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debt, as exhibited on the books of the among which was the question as to register of the treasury, on the 1st of the policy of a general arming of the October, 1864, was $1,147,970,208, of slaves to serve in the ranks. Neither which $539,840,090 were funded debt, Davis nor his Congress could bring bearing interest; $283,880,150 were their minds to the conviction that it treasury notes of the new.issue, and the was best to adopt this course, although remainder consisted of the former issue it was advocated by some of the promi. of treasury notes, about to be converted nent men engaged in the rebellion. into other forms of debt. In this state- On the whole, despite the haughty ment, it was added, “ the foreign debt words of Jeff. Davis, the condition of is omitted. It consists only of the un affairs, at the close of the year 1864, paid balance of the loan known as the was gloomy enough for the rebels. cotton loan. This balance is but £2, They were groaning under a central 200,000, and is adequately provided military despotism. Conscription, which for by about 250,000 bales of cotton was carried to its extremest extent, was owned by the government, even if the odious everywhere, and was everycotton be rated as worth but sixpence where evaded without scruple. Direct per pound.” The great depreciation taxes were laid in defiance of the rebel of the treasury notes, or paper currency, theory of government. The vast floods was admitted, and attributed to two of paper money had rendered it almost causes,“ redundancy in amount, and valueless. The holders of this paper want of confidence in ultimate redemp. money were compelled to fund it, or tion.” To remedy this pressing diffi- lose one-third. The government seized culty, it was proposed, 1st, That the all the railroads, destroying some and faith of the government be pledged that building others. Property was imthe notes shall ever remain exempt pressed at government prices, and paid from taxation. 2d, That no issue shall for in government money. The gov. be made beyond that which is already ernment monopolized the export trade authorized by law. 3d, That a certain of the cotton and great staples of the fixed portion of the annual receipts country. The habeas corpus was sus. from taxation during the war, shall be pended, and a passport system estabset apart specially for the gradual ex. lished. And, added to all these, the tinction of the outstanding amount, un military reverses were numerous and til it shall have been reduced to $150,- severe; yet the traitors and conspira000,000; and 4th, The pledge and ap- tors against the Union, with whom it propriation of such proportion of the was a matter of life or death, held on tax in kind, and for such number of in their evil course, and determined to years after the return of peace, as shall persist in efforts to uphold a rebellion be sufficient for the final redemption of now drawing near its end. the entire circulation."

The Thirty-eighth Congress com- . Various other matters were discuss- menced its second session on the 5th ed at length by the rebel president, of December, 1864. The president's

VOL. IV.-61.


message, which was sent in the next the practice of constant vigilance, and day, was of moderate length, and dis- a just and conciliatory spirit on the part cussed the subjects requiring his atten. of the United States, as well as of the tion, in a clear, straightforward man nations concerned and their governner.* The condition of our foreign re- ments.” lations was pronounced to be “reason- Affairs in the several departments of ably satisfactory,” as was evinced in a the treasury, the war, and the navy, brief résumé. “It is possible,” Mr. were spoken of in encouraging and Lincoln said, “ that if it were a new cheering terms, and various objects of and open question, the maritime pow. philanthropy and justice were commend. ers, with the lights they now enjoy, ed to the attention of Congress. In rewould not concede the privileges of a ference to the proposed amendment of naval belligerent to the insurgents of the Constitution abolishing slavery forthe United States, destitute, as they ever, (p. 465) Mr. Lincoln expressed are, and always have been, equally of himself frankly: “At the last session

ships of war and of ports and of Congress a proposed amendment of

harbors. Disloyal emissaries the Constitution, abolishing slavery have been neither less assiduous nor throughout the United States, passed more successful during the last year the Senate, but failed for lack of the than they were before that time in their requisite two-thirds vote in the House efforts, under favor of that privilege, to of Representatives. Although the preembroil our country in foreign wars. sent is the same Congress, and nearly The desire and determination of the the same members, and without quesgovernments of the maritime states to tioning the wisdom or patriotism of defeat that design are believed to be those who stood in opposition, I venture as sincere as, and cannot be more earn to recommend the reconsideration and est than, our own. Nevertheless, un passage of the measure at the present foreseen political difficulties have arisen, session. Of course, the abstract quesespecially in Brazilian and British ports, tion is not changed; but an intervening and on the northern boundary of the election shows, almost certainly, that United States, which have required, the next Congress will pass the meaand are likely to continue to require, sure if this does not. Hence there is

only a question of time as to when the * Several changes in the cabinet took place during proposed amendment will go to the the year. Mr. Chase resigned in June, and Mr. W. P. Fessenden was appointed secretary of the treasury. states for their action; and as it is to Mr. M. Blair resigned the postmaster-general's office go at all events, may we not agree that in September, and Mr. W. Dennison was placed in the vacant office. On the 1st of December, the attorney- the sooner the better? It is not claimed general, Mr. Bates

