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1865.

Johnston, who retreated rapidly on and Grant's report: “It has been my forthrough Raleigh. Sherman occupied tune to see the armies of both the West the city on the morning of the 13th, and the East fight battles, and from having heard the day before the news what I have seen I know there is no of Lee's surrender. On the 14th of difference in their fighting qualities. April, a correspondence was opened All that it was possible for men to do between Sherman and Johnston, the in battle they have done. The western

result of which was, on the 18th, armies commenced their battles in the

an agreement for the suspension Mississippi Valley, and received the of hostilities, and a memorandum or final surrender of the remnant of the basis for peace, subject to the approval principal army opposed to them in of the president. It was held at Wash. North Carolina. The armies of the ington that Sherman had transcended East commenced their battles on the his

powers, and the agreement was dis river from which the Army of the Po. approved by Andrew Johnson on the tomac derived its name, and received 21st of April. Grant went in person the final surrender of their old antagoand communicated the disapproval to nist at Appomattox Court House, VirSherman, who at once gave notice to ginia. The splendid achievements of Johnston of the termination of the truce each bave nationalized our victories, that had been entered into. On the removed all sectional jealousies (of 26th of April, another meeting was which we have unfortunately experiheld, the result of which was, the sur- enced too much), and the cause of render and disbandment of Johnston's crimination and recrimination that army on substantially the same terms as might have followed had either section those which were accorded to Lee. failed in its duty. All have a proud

On the 4th of May, Gen. Dick Tay- record, and all sections can well conlor surrendered to Gen. Canby all the gratulate themselves and each other for remaining rebel forces east of the Mis- having done their full share in restorsissippi ; and on the 26th of May, Kir. ing the supremacy of law over every by Smith surrendered to the same gen- foot of territory belonging to the Unieral all the insurgent forces west of the ted States. Let them hope for perpet

ual peace and harmony with that eneIn bringing to a close this condensed my, whose manhood, however mistaken

a narrative of military operations, we the cause, drew forth such herculean may properly conclude the present deeds of valor.'*

" chapter with the last paragraph in Gen.

* On the 1st of May, the entire army force amount* As matters of interest, in this connection, it may ed to 1,000,516, officers and men. The aggregate here be briefly stated, that the number of men surren- available force present for duty on the 1st of March dered, in the different rebel armies, was as follows: was: Army of the Potomac, 103,273 ; armies in the Lee's army, 27,805 ; Johnston's, 31,243; Dick Taylor's, several departments, 499,325 ; total, 602,598. Steps 42,293 ; K. Smith's, 17,686 ; smaller organizations, in were taken immediately for mustering out the troops, all, 55,196 ; making a total of 174,223. There were 80 that from the beginning of May to August 7th, also in our hands nearly 100,000 prisoners of war. there were mustered out 640,806 troopis; from that About 2,000 enlisted in the army ; 63,442 were released • date to November 15th, there were mustered out 160,33,127 were delivered in exchange.

157 ; total, 800,963.

great river.*

.

CH. XXI.]

STATE OF FEELING IN THE COUNTRY.

539

CHAPTER XXI.

1865.

MURDER OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN: ACCESSION OF ANDREW JOHNSON.

General state of feeling throughout the country now that the rebellion was at an end — Mr. Lincoln's personal

gratification – His intention as to the future — Warnings as to danger to his life - Not heeded by him His last public address — The fatal day, Friday, April 14th – Visit to Ford's theatre in the evening Wilkes Booth the assassin - Narrative of the horrifying scene — Attempt to murder Mr. Seward also, in his bed, by Payne - Profound astonishment all through the land – Andrew Johnson becomes president, takes the oath of office, etc., April 15th - Close of the present work.

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1865.

The great and grievous rebellion great victory which had been vouchwas now, at length, crushed to the safed to the loyal cause, there was also earth. Its military power was broken a willingness to recognize, in what had up; the arrest of Davis, Stephens, and taken place, the guiding hand and merothers associated with them, put an end ciful goodness of Divine Providence. to even the pretence of a government There was a spirit and disposition to

of the “Confederacy;" and exercise magnanimity, and such genfrom one end of the land to the tleness as was consistent with the

preother, the national banner floated, freely servation of truth and right, towards and fully, as the emblem of the su- those who had gone astray, and, under premacy of the Constitution and laws the guidance of treasonable leaders, of the United States. Thank God! had madly endeavored to thrust a the war was over.

