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resolution declaring, that the present forward free, any law to the contrary war was forced upon the country by notwithstanding. It was opposed by southern disunionists, and that Con- some senators as irritating and alarm. gress, disclaiming all intention of inter- ing; but it passed by a large vote. In fering with the rights, or institutions of the House, this bill was earnestly dethe states, and all purpose of conquest, bated. It was opposed by the would prosecute the war to defend the venerable Mr. Crittenden and Constitutiot and preserve the Union. others, as unconstitutional and danger. The resolution was laid over till Mon- ous; but it was strenuously and for day, the 22d, and then passed almost cibly advocated by various members, unanimously. The same resolution as needful in the present state of affairs, was adopted by the Senate, July 24th, and as perfectly within the province on motion of Andrew Johnson. It inay of the legislature to determine upon. be set down to the credit of the nation. The bill was finally agreed to by a voto al legislature, that, notwithstanding the of 60 to 48. gloomy and disheartening condition of On the last day of the session, on affairs, on this memorable Monday, the motion of Mr. Wilson of Massachusetts, members went on steadily with their a clause was added to the bill increaswork; and the House, unanimously: ing the pay of soldiers, by which it was

Resolved, That the maintenance of enacted, “That all the acts, proclamathe Constitution, the preservation of the tions and orders of the president of the Union, and the enforcement of the laws, United States, after the 4th of March, are sucred trusts which must be execut- 1861, respecting the army and navy of ed ; that no disaster shall discourage us the United States, and calling out or from the most ample performance of relating to the militia or volunteers this high duty; and that we pledge to from the states, are hereby approved, the country and to the world the em- and in all respects legalized and made ployment of every resource, national valid, to the same intent, and with the and individual, for the suppression, same effect, as if they had been issued overthrow, and punishment of rebels in and done under the previous express arms." Three days later, the Senate authority and direction of the Congress adopted a resolution to the same effect, of the United States.” The bill was which lacked only one vote (Brecken- agreed to by the House, and Congress ridge of Kentucky) to render it unani. adjourned on the 6th of August, after

a session of only thirty-three days.* On the 24th of July, the Senate con.

* Just at the close of the session a joint resolution sidered a bill to confiscate property of the two houses was unanimously adopted, asking the used for insurrectionary purposes by president to call upon the people to supplicate God's persons engaged in rebellion, to which mercy and forbearance towards our country.

president acted upon the recommendation of Congress, Mr. Trumbull moved an amendment: and on the 12th of August issued a very earnest proby this, slaves, if employed by their clamation, appointing September 26th as a national

fast-day. The people observed the day in every part masters to aid in rebellion, were thence of the loyal states.



Ca. IV )




The Confederate Congress (see p. 43) nation. They are at last compelled to met for the first time in Richmond, abandon the pretence of being engaged July 20th, the day before the battle of in dispersing rioters and suppressing Bull Run. The message of Davis was insurrections, and are driven of the usual length, but characterized to the acknowledgment that hyan acrimonious, irritable spirit the ancient Union has been dissolved. against President Lincoln, and what he They recognize the separate existence had said in his message to Congress, of these Confederate states, by an interJuly 4th. Davis's language indicated dictive embargo and blockade of all quite clearly, though undesignedly, that commerce between them and the United he as well as his co-workers in rebellion States, not only by sea, but by land; were not at all pleased at the energy not only in ships, but in cars; not only and determination manifested by our with those who bear arms, but with government and people ; and whether the entire population of the Confedehe intended to deceive the people of rate states. Finally, they have re. the South, or make capital abroad, he pudiated the foolish conceit that the stopped at nothing in order to accom- inhabitants of this confederacy are still plish his purpose. A passage or two citizens of the United States; for they may be quoted as illustrating the chief are waging an indiscriminate war upon rebel's views and statements. “The them all, with savage ferocity, unknown rapid progress of events, for the last in modern civilization." few weeks, has fully sufficed to lift the Davis announced his purpose and veil behind which the true policy and plan of retaliation on account of the purpose of the government of the privateersmen captured by the United United States bad been previously con- States, and on trial for piracy. With cealed. Their odious features now stand congratulations at having escaped all fully revealed. The message of their connection with the loyal states, he president, and the action of their Con-called for increase of the army, lauded gress during the present month, confess the devotion of the people of the South, their intention of the subjugation of and wound up with a glorification of these states by a war, by which it is the “calm and sublime devotion” disimpossible to attain the proposed result, played on all hands. while its dire calamities, not to be Various measures were adopted by avoided by us, will fall with double the rebel congress, principally looking severity on themselves. These to financial difficulties, which already enormous preparations in men and began to press heavily upon the seces money, for the conduct of the war, on sionists, and were among the most pera scale more grand than any which the plexing to manage in the existing state new world ever witnessed, is a distinct of affairs. Beside the “produce loan,” avowal, in the eyes of civilized man, treasury notes were authorized to the that the United States are engaged in a extent of $100,000,000; a war tax was conflict with a great and powerful imposed; etc. The army was reported