, resigned

, and his post was after that the election has imposed a duty on wards filled by James Speed, of Kentucky.. We may members to change their views or their also put on record here, the death of Chief-justice Taney, which occurred on the 12th of October. This im- votes, any further than, as an additional portant position was filled, December 6th, by the ap- element to be considered, their judg. pointment of the late secretary of the treasury, Salmon ment may be affected by it. It is the

P. Chase.

Ch. XVII.]



voice of the people now, for the first at the beginning of the fiscal year

in time, heard upon the question. In a July, was stated to be $1,740,690,489 great national crisis like ours, unanimity 49, an increase during the year

of over of action among those seeking a com- $618,000,000. The prospective debt mon end is very desirable, almost in on the 1st of July, 1865 was estimated dispensable; and yet no approach to at $2,223,064,677 51. The expendisuch unanimity is attainable, unless some ture for the war department was set deference shall be paid to the will of down at about $963,000,000; for the the majority. In this case the common navy, about $43,000,000; and for inend is the maintenance of the Union, terest on the public debt, over $90,and among the means to secure that 000,000. The secretary of the navy, end, such will, through the election, is in a long and elaborate presentation of most clearly declared in favor of such the state and condition of the navy, reconstitutional amendment."

ported a total of 671 vessels afloat or Having shown, by some statistics, that in process of construction, mounting the loyal states had more men for duty 4,610 guns and registering 510,396 tons, at this date than when the war began; being an actual addition to the navy, that “the national resources were un. during the year, of 109 vessels and 313 exhausted and inexhaustible;” and guns. From this latter estimate, howthat the war must be prosecuted to the ever, were to be deducted twenty-six complete demolition of the rebel power vessels lost by shipwreck, in battle, and pretension, he concluded his mes capture, etc., during that period. Of sage with saying, that, while he should this huge array of naval vessels, nearly not retract or modify his emancipation one-fifth in number and more than oneproclamation, still, when the insurgents fourth in guns and tonnage, were screw abandoned armed resistance, the war steamers, especially constructed for the would end. “In stating a single con service; fifty-two were paddle-wheel dition of peace, I mean to say that the steamers, and seventy-one iron-clad veswar will cease on the part of the gov. sels of various descriptions. The total ernment whenever it shall have ceased number of men in the service at this on the part of those who began it." date was 6,000 officers and 45,000 men.*

The reports accompanying the presi- The action of Congress during this, its dent's message gave full particulars in connection with the various depart-Ordnance supplies furnished to the military service durinents of the government. Our limits ing the fiscal year, included 1,441 pieces of ordnance, do not admit of details, and we must 1,896 artillery carriages and caissons, 455,910 small

arms, 502,044 sets of accoutrements and harness, 1,913,refer the reader to the documents them. 758 projectiles for cannon, 7,624,685 pounds of bullets selves. * The whole debt of the nation and lead, 464,549 rounds of artillery ammunition, 152,

067 sets of horse equipments, 112,087,553 cartridges for * The annual report of the secretary of war, deferred small arms, 7,544,044 pounds of powder. through the exigencies of the public service, was prc- * For full and interesting details respecting the sented at the close of the session, in March, 1865. Its Army of the United States, amounting, at this date, to statement of the army material furnished within the about 700,000 men, see Appleton's “ American Annual preceding twelve months, exhibits the gigantic pro Cyclopædiafor 1864, pp. 32-40.


second session, we shall note on a subse- of Rosecrans, under Pleasanton, was quent page.

