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SPANISH DEFENSES AT SANTIAGO.

ish soldier has always fought."
(Müller y Tejeiro.) Black bread and
rice, and none too much of that, was
the fare of the beleaguered city, and
that was rapidly dwindling to nothing.
Water, too, was becoming scarce, as
the American forces after El Caney
controlled two of the three sources;
the third being the wells within and
about the city, which produced a very
inadequate supply. To add to the
miseries of the half-fed, despairing
people, came stories of atrocities com-
mitted by American soldiers, invented
by the Spanish, which had the effect
of throwing the non-combatants into
a state of absolute terror. General
Linares, nevertheless, proposed to de-
fend the city to the bitter end, and the
work of constructing defenses con-
tinued day and night. Trenches were
everywhere dug, barbed-wire and
other obstructions put in place, guns
transferred from the ships: in fact
everything that could be done under
such conditions. In the meanwhile
the people trembled and hungered,
the soldiers consumed what little food
was left, and everybody talked of the
coming of General Pando from Man-
zanillo with 10,000 men. Indeed,
Shafter's delay of three days was
used to the best advantage by the
enemy, and many good men were
mowed down in front of trenches dug
even after Las Guasimas.

On the afternoon of June 30, the whole American army began to close in on Santiago; General Shafter, in the meanwhile, having left the transports and established his headquar

137

ters at El Pozo, three miles towards the city of Sevilla. At this point were the commands of Generals Kent and Wheeler, numbering about 7,000 men, who were instructed to attack the fortifications at San Juan. General Lawton's division, which was stationed on the right, was ordered to proceed to El Caney, and after capturing that point to go to the assistance of Wheeler at San Juan. In order to deceive the enemy a feint was planned at Aguadores, in which the ships of war were to join. To Garcia and his followers was assigned the important work of scouting and preventing the arrival of Spanish reinforcements. Despite the tendency on the part of many critics to disparage the work of the Cubans, there is no doubt but that their aid was invaluable. What they did was of a nature impossible to the Americans, owing to their ignorance of roads and trails, and although the Cubans failed on several occasions, especially in not stopping Escario, and now and then showed astonishing abilities at disposing of rations, nevertheless it is only just that they be given credit for the things they did accomplish.'

Contemporaneously with the advance of the army against San Juan, as has been seen, General Shafter proposed to make, with the help of the navy, a feigned attack on the for

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bombardment continued with more or

less regularity until 2:30 P. M., when it was discontinued, as the fortifications appeared to be completely demolished. The action on the part of the ships was little more than a target

This does not agree with the inference to be drawn from Shafter's first report: "General Duffield attacked Aguadores as ordered, but was unable to accomplish more than to detain the Spaniards in that vicinity." All authorities seem to agree, however, that this was nothing more than a feint.

This regiment had just arrived from the United States. See Shafter's report, September 13, 1898.

practice, for there was no reply to their firing worthy of the name.

General Duffield had been ordered to worry the enemy, but to avoid endangering his own men. He did not attempt, therefore, to cross the San Juan River, which separated his position from that of the enemy. In the skirmishes between the two forces the volunteers behaved unusually well, driving their opponents from strong situations; suffering, however, a loss of two men, with 15 wounded.

In accordance with his orders, General Lawton moved with his division, which formed the right wing of the army, towards the heights occupied by the village of El Caney, a place made up largely of suburban residences of wealthy citizens of Santiago. These were occupied by the Spanish troops, as was a stone church, which was turned into a fort by being loopholed. In addition, there were four block-houses, a stone fort, well-constructed trenches, well-nigh impassable obstructions of barbed wire; everything, in fact, that would tend to make a place naturally strong almost impregnable. No better proof of this fact is needed than the statement that at this place the entire American force of 5,000 men was held at bay for ten hours by a garrison of 520. The importance of this point to the Spaniards was due to the fact that it commanded the aqueduct and the road leading to Guantanamo, hence its loss would mean cutting off the water supply and the closing of

THE BATTLE OF EL CANEY.

one of the routes by which aid could approach Santiago.

General Lawton's division was made up of three brigades: the First, under General Ludlow, consisting of the 8th Infantry, 22d Infantry, and the 2d Massachusetts Volunteers; the Second, under Colonel Miles, consisting of the 4th Infantry, 1st Infantry, and the 25th Infantry (colored); the Third, under General Chaffee, consisting of the 7th Infantry, 12th Infantry, and the 17th Infantry. In addition there was Capron's* battery (4 pieces), and 50 Cubans. At 1 P. M. Lawton was reinforced by General Bates' Independent Brigade, bringing his command up to 6,653 officers and men. Opposed to him were three companies of the Constitution regiment, and a company of guerillas, in all 520, commanded by General Vara de Rey. The Spanish had no artillery, and fought the whole battle with rifles.