at 210,000 men in the field. Davis was just at this time; but the people, imauthorized to increase this number by patient and in general unreasoning, 400,000 more, and also to add tc the were calling for action, the soldiers so-called navy.

An act respecting wished for action; action seemed one alien enemies was passed, ordering than of the easiest things in the world; the to depart out of the confederacy, and enemy was undervalued ; and a battle another sequestrating their property, must be fought, on such a scale and in intended as retaliatory for the confisca- such wise, as to prove the superiority of tion act of Congress (see p. 54). After our forces, and the insignificance of the

p a short session, the Confederate Con. rebel hosts. gress adjourned, September 2d, to meet As stated on a previous page (see p. again in November.

35), General Patterson, at the beginAt this period of the contest, when ning of July, crossed the Potomac at the impression largely prevailed in the Williamsport, with a force of North, that the rebellion could be about 20,000 men. The rebels crushed by rapid, decided action, the retired on his appearance; and on the cry became quite prevalent, “ On to 15th of July, he moved forward to

, Richmond !” People, unacquainted Bunker Hill, nine miles from Winches. with the science of war and its mani. ter, and occupied it without resistance. fold details, were incapable of fathom. On the 17th, instead of advancing on ing why it was, that, with so large a the direct road, he turned to the left force as that now in the field, nothing and marched to Charlestown, twelve apparently was being done, no victory miles eastward and near the Potomac; of moment was gained, the rebels were thus, as it turned out, leaving the road not at once put down, etc. In their open for Job

for Johnston, the rebel

con, the rebel general at lack of acquaintance with this subject, Winchester, to carry his entire force to they cast aside all considerations of the Manassas, and do his share in the de. time and drilling needed to make good feat of our army at Bull Run. The and efficient soldiers out of new recruits, reasons for this course are not at all and the complicated, weighty difficul. clear, and the testimony on this subties connected with furnishing military ject elicited by the committee on the stores and supplies, at proper times conduct of the war, is very damaging and places, for an army of 50,000 to to the character of General Patterson. 100,000 men. The pressure was urgent, Although urged by General Scott to

, and the troops were expected to make do something efficient, he remained at a brilliant campaign of three or six Charlestown under an idea that he months, and speedily reduce the rebels was checking Johnston's advance; in to submission. Military men, having a reality, it was to no purpose, and on clearer conception of what was to be the 22d, he fell back to Harper's Ferry done, and the material in hand to work where, on the 25th of July, Genera. with, were rather doubtful as to the Banks took his place. expediency of atteinpting a great battle General McDowell was in command Co. IV.]



of the department of North-eastern Vir- Gen. Tyler, having passed through Cenginia, an able and excellent officer, to treville, found the rebels strongly posted whom was committed the charge of at Blackburn's Ford on Bull Run, where, making an assault upon the enemy, under Gen. Longstreet, they resisted who were strongly entrenched, under the further advance of our troops. The Beauregard, at Manassas. His force conflict was mainly with artillery, and consisted of about forty-five regiments was well sustained; it proved clearly of volunteers, chiefly from New York that the rebel army had taken position and the eastern states, with several between Centreville and Manassas Juncfrom the West, a large portion of the tion, and intended to remain there. whole being called out, under the re. The loss on the Union side was between quisition of the president, for three 80 and 90; the rebel loss was reported months only. The remainder