operating in Price's rear. Although of no particular moment Pleasanton having reached Jefferson in its bearing on the final result of the city on the 8th of October, sent Gen. war, the invasion of Missouri, by the Sanborn, with all the available rebel Gen. Price, may here be placed cavalry force, in pursuit of the on record. Having gathered about 10,- invaders. Sanborn, with inferior pum000 men, Price reached Jacksonport, at bers, harassed the enemy and attacked the close of August, on his way to make them at Booneville, whence Price moved an inroad into and ravage that state in to Marshall and Lexington, freely plunwhich he had already done vast mis- dering by the way. Pleasanton, having chief. Rosecrans was in command in now efficiently organized his caralry the department (p. 383), and in order force in four brigades, under Gens. to strengthen his force, Grant ordered Brown, McNeil, Sanborn, and Col. Gen. A. J. Smith with his command, Winslow, promptly took the offenand a cavalry force under Col. Winslow sive. Prior was driven from Lexington from Memphis, to join Rosecrans. This on the 20th, and two days after out of made his forces superior to those of Independence, where there was some Price, and, as Grant said, “no doubt severe fighting. The pursuit was vig. was entertained he would be able to orously kept up to the Big Blue River check Price and drive him back, while at Byron's Ford, where Price was de. the forces under Gen. Steele, in Arkan. feated, with a loss of nearly all his artilsas, would cut off his retreat.” Price lery and trains, and a large number of crossed the southern frontier by way of prisoners. Energetically pursued by Pocahontas and Poplar Bluff, and plun- Pleasanton, aided by Blunt's command dering the farmers of horses to mount from Kansas, Price was forced to make his men, and impressing all he could lay a hasty retreat with his broken and dishands upon, he prepared to strike at pirited forces into Northern Arkansas. the centre of the state.

Rosecrans, in November, congratulaOn the 26th of September, Price as- ted the army on its brilliant success saulted Pilot Knoh, where Gen. Ewing in this campaign; but the lieutenantwas in command, with a garrison of general, in his report, expresses himself about 1,000 men. On the second day, rather tartly on the subject: “The Ewing evacuated the place and retreat- impunity with which Price was enabled ed, skirmishing along his march to Har. to roam over the state of Missouri for rison and thence to Rolla. Price moved a long time, and the incalculable misnorth to the Missouri River, and con- chief done by him, show to how little tinued up that river towards Kansas. purpose a superior force may be used. Gen. Curtis, who was in command in There is no reason why Gen. Rosecrans Kansas, immediately collected such should not have concentrated his forces, forces as were within reach to repel the and beaten and driven Price before the invasion of the state, while the cavalry | latter reached Pilot Knob.”

C., XVII.]



The sufferings of our men, who were they had received. A mass of testiprisoners in the hands of the rebels, had mony was collected concerning the barlong been known to be very great and barities practised at Richmond, at the trying; they have before been alluded Libby Prison, and more particularly in to (pp. 391, 406); but the actual extent the camp in its vicinity at Belle Isle. of the horrible exposure and destitution It is impossible to read their testimony to which the defenders of the country without a cold chill of horror, and an were subjected, was not at all appreci- oppressive sense of its being almost an ated, or even dreamed of, by the people impossibility that there should be in of the loyal states, until there was fur- human form, creatures so soulless, and nished incontestable, detailed evidence so like incarnate demons, as these rebel of the facts, from various sources, espe- agents and authorities proved themcially from the report of the United selves to be. We cannot go into deStates Sanitary Commission, in Septem- tails; the documents are before the ber of this year. This admirable organ. world; the projectors and willing inization which, since the beginning of struments in this devilish work are the war, had been engaged in the noble stamped with infamy of the deepest work of charity, in mitigating, as far as dye; and the reader must ponder the lay in their power, the sufferings and lesson which all this teaches. A paraanguish of war, among the sick, the graph or two at the close of the report wounded, and the dying, appointed a may not inaptly be quoted : committee of their body, in May, to in- “The immensity and variety of that quire into and investigate, patiently system of abuse to which our soldiers and fully, the truth of the rumors and are subjected are too general, too unistatements as to rebel cruelty and bar- form, and too simultaneous to be otherbarity practised towards our unfortu- wise than the result of a great arrange. nate men who had fallen into the ene- ment. One prison station is like anmy's hands. Six gentlemen, of high other-one hospital resembles another ability and undoubted integrity, com- hospital. This has been made especi. posed this committee, viz: Dr. Ellerslie ally apparent by intelligence that has Wallace, the Hon. J. I. Clark Hare, and reached the public just as this investithe Rev. Treadwell Walden, of Phila- gation is closing, and this report is delphia, and Dr. Valentine Mott, Dr. being written. The remote prison at Edward Delafield, and Gouverneur M. Tyler, Texas, sends out a tale of sufferWilkins, of New York. The commit- ing identical with that described in tee employed several months in their these pages. It was only a few weeks inquiry, visiting the hospitals where ago, that the streets of New Orleans the returned prisoners had been receiv- beheld a regiment of half starved and ed in Annapolis, Baltimore, and else half naked men, who had just been where, examining carefully into their released from that station. Still more condition, and taking the depositions of heart-rending is the later account, giren officers and men as to the treatment in a memorial to the president, from

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