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When morning

came, Ord, who had never heard the sound of the battle, but had learned from some negroes that it had taken place, moved into Iuka, and found that the Confederates had abandoned it. They had es

FROM MEMPHIS TO VICKSBURG.

Escape of Price caped by the Fulton Road, which Roseto Van Dorn. crans was to have occupied. Rosecrans pursued, but could not overtake them. They had checked him on one road while they had escaped by the other. Their loss, however, had been 1438. In these operations, Grant was very far from being satisfied with what Rosecrans had done.

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[SECT. X.

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force.

The two Confederate generals, finding that their atAttempt to take tempt to get possession of Corinth by stratagem had failed, determined to take it by force. They therefore concentrated at Ripley. Rosecrans was in command at Corinth with a force of about 20,000 men. Ord was at Bolivar, and Grant at Jackson.

[graphic]

CHAP. LI.]

315

On the 2d of October, Van Dorn moved from Chewalla toward Corinth. Its defenses had been much changed since Beauregard had originally fortified it. Halleck had constructed works inside of those of Beauregard, and Grant, who had been eight weeks in the place, had made others inside of those of Halleck. Corinth now required a much smaller force for its defense.

ATTACK ON CORINTH.

Learning of the Confederate advance, Rosecrans was at first in doubt whether the real attack was to be made on himself, or on Grant, or Ord. At first he suspected that the movement upon him was nothing more than a feint. But early on the morning of the 3d Van Assault on Corinth. Dorn assailed him strongly. The engage. ment soon became very warm, and General McArthur, who had been sent to the front and presently afterward re-enforced, was compelled to fall back, with the loss of two guns.

Rosecrans, now perceiving the enemy's intention, made suitable preparations to receive him. Hamilton's division held the right, Davies the centre, McKean the left. Stanley was in echelon with McKean and nearer to Corinth. Just before dark the pressure upon Davies was so severe that he was compelled to give ground..

On the Confederate side, their left, under Price, was upon the Mobile and Ohio Railroad, north of Corinth; then came Van Dorn, more westwardly, on the Chewalla Road, their right being held by Lovell. The attack was therefore made on the northwest side of Corinth, on which Van Dorn had been informed by a female spy that it was weakest. But the works which Grant had constructed, consisting of four redoubts, had materially changed the condition of things. These works commanded the roads along which the Confederates must now pass.

Some cannonading occurred early in the morning (Oc

ATTACK ON CORINTH.

316

[SECT. X.

the Confederates.

Gallant conduct of tober 4th). At half past nine Price's col umn bore down on Rosecrans's centre with a force so overpowering as to compel it to yield and fall back. The column advanced in the form of a wedge, and was received by the fire of the batteries, which tore it through and through. It was swept by a direct, cross, and enfilading fire. Undismayed, as it came on it opened out like two great wings right and left, "the men bending their necks downward, with their faces averted like those who strive to protect themselves against a driving storm of hail." Davies's division, on which it was com ing, began to give way, but was rallied by Rosecrans in person. The storming columns carried Fort Richardson, and even captured Rosecrans's head-quarters. The fort was, however, almost immediately retaken, and, Hamil ton's division on the right now advancing, Price's column was irretrievably broken, and fled.

Van Dorn should have made his attack on Rosecrans simultaneously with that of Price, but he was delayed by the difficulties of the ground. About twenty minutes after Price's attack he advanced in four columns, their line of march being under the guns of two forts, Williams and Robinette. With an audacity that extorted the admiration of the national troops, the Texas and Mississippi soldiers came forward. They advanced until they were within fifty yards of Fort Robinette, receiving Failure of their at- Without flinching a shower of grape and canister, when" the Ohio brigade arose and gave them such a murderous fire of musketry that they reeled and fell back to the woods. They, however, gallantly re-formed and advanced again to the charge, led by Colonel Rogers, of the Second Texas. This time they reached the edge of the ditch, but the deadly musketry fire of the Ohio brigade again broke them; and at the word "Charge!" the Eleventh Missouri and Twenty-sev

tack.

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CHAP. LI.] ROSECRANS'S REPORT OF THE BATTLE.

317

enth Ohio sprang up and forward at them, chasing their broken fragments back to the woods." The desperation of their attack was shown by the fact that the Ohio Sixty-third lost one half of its number, killed and wounded, in resisting them. The guns of Robinette, double shotted, poured forth a fire-storm, on the fugitives, and by noon the battle was over.

The Texan Colonel Rogers, who was killed at the edge of the ditch, was carefully buried by his victorious and admiring enemies. They neatly rounded off the little mound that marked his grave.

The assault on Corinth was very sanguinary, and entailed on the Confederates a heavy loss.

Rosecrans's account

In an order issued to his troops, October 25th, Rosecrans says: The enemy "numbered, accordof the battle. ing to their own authorities, nearly 40,000 men-almost double your own numbers. You fought them in the position we desired on the 3d, punishing them terribly, and on the 4th, in three hours after the infantry entered into action, they were beaten. You killed and buried one thousand four hundred and twenty-four officers and men. Their wounded, at the usual rate, must exceed five thousand. You took two thousand two hundred and sixty-eight prisoners, among whom are one hundred and thirty-seven field officers, captains, and subalterns, representing fifty-three regiments of infantry, sixteen regiments of cavalry, thirteen batteries of artillery, and seven battalions, making sixty-nine regiments, thirteen batteries, seven battalions, besides several companies. You captured three thousand three hundred and fifty stand of small-arms, fourteen stand of colors, two pieces of artillery, and a large quantity of equipments. You pursued his retreating columns forty miles in force with infantry, and sixty miles with cavalry."

The national loss in the battle and pursuit was 315 killed, 1812 wounded, and 232 taken prisoners.

318

THE FIRST VICKSBURG CAMPAIGN.

[SECT. X.

Grant was greatly dissatisfied that Rosecrans did not press the pursuit with energy, believing that if he had done So, Van Dorn might have been destroyed; but the opportunity was lost.

campaign.

Grant now prepared to carry out the original intention The first Vicksburg of the campaign inaugurated at Don elson, but which had been brought into abeyance by the abstraction of troops from him, and by the trans fer of Halleck to his higher command at Washington. His plan was to move along the Mississippi Central and reduce Vicksburg, the chief obstacle to the reopening of the river. He had 72,000 men at his disposal, of whom 18,000 were at Memphis; but he commenced

Grant commences

ward.

the march south his southward march with only 30,000. He summoned Sherman, who was at Memphis, to meet him at Columbus, Kentucky, and in the interview which there took place gave him the necessary ord ers.

In the mean time, General Pemberton, who had been sent from Richmond to command the Confederate forces, took post behind the Tallahatchie to prevent Grant from moving south along the Central Mississippi Railroad. But in November he did move down that road to Holly Springs, Sherman by his orders marching out of Memphis to Tchulahoma, and forming his right. Grant simultaneously ordered General Washburne, with a small force of infantry and cavalry, to move from Helena, Arkansas, eastward, so as to strike the Central Mississippi about Grenada, in the rear of Pemberton. As soon as Pemberton felt this force he hastily abandoned his strong position behind the Tallahatchie, the national forces concentrating and forming a junction near Oxford, Mississippi.

Pemberton recedes before him.

Vicksburg was now the next step. Grant's cavalry pushed as far as Coffeeville, and there ascertained that

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