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[SECT. IX.

terson at once crossed the river in pursuit of him, but was speedily compelled to return, General Scott having or dered him to send all his regulars and Burnside's regi ment to Washington.

who is pursued by Patterson.

Patterson, however, renewed his attempt under instruc tions from Scott (July 2d), and at Falling Waters, encountering Johnston's advance under Stonewall Jackson, forced it back to Bunker Hill. On the 15th of July Patterson moved forward on that place, occupying it without resistance. On the 17th he suddenly turned to the left, and moved away from his enemy toward Charlestown; Johnston at once gave him the slip, and, joining Beauregard at Manassas, won the battle of Bull Run (p. 126). Little suspecting the consequences of his negli Patterson remained at Charlestown until the 22d. A few days after he was superseded by General Banks. While these events were taking place on the Potomac, the Confederate troops were operating on the south of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, in Northwestern Virginia, their intention being to prevent McClellan from coming through any of the mountain gaps into the Shenandoah Valley, and joining Patterson. Porterfield had been succeeded in his command by General Garnett, who had distinguished himself in the Mexican War.

gence,

Affair at Rich

The forces of General McClellan, who still remained at Grafton, had increased, by the 4th of July, Mountain. to 20,000 men. As his antagonists could scarcely muster one third of that strength, he directed an advance upon them. Their main force under Garnett was at Laurel Hill, near Beverley, having a detachment under Colonel Pegram at Rich Mountain. Colonel Rosecrans, with 1800 men, attacked this detachment, which was about 900 strong, on the 11th of July. His march

RICH MOUNTAIN.

Johnston joins
Beauregard at
Bull Run.

Garnett endeavors to check McClellan.

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CHAP. XLVIII.]

245

had been through mountain paths and trackless forests, in a heavy rain. Pegram was put to flight, and lost nearly half his men. McClellan now coming up with his main army, Garnett, who had been joined by some remnants of Pegram's force, and whose rear was exposed to Rosecrans, was compelled to abandon his camp and cannon, and move toward Beverley. McClellan had, however, entered that place before him, and drove him into a precip itate flight northwardly. Pegram, cut off from support, and without food for two days, was obliged, with 600 men, to surrender, and Garnett, after throwing away every thing that could impede his flight, was overtaken by General Morris, who was conducting the pursuit, at Carrick's Ford. Here the Confederates, their ammunition exhausted, were finally dispersed. Their General Garnett, attempting in vain to rally them, was killed. The fugitives wandered over the Alleghany Mountains, and eventually joined Stonewall Jackson at Monterey.

McClellan's dis

In a dispatch to the government, General McClellan says, "We have completely annihilated the patch to the gov- enemy in Western Virginia. Our loss is about 13 killed, and not more than 40 wounded, while the enemy's loss is not far from 200 killed, and the number of prisoners we have taken will amount to at least 1000. We have captured seven of the enemy's guns in all."

Surrender of Pegram.

Affair at Carrick's
Ford.

CARRICK'S FORD.

Another national force was meantime advancing from Operations on the Guyandotte up the Kanawha Valley. It met Kanawha. some resistance at Scarytown, but pressed forward with a view of attacking General Wise. He, however, having learned of the disaster that had befallen Garnett, retreated, burning the bridge over the Gauley River to delay pursuit, and made his way successfully to Lewisburg. At this place he was joined by General

246

[SECT. IX.

and Floyd.

Junction of Wise Floyd, the former Secretary of War, who, outranking him, took the command, and at once assumed the offensive. He surprised and routed an Ohio regiment at Cross Lanes, and, moving southwardly, endeavored to gain the rear of the national general Cox; but, while attempting this, was suddenly attacked by Rosecrans, who had come down from Clarksburg, Lanes and Carnifex at Carnifex Ferry (August 10th). The attack began at three o'clock in the afternoon. Floyd, outnumbered, acted on the defensive. He had ordered Wise to come up to his support, but that officer failing him, he was compelled to abandon his position. during the night, retreating to Big Sewell Mountain.

Affairs of Cross

Ferry.

CARNIFEX FERRY.

