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1865.

the destruction of the palisades. “It ous fire, they were urable to get up the was arranged,” says Terry, in his re- parapet. After a severe struggle and port, “in consultation with Admiral a heavy loss of valuable officers and Porter, that a beavy bombardment men, it became apparent that nothing from all the vessels should commence could be effected at that point, and they early in the morning, and continue up were withdrawn.

On this side to the moment of the assault, and then (between the work and the river), there

it should not cease, but should was no regular parapet, but there was

be diverted from the points of abundance of cover afforded to the eneattack to other parts of the work. It my by cavities from which sand had been was decided that the assault should be taken for the parapet, the ruins of barmade at three o'clock P.m.; that the racks and storehouses, the large magaarmy should attack on the western half zine, and by traverses, behind which .of the land face, and that a column of they stubbornly resisted our advance. sailors and marines should assault at Hand to hand fighting of the most desthe north-east bastion. The fire of the perate character ensued, the huge tranavy continued during the night. At verses of the land face being used suceight o'clock A.m. of the 15th of Janu- cessively by the enemy as breast work, ary, all of the vessels, except a division over the tops of which the contending left to aid in the defence of our north parties fired in each other's faces. Nine ern line, moved into position, and a fire, of these were carried one after the other magnificent alike for its power and ac- by our men.

Until six o'clock curacy, was opened.

At 2.25 P.M., the fire of the navy continued upon P.M., all the preparations were com- that portion of the work not occupied pleted, the order to move forward was by us; after that time it was directed given to Gen. Ames, and a concerted on the beach, to prevent the coming up signal was made to Admiral Porter to of reinforcements, which it was thought change the direction of his fire. Curtis's might possibly be thrown over from brigade at once sprung from their the right bank of the river to Battery trenches and dashed forward in line; Buchanan. The fighting for the traits left was exposed to a severe enfilad- verses continued till nearly nine o'clock, ing fire, and it obliqued to the right so two more of them being carried; then as to envelop the left of the land front; a portion of Abbott's brigade drore the ground over which it moved was the enemy from their last remaining marshy and difficult, but it soon reach- strongholds, and the occupation of the ed the palisades, passed through them, work was completed. The same bri. and effected a lodgment on the parapet. gade, with Gen. Blackman's regiment, , At the same time the column of sailors were immediately pushed down the and marines, under Capt. Breese, ad. Point to Battery Buchanan, whither vanced up the beach in the most gal. many of the garrison had fled. Op lant manner, and attacked the north- reaching the battery, all of the enemy east bastion; but, exposed to a murder. who had not been previously captured

.

Cı. XVI.]

RESULTS OF FORT FISHER CAPTURE.

501

were made prisoners. Among them miral Porter adds: “We have found were the rebel Gen. Whiting and Col. in each an Armstrong gun, with the Lamb, the commandant of the fort.* broad arrow' on it and the name Sir

The losses in this expedition were, William Armstrong' marked in full on on the part of the navy, about 300; on the trunnels.

about 300; on the trunnels. As the British govern. the part of the land forces, about 700.ment claims the exclusive right to use

The capture of Fort Fisher was fol. these guns, it would be interesting to lowed the next day by the blowing up know how they came into forts held by the rebels, of Forts Caswell and by the southern rebels. I find that Campbell on the Old Inlet, and the immense quantities of provisions, stores, abandonment of these and the works and clothing have come through this on Smith's Island and those at Smith- port into rebeldom. I am almost afraid ville and Reeves's Point. These places to mention the amount, but it is enough were occupied by the navy. The whole to supply over 60,000 men. It is all number of guns captured in the de- English, and they have received the fences, as reported by Admiral Porter, last cargo; no more will ever come this on the 20th of January, was 168. Gen. way." Terry reported the number of prisoners, The gallant conduct of all concerned 112 commissioned officers, and 1,971 in this expedition is spoken of, in the enlisted men. In his dispatch, enume- highest terms, by both Porter and rating the different forts taken, Ad. Terry. “The troops fought like lions,

* Porter's report of his share in the capture of Fort and knew no such word as fail,” said Fisher gives many interesting details, and he states the former. “I should signally fail to that, in his opinion, Fort Fisher was a stronger work do my duty," said the latter, “ were I than the famous Malakoff Tower, which Porter had an opportunity of examining shortly after its surrender to to omit to speak in terms of the high

est admiration of the part borne by the | In the list of the forts with their armaments taken possession of after the fall of Fort Fisher

