wounded, and with me the two officers of the squadron staff, we three being the only ones left standing of the many who had been stationed defenseless on the bridge.

"During that furious struggle there was no time nor opportunity to call the executive officer, and therefore the admiral himself took command of the ship, while I was carried to the sick bay. "The fire on the after deck of the Maria Teresa

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grew more and more formidable, her speed diminishing every moment, and the havoc was constantly increasing, as we were within range of the rapid firers.* The Admiral therefore called the second and third officers and lieutenants, who were in his immediate vicinity, and it was agreed that there was no other recourse than to beach the ship, in order to prevent her from falling into the hands of the enemy and to save the crew, for which reason, putting her to starboard, the ship was run ashore about 5 miles from the mouth of the harbor" (Nima Nima).†

Following the Teresa, came the graceful armored cruiser, the Vizcaya. The Texas, Brooklyn and the Oregon immediately engaged her. Captain Eulate of the Vizcaya, in describing her experience, says:

"When the Maria Teresa headed for the shore

I passed her, and I had the Brooklyn, Texas, Iowa, and the Oregon all firing at me. The firing from these ships was terrific; shells were bursting all around us. My ship was set on fire by a shell exploding in my cabin. My engines and pumps were disabled, and I could not fight the fire. My men were being killed and wounded in large numbers. A shell finally exploded in one of my forward magazines and I was forced to head for the shore. When I went into the action I had flying at the masthead a large embroidered silk flag, which had been presented to the ship by the ladies of the province of Vizcaya. When I saw that my ship would be lost, I had this flag hauled down and burned, and hoisted another ensign in its place. My flag was shot away twice during the engagement, the last time just as the ship grounded. The boats of the Iowa picked up those of the many officers and men still left alive, and carried them to that ship. When I went on board the Iowa, I took off my sword and tendered it to Captain Evans, but he refused it, saying that I had fought four ships and that I should keep my sword. That was the proudest moment of my life."

"The Maria Teresa was struck 18 times by heavy projectiles. She was beached at 10:15."

In a number of accounts of the battle, Captain Concas is cited as having been killed; his dying words being quoted extensively. He lived, however, to write a most interesting and generally fair account of the contest.


Nos. 1, 4 and 5 by courtesy of Collier's Weekly; Nos. 2 and 6 by James Burton; No. 3 from Stereograph copyright by Underwood & Underwood.



Although mercilessly pounded by the guns of the American fleet, with her fighting masts down, her steam pipes broken, and dead and wounded everywhere, she gallantly pushed forward, and had reached Aserraderos, 21 miles from Morro, before she was run on the beach. Her experience was tragically revealed to the rescuers from the American ships by her condition. In places the decks were red hot, and it was impossible to get some of the wounded off owing to the escaping steam and exploding magazines. Some minutes before the vessel gave up the struggle, the operating-room was filled with the wounded, for whom the surgeons could do nothing, as they were driven out by the superheated steam and the rapidly spreading flames. Her captain, Antonio Eulate, was severely wounded, but preserved, even as a prisoner of war, that pride of bearing popularly conceived to be the universal characteristic of the Spaniard.

By the time the Vizcaya had cleared the harbor the American gunners had recovered from the nervousness and excitement of the beginning of the action. Their aim became more steady and more fatal in its effect. Owing to the peculiar situation of the Spanish ships, each one had to bear the concentrated fire of the American ships. Thus it was that the third ship, the Almirante Oquendo, was lost almost before reaching the open sea. As the ship turned in its course, following the Teresa and Vizcaya, it staggered from the terrific storm of

projectiles that struck it at every point, exploding torpedoes and magazines, and putting a third of the crew out of action. Soon after the exit, the forward turret of the Oquendo was struck by an 8-inch shell, which exploded, killing the gun crew and disabling the gun. Within a few minutes the vessel was a mass of flames, which could not be extinguished, as the water mains had all been cut by the American projectiles. In her death struggle she passed a few hundred yards beyond the wreck of the Teresa and was beached; her captain dead, and a third of the crew dead or wounded.

The Texas was one of the ships that was pressing the Oquendo closely, and when one of her projectiles struck the latter amidships, causing the explosion of a magazine, the crew burst into a cheer. They were silenced, however, by Captain Philip with the words: "Don't cheer, boys, the poor devils are dying."

Following the Oquendo came the Cristobal Colon, the splendid new cruiser just purchased from the Italian government (formerly the Guiseppi Garibaldi). This was theoretically the most efficient vessel in the fleet, but, as was later shown, its large guns were not in the turrets, and the equipment was far from complete. In fact as an offensive weapon of war the Colon was practically useless; hence the sole object of its captain was to flee without making even the pretense of a fight. It was the merest chance that he failed in his purpose.

Putting on full head of steam the Colon rapidly overtook the other ships, and going inshore was protected by them during the hottest part of the fight. The Colon passed these at great speed and it seemed for a time as if the cordon of American ships would be broken by the fleeing vessel. But the Brooklyn, Texas, and Oregon were watching her, and, leaving the slower battleships to finish the contest, began a chase that lasted for two hours, and ended with the Colon beneath the waves, off Cape Cruz, 50 miles west of Santiago.

The Brooklyn, by its turn to the starboard, had been thrown to the seaward back of the line of American ships. Commodore Schley therefore thought that by directing steaming in a direct course towards Cape Cruz,

which extended some distance out in

the sea, he would be able to intercept the Colon, which was following the curve of the shore. The Oregon and the Texas, however, settled down to a steady stern chase. Here the Oregon

again distinguished herself, showing remarkable speed for a battleship. She was soon abreast of the Texas, and within a short time the ships drew within range of the Colon. The Brooklyn had been firing at long distance without effect, but as soon as the Oregon dropped two of her 13inch shells within a few yards of the Spanish ship, her captain saw that further resistance was hopeless, and ordering the sea-valves to be opened, turned her prow to the shore.

# 66 "Her sea valves were opened and broken, treacherously, I am sure, after her surrender, and

Last of all to emerge were the destroyers, Furor and Pluton, doomed from the first shot fired against them. Their experience proved how little dependence can be placed in such craft in the open and subject to the fire from secondary batteries on armored ships. When the destroyers came out, they seemed to hesitate as to the course to be taken, one of them apparently making a move to return to the harbor, but fruitlessly so, for a shell from the Indiana struck it amidships, the cloud of steam that arose revealing that a mortal blow had been struck. Another vessel, the converted yacht Gloucester, under command of Lieutenant-Commander Wainwright, was also doing fearful injury to the Furor and Pluton. In spite of the lack of defensive armor, she steamed up to a short distance of the enemy, and poured into them such a destructive fire from her machine guns that in a few moments the Furor was sinking in deep water, and the Pluton was running ashore,

both meeting the end near the ill-fated Teresa and Oquendo. In command of the destroyers was the well-known officer, Captain Fernando Villaamil, who was killed in action.

The flag-ship New York, which,

despite all efforts, she sank."- Report of Admiral Sampson.

"Admiral Sampson states in his report official that the valves had been opened treacherously, supposing that it had been done after the flag was lowered; but this is not correct, not only because neither the distance nor the condition of the ship made any precipitation necessary, but also she did not surrender until she was thought to be a total loss."- Conchas y Palau.

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