The brigades were stationed as follows: Chaffee's to the the right; Ludlow's to the left; and that of

Miles in the center. Capron's battery was stationed on a hill a mile towards Pozo. The attack was commenced at 6:30 by the battery opening fire on the enemy's position. Twentyseven rounds were fired without receiving a reply on the part of the Spanish. Under cover of the firing from the battery, Chaffee's men advanced along the Guantanamo road.

*Father of Captain Capron, of the Rough Riders, killed at Guasimas.

VOL. X 10

139

towards the hill, crowned by the entrenchments, and opened fire. The reply that was received was so deadly that their advance was brought to a stop. The other brigades were having the same experience, and it was soon clear that only fighting of the most desperate kind would deliver this "little block-house," as General Shafter called it, into the hands of the attacking forces. Dropping therefore to the ground, and taking advantage of every bush and tree that could conceal them, the American soldiers gradually worked their way towards the crest of the hill. The grass was tall, and afforded an excellent screen, but

the torrent of bullets mowed it as would a scythe, and in many places it fell upon silent forms never to arise. Stopped by barbed-wire fences that had to be cut in the open, and picked off by sharpshooters, who seemed to be in every tree, the boys who thought they would take El Caney before breakfast, and lunch in San Juan, were sadly disillusioned. The men who wormed their way so heroically up the slope of El Caney had far different conception of the prowess of the Spanish soldier by sundown of July 1.

For three endless hours the rifle

contest continued, with its steady toll of death. The men toiling up towards the stone fort and the block-houses could neither tell whether there were hundreds or thousands against them; all they knew was that now and then came the sickening thud of a Mauser bullet striking human flesh. Moved by a kind of pride that cannot be justi

fied, many of the officers refused to lie down, thus offering themselves boldly to the sacrifice; a sufficient explanation of the fact that nearly ten per cent of those wounded and killed were officers."I have never seen," said a staff-officer of General Vara de Rey," anything to equal the courage and dash of those Americans, who, stripped to the waist, offered their naked breasts to our murderous fire, literally threw themselves on our trenches — on the very muzzles of our guns. We had the advantage of position, and mowed them down by the hundreds; but they never fell back an inch. As one man fell, shot through the heart, another would take his place, with grim determination and unflinching devotion to duty in every line of his face. Their gallantry was heroic." "The Americans,' says Lieutenant Müller y Tejeiro," it must be acknowledged, fought that day with truly admirable courage and spirit.

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The first company having been decimated, another appeared, then a third, and still another, and those soldiers resembled moving statrather than men; but they met heroes." Truly the little band of five hundred that held back ten times its number for eight hours was heroic. Even when the brave General Vara de Rey was killed, they fought on until half of the garrison was killed or wounded, only about 100 men finally escaping to Santiago.

Many instances of personal bravery stand out in glowing colors against

this somber background of death. General Chaffee throughout the contest not only evidenced absolute lack of fear, but by his example brought forth all the courage in the raw and inexperienced men in his command. Time and again, cigar in mouth, he exposed himself to a withering fire, presenting just such a picture as that of Grant on some of the fields of battle during the Civil War. Not less heroic, however, were those unnamed men of the ranks who lay wounded for hours in the glare of a tropic sun, bleeding, fevered and thirsting, yet making no moan.

Distressed by the stubborn resistence at El Caney, and by the miscarriage of his plans that this produced, General Shafter sent the following order to Lawton: "Lawton: I would not bother with little blockhouses. They can't harm us. Bates' brigade and your division and Garcia should move on the city and form the right of the line going on Sevilla road. Line is now hotly engaged. Shafter."

The order, however, came too late for obedience. Already the effects of the battery fire were evident, and the men realizing that the fortifications were weakening in their defence, had made plans to charge the summit of the hill. Knowing that he could not stop the movement Lawton sent a line of apology to Shafter and the charge began. The word went down the ranks, and with a cheer, the men sprang forward up the slope. A volley of shots greeted their advance, but they went on, officers and

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Nos. 2 and 4 by James Burton; Nos. 3 and 6 by courtesy of Collier's Weekly.
1. THE FAMOUS GRIMES BATTERY IN ACTION BEFORE SANTIAGO. 2. THE BLOCKHOUSE AT EL CANEY. 3. MEMBERS OF THE SPANISH EVACUATION COMMISSION
LEAVING LA TROTCHA TO MEET AMERICAN COMMISSIONERS. 4. BLOCKHOUSE AT SAN JUAN HILL, SHOWING BARBED WIRE ENTANGLEMENTS.

5. THE SURRENDER TREE AT SANTIAGO.

6. LAST SPANISH SOLDIERS EMBARKING FOR SPAIN.

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