The remainder were at somewhat less.* three years' volunteers; but, having Gen. McDowell was convinced, on excome into the field later, they had en. amination, that the strength and posijoyed but slightly the advantages of tion of the rebels rendered it unadvismilitary drill and discipline. With able, without a diversion, to risk the them were mixed a few of the regular main attack directly in front, or to make infantry, some companies of United the attempt to gain Manasses by an apStates cavalry, and several light bat- proach from the east. Above Stone teries of the United States artillery. Bridge, however, the ground appeared The general staff and field officers in- more practicable. The stream, Bull cluded a number of the most meritori- Run, might readily be forded, and ous officers of the regular army; the though there were no good roads leadcompany officers, being mostly taken ing from the camps in that direction, from civil life, were of course less ex. the country afforded no serious obstacle perienced, and much less able to discharge the duties imposed upon them. as breaking into empty houses, pillaging, and commitThe Grand Army, as it was called, was immediately repressed and steps were taken to

ting other offensive acts; but this disgraceful conduct began its march from Washington, on prevent any recurrence of similar outbreaks. Gen. Mcthe 16th of July. Gen. Tyler's column Dowell's stringent order on this subject manifests the

spirit and determination of the commanding officers of took the advance, and spent the night our army. Compare with this the vile insinuations

. at Vienna, a few miles from Fairfax and falsehoods of Beauregard's proclamation, quoted

on p. 34. Court House. General Hunter march.

* Beauregard, who, as he says, was “opportunely ined with the central column, on the di formed,” i. e., by the numerous spies and traitors in rect road; and Gen. Miles advanced on vance upon Manassas, claims it as a stroke of policy

and about Washington, of McDowell's purpose to adthe extreme left. General McDowell, that his men retreated and thereby deceived McDowell who was with the centre, arrived at as to his ulterior designs at Bull Run. Major Barnard,

chief-engineer of the Army of the Potomac, has criticis noon, the next day, at Fairfax Court ed this costly reconnaissance by Gen. Tyler in severe House, the enemy retiring and evidently terms, and pronounces that the affair had a bad effect avoiding a conflict.* On the 18th, upon the morale of our raw forces. Swinton terms it


silly ambition on the part of Tyler to do as he did * Our troops were guilty of some excesses here, such

- 'Army of the Potomac," p. 47.

VOL. IV.-8


to the movement of troops. It was ac- general course of procedure and the re cordingly resolved, by a flank move- sult sufficiently clear to our readers. ment, to turn the enemy's position on As events turned out, McDowell termtheir left with a sufficient force, which ed it “a great misfortune” that delays should co-operate with a direct attack occurred, as noted above. The wood on their position at Stone Bridge, and road from the Warrenton Turnpike was thus open the turnpike road from Cen- longer than was expected, and the uptreville, and cut off the railroad commu- per ford was not reached as speedily as nication of Manassas with the army of was desired. General Tyler, in front Johnston in and about Winchester. of Stone Bridge, commenced with his McDowell intended to make the attack artillery, at half-past six, A.M., but the on Saturday, July 20th, but was hin- enemy made no reply, rendering it

dered by delays in receiving doubtful as to his plans. Other brig

proper supplies, which did not ades moved forward, and Tyler was direach him till Friday night, at Centre. rected to advance, as large bodies of the ville, about seven miles to the north-east enemy were passing in front of him to of Manassas. Rations were distributed attack the division which had crossed and issued; and in order as far as pos- over under Burnside. sible to avoid marching in the heat be- “The ground between the stream and fore the fight, orders were given to the road leading from Sudley Spring move at half-past two o'clock, on Sun. south, and over which Burnside's brigday morning, the 21st, expecting to ade marched, was for about a mile from open the battle at all points at six, A.M. the ford thickly wooded, whilst on the Delays occurred, owing to the inexperi. right of the road for about the same ence of the officers and men, so that it distance, the country was divided bewas some three hours later, in one of tween fields and woods. About a mile the hot July mornings in Virginia, that from the road the country on both sides the troops crossed at Sudley Spring, of the road is open, and for nearly a and soon after were engaged in battle.* mile further large rolling fields extend

Full details are beyond our limits; down to the Warrenton turnpike, which and we must content ourselves with an crosses what became the field of battle, extract or two from Gen. McDowell's through the valley of a small waterreport, which will suffice to render the course, a tributary of Bull Run.” The * Gen. McDowell, speaking of his reasons for fight enemy opened fire upon our troops,

, ing when he did, declared that he could not push on who stood the shock well, and on being faster, nor could he delay. The best part of his troops reinforced drove the ener y out of the were three months volunteers, whose term of service was just expiring. They refused to stay an hour be. wood and across the road ap the slopes yond their time. McDowell and he secretary of war on the other side. pleaded with them (volunteers from Pennsylvania and New York), but in vain. They insisted on their dis.

“ While this was going ɔn, kleintzelcharge that Saturday night. It was granted of course; man's division was moving down the “ and the next morning, when the army moved forward field to the stream, and up the road into battle, these troops moved to the rear, to the sound of the enemy's cannon.

beyond. Beyond the Warrenton road,


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