Floyd now complained to the Confederate government of what he regarded as Wise's neglect in the affair of Carnifex Ferry, and General Robert E. Lee, destined to future celebrity, who, upon the retreat of Garnett from Rich Mountain, had been appointed to succeed him, arriving with large re-enforcements, and outranking both of the disputants, took the command.

Mountain.

Previously to this junction being effected, General Lee had attempted unsuccessfully to dislodge erations at Cheat Rosecrans's forces, under command of General Reynolds, from Cheat Mountain. The attack miscarried through the failure of an expected combination. This want of success brought upon Lee the Dissatisfaction with disapprobation of the Confederate governhim at Richmond. ment. It was said in Richmond that "he might have achieved a glorious success, opening the whole Northwestern country, and enabling Floyd and Wise to drive Cox with ease out of the Kanawha Valley. Regrets, however, are unavailing now. General Lee's plan, finished drawings of which were sent to the War Department at Richmond, was said to have been one of the bestlaid plans that ever illustrated the rules of strategy, or

Arrival of General
R. E. Lee.

CHAP. XLVIII.]

247

ever went awry on account of practical failures in its execution."

Having failed in this plan for dislodging his enemy from Cheat Mountain and relieving Northwestern Virginia, Lee determined to go into the Kanawha region, and help Floyd and Wise. He ordered back Floyd's troops to a position that had been fortified by Wise, and named Camp Defiance, strengthening the works by a breastwork four miles long. He had now under his command nearly 20,000 men. Here he lay making preparations to attack Rosecrans, who was in front of him. Rosecrans, however, suddenly retired by night, and was not pursued; and again a clamor rose in Richmond that "a second oppor tunity for a decisive battle in Virginia had been lost." Some unimportant operations now took place at New River, Romney, Alleghany Summit, Huntersville; but winter was fast approaching, and the Confederate government, greatly disappointed at the course of events, determined to abandon the campaign. Lee was recalled, and sent to take charge of the coast defenses of South Carolina. Wise was ordered to report at Richmond. Floyd was sent to the West.

The Confederates abandon the campaign.

OPERATIONS OF GENERAL LEE.

On the Confederate side, the failure of this campaign was attributed to the incapacity of General Lee and McClellan. Lee; on the national side, the success was

ascribed to the talents of General McClellan. The former officer was greatly blamed by the government at Richmond; the latter still more greatly rewarded by that at Washington. How different the judgment passed upon these soldiers a few months subsequently, at the close of the Peninsular campaign!

In view of the scale on which it was soon found that warlike operations must be carried on for the overthrow of the Confederacy, we may

Insignificance of these affairs.

BUTLER AT FORTRESS MONROE.

248

[SECT. IX.

see how insignificant were the combats of this campaign, and how unimportant the result. Yet, coming at a time when the nation was deeply depressed, the moral effect was great. Though McClellan had not in person commanded on any of these battle-fields, he gathered the entire honor.

In consequence of his services at Bull Run, Stonewall Jackson had been made a major general in the Confederate service and assigned command at Winchester. On the 1st of January, 1862, he marched westward, capturing Bath and Romney, but was obliged to return. The weather was so severe and the roads so dreadful that General Lander, in command of the national troops, could not move more than a mile and a quarter an hour; he himself suffered so much from hardship and anxiety that shortly afterward he died. Nevertheless, he had succeeded in clearing his department of the Confederates.

Fortress Monroe, commanding Chesapeake Bay and James River, is the largest and most powerFortress Monroe. ful military work in the republic. It was

built at a cost of two and a half millions of dollars. It covers an area of nearly seventy acres.

General Butler, whose successful restoration of order in General Butler in Baltimore had not met with the approval command. of General Scott, had been ordered to the command of this work. Soon after his arrival (May 22d), he found himself, at the head of 12,000 troops, confronted by 8000 Confederates under General Magruder. He at once caused a reconnoissance to be made in the direction. of Hampton, and drove the Confederates out of that town. On the return of the expedition some negroes joined it, and having informed Butler that they had been engaged in the building of fortifications, he declared them "con

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