sword through the heart of the nation. There was of course throughout the While thoughtful and patriotic men loyal states, as well as in various looked with more or less of anxiety at parts of the states which had been par- the state of things, so novel in the takers, more or less willingly, in rebel. history of the world, so utterly withlion, a feeling of deep satisfaction at out precedent, and involving questhe contest being brought to its close. tions of so much difficulty and delicacy Bright hopes of the future were in. in efforts to settle them, there was still dulged in, and joyous expectations en- a strong and positive desire to deal tertained of renewed and increasing with our difficulties as became an inprosperity under the benign reign of telligent, high-minded, Christian peopeace and concord. The people gave ple, and to act towards the vanquished expression to their joyous hopes and insurgents in such wise as would rewishes in many ways; and while there sult, not only in bringing them to see

; was exultation, and even pride, in the and acknowledge the error of their

ways, but also in re-uniting and strength. blems under our republican form of ening the ruptured bonds of union and government, viz., how to restore the national concord.

rebellious states and people to the full President Lincoln shared in the com- enjoyment of all the rights and privi. mon joy and rejoicing of the people, leges which they had insanely endeavor. beside having reason for special thanked to destroy, and at the same time fulness and joy on his own account. vindicate the majesty and dignity of His had been no position to be en- the violated Constitution and laws of vied for four years past, and he, if any the land. So far as the foresight of man man, in the whole country, was able to could reach, Mr. Lincoln seemed to be rejoice in seeing the end of a struggle the one whose training and discipline, which had been one of life or death to during the past four years, rendered the Republic. We may well believe, him essential to the country's safety, in

. from what we know of the man, that its present critical condition; and the while he rejoiced unfeignedly in the people were full of hope, that, under overthrow of the rebellion, he rejoiced his firm, judicious, common-sense even more in the glad prospect of car management of national affairs, it rying forward work of another kind, would not be long ere light would consequent upon the state of things emerge out of gloom and darkness, and which resulted from crushing the trai-order, peace, and concord resume their torous designs of the ambitious and wonted reign. unscrupulous leaders in the revolt; we But, alas for all human calculations! mean, the work of healing the wounds a mysterious Providence had otherwise which war had made, and by a wise, ordered the course of events, and the manly, and conciliatory policy, bringing sixteenth president of the United States together again in harmony and good was stricken down so suddenly, and in will the severed sections of our common so horrible a manner, that, for the time, country.

the national heart was paralyzed, and It was a noble desire, a magnaminous the ship of state, for the moment, apresolve, worthy of the chief magistrate peared to be cut loose from her moor of a great nation, which animated the ings, and, without chart or rudder, to bosom of Abraham Lincoln ; and so far be rushing swiftly to destruction. The as human sagacity can venture to judge narrative of the termination of Mr. of results yet in the future, it seemed Lincoln's life must now be given. It to be a special privilege belonging to is a mournful task, but it forms a part the American people, that the man of our history which cannot be orerwho had established, on the most solid looked, in its consequences and results, foundation, a character for honesty, so far as they have, as yet, heen uprightness

, unselfishness, candor, and developed. gentleness of heart, should be the one The evil passions engendered by civil into whose hands was committed for war, and the demon-like spite and solution the most difficult of all pro- hatred of many among the rebel syn- :

CH. XXI.]

ABRAHAM LINCOLN ASSASSINATED.

541

pathizers and agents, had led more than of Lee's surrender came directly after, one of the friends of the government to and the president was waited on by a apprehend, that some attempt would large company to congratulate him on be made upon the life of the president this important event. The next even. and other prominent men in our public ing, April 11th, Mr. Lincoln made some affairs. Mr. Lincoln had been warned extended remarks, which, being the last several times of threats and dangers of his public speeches, are worthy the from various quarters,* and he had reader's thoughtful consideration. They been entreated to be more careful and are given in full by Mr. Raymond,

watchful in respect to personal pp. 684–687. 1865,

exposure; but he uniformly On that last, fatal day, Friday, April treated all apprehensions of the kind 14th, a cabinet meeting was held at as unfounded, and seems never to have eleven o'clock, at which Gen. Grant been troubled with any fears on the was present; various matters of policy subject. He had passed unscathed were discussed; and the president's through the four years of the war, and views met with the approbation of all now, as there appeared to be no reason his constitutional advisers. As this for an assault upon his life, nothing to was the day appointed for the raising be gained by the enemies of the govern. the flag of the United States on Fort ment by such a course, he regarded Sumter, it was generally expected that, the anxieties of his friends and sup- besides the president, Gen. Grant and porters as needless and uncalled for, others would show themselves in public, and he looked upon the future with and make meet recognition of so inbright expectations unmarred by any teresting an event. Mr. Lincoln, on fears of personal harm or injury. invitation, consented to visit Ford's

Mr. Lincoln, after a brief visit to Theatre, in Tenth street, Washington, Richmond (p. 532) returned to Wash. that evening, and it was thought that ington, April 9th, his return having the lieutenant-general and other notabeen hastened by the serious accident bilities would also be present. About to Mr. Seward, who, having been eight o'clock, in company with Mrs. thrown from his carriage, had had his Lincoln, Major Rathbone, and Miss right arm and jaw broken. The news Harris, the president proceeded to the

theatre, and took his place in a box * These warnings were so distinct and direct, Mr. Raymond assures us, that Mr. Seward consulted near and looking down

upon Secretary

. Stanton in regard to them, and it was Gen. Grant, having left the city during agreed that he should lay the subject before the presi: the day, did not attend the theatre this dent the next day, and earnestly represent to him the expediency of avoiding, for a time, all public gather- evening. The house was full on the ings, and all needless exposure to possible assault. occasion, and the box in which the But the next day Mr. Seward was thrown from his car riage, and, his foot catching in the steps, he was drag- president was, was decorated with an ged for some distance and so seriously injured that he American flag draped in front. was compelled to dismiss all thought of public mat

The door of the box was directly ters from his mind. See“ Life of Abraham Lincoln,"

behind where Mr. Lincoln was sitting,

the stage.

P 693.

not more than five feet distant, and was across the Potomac, and for a wbilo left open during the evening. At found refuge among the rehel sympa. fifteen minutes past ten, John Wilkes thizers in Lower Maryland.* Booth, an actor, made his way along Immediate efforts were made to the passage in the rear of the dress circle, obtain medical assistance, and several and stealthily entering the vestibule surgeons examined the fatal wound in of the president's box, closed the door hope of being able to minister relief; behind him, and fastened it, so that it but it was all in vain. The murdered could not be opened from the outside. president was never conscious after the Booth then drew a small, silver-mounted assassin's ball struck him.

The auDerringer pistol, which he carried in his dience in the theatre broke up in conright hand, holding a long double-edged fusion and inexpressible astonishment; dagger in his left, and stepping within and Mr. Lincoln, carried to the White the box, held the pistol just over the House, and surrounded by the various back of the chair in which Mr. Lincoln officers of the government, was watched sat, and shot him through the back of by them through the night. Gradually the head. The murdered man's head the remnant of life faded away, and at fell slightly forward, and his eyes closed twenty-two minutes past seven, on the forever on this mortal scene.

morning of April 15th, he breathed bis Startled by the report of the pistol, last. and discovering through the slight As if what has just been briefly smoke a man in the box, Major Rath narrated were not enough of horror ard bone sprang towards and seized him; dismay, this same Friday evening was but the assassin, wresting himself out noted for a murderous and brutal asof his grasp, and dropping his pistol, sault upon the secretary of state. Mr. struck at the major with the dagger, Seward (p. 541) was confined to his and wounded him severely in the left arm near the shoulder. Booth then Immediate steps were taken to arrest Booth and rushed to the front of the box, shouted the war department, April 20th, for Booth's apprehen

his accomplices. A reward of $50,000 was offered by sic semper tyrannis !” and made a leap sion; the sum of $25,000 was offered for G. A. Atzeover the railing on to the stage below. rott's

, and the same sum for D. C. Harold's apprehen

sion. Booth and Harold were chased to Garret's Farm, A spur which he had on caught in the

near Port Royal, on the Rappahannock, by Col. Baker. flag draped in front of the box, and Booth was shot by Sergeant Corbett in attempting to Booth fell; but jumping up quickly, Harold gave himself up. This was April 26th. Atze

escape from the barn in which he and Harold were; he brandished his dagger in face of the rott, Payne, Mary E. Suratt, O’Laughlin, Spangler, horrified assemblage, exclaiming, the Arnold

, and Mudd were soon after arrested as accom

plices. They were tried by military commission, com. South is avenged !He then rushed mencing May 13th, and lasting until the end of June. from the stage and made his exit from On the 5th of July, Harold, Atzerott, Payne, and Sua door in the rear of the house. There they were hung on the 7th of July. Of the others

,

ratt were condemned, and the president approving, he found a lad holding a horse all O’Laughlin, Arnold, and Mudd were sentenced to hard ready for him to mount, and the labor for life, Spangler to hard labor for six years.

They were sent to the Dry Tortugas in accordance wretched parricide hastened away with the president's direction.

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