, is a sufficient navy in our operations. In all ranks, explanation of the protection given for so long a time from Admiral Porter to his seamen, to the blockade runners : Reeves's Point, two 10-inch there was the utmost desire not only guns ; above Smithville, two 10-inch guns ; Smithville, four 10 inch guns ; Fort Caswell, ten 10-inch guns, two to do their proper work, but to facili9-inch, one Armstrong, and four 32's (rifled), two 32's tate in every possible manner the ope(smooth), three 8-inch, one Parrot twenty pounder, rations of the land forces.” And, as three rifled field pieces, three guns buried-twentynine guns. Forts Campbell and Shaw, six 10-inch, six Grant briefly remarks, in his report, 32's (smooth), one 32 (rifled), one 8-inch, six field pieces,

“thus was secured, by the combined two mortars-twenty-two guns. Smith's Island, three 10-inch, six 32's (smooth), two 32's (rifled), four field efforts of the navy and army, one of pieces, two mortars and seventeen guns. Reported at the most important successes of the the other end of Smith's Island, sis guns. Total capty-three guns.

the British and French in the Crimea.

war."

tured,

CHAPTER XVII.

1864.

CLOSING OF THE YEAR: PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION: REBEL ENORMITIES.

The approaching election for president — Fremont withdraws — Division in the democratic party — Active

canvassing - Result — Lincoln re-elected by a large majority — Jeff. Davis and his lofty style of talking and promising - Rather gloomy realities, however — Thirty-eighth Congress, second session - Cabinet changes — Mr. Lincoln's message Extracts from — The treasury and navy reports - Price's invasion of Missouri — Rosecrans in command in the department - Attack, by the rebels, on Pilot Knob — Pleasanton's cavalry operations — Result of the invasion — Grant's opinion – Sufferings of our officers and men in rebel prisons and dens — The United States Sanitary Commission - Report by gentlemen appointed to inquire into the matter - Horrible revelations – Extracts from the report — Conclusion as to rebel malig. nity - Efforts to mitigate suffering – Raids from Canada into the United States — St. Albans, Vermont, attacked — Steps taken — Attempt to fire New York city, in November Not successful.

In a previous chapter (p. 455), we, the republican party was pledged" to have given an account of the proceed- re-establish the Union without slavery," ings, in the summer of 1864, of the while the democrats of the Chicago conpolitical conventions for the nomina- vention, which nominated McClellan, tion of candidates for the presidency: were pledged to “separation or re-estabAs the autumn election approached, the lishment with slavery,” Fremont pre

canvassing became very active, ferred to withdraw and leave the field 1864.

and the issue settled at last be- clear for Abraham Lincoln. tween the supporters of the principles The democratic party, who had and policy which were represented, on George B. McClellan as candidate for the one hand, by Abraham Lincoln, and the presidency, were by no means unanion the other, by George B. McClellan. mous in favor of the platform laid down Fremont, who had been nominated by by the Chicago convention (p. 462). "the radical democracy,” deemed it best, Men like Gen. Dix and others, * known on reflection, to withdraw from the field, as “war democrats," were entirely opand in a letter, dated at Boston, Sep

* Gen. Dix, in a letter written in October, said: "In tember 21st, gave his reasons for this calling for a cessation of hostilities, the members of course. He professed to be unchanged the Chicago convention have, in my judgment, totally

misrepresented the feelings and opinions of the great in his sentiments as to Mr. Lincoln; he body of the democracy. The policy produced in its “considered his administration, politic- name makes it—so far as such a declaration can—what ally, militarily, and financially, a failure, from the eminence on which it has stood in every other

it has never been before, a peace party, degrading it and its necessary continuance a cause national conflict. In this injustice to the country, and of regret to the country;" and he had, to a great party indentified with all that is honorable

in our history, I can have no part. I can only mourn he said, no wish “ to aid in the triumphs over the reproach which has been brought upon it by of Mr. Lincoln, but to do his part to- its leaders

, and cherish the hope that it may hereafter

, ward pr venting the election of the under the auspices of better counsellors, resume its democratic candidate.” As, however, ministration of the government.”

ancient effective and beneficent influence in the ad.

CH. XVII.)

THE CANVASS FOR THE PRESIDENCY.

503

posed to any measures which looked damage the chances of success of the toward the giving up the contest with democratic candidate. One of these was, the rebels, except by their being re. the discovery of an organized secret asduced to submission to the laws of the sociation in the western and northland; and, consequently, this division western states, controlled by prominent in the democratic ranks added virtually men among the democrats, whose object to the support of Mr. Lincoln. “The was, by its league of affiliated societies, political canvass was prosecuted with to overthrow, by revolution, the exist. energy and confidence in every section ing administration, and render assistof the country. The main consideration ance, in every way possible, to the which was pressed upon the public interests of the rebellion. Judge Advomind was, that the defeat of Mr. Lincoln cate-General Holt, in an official report, would be, in the eyes of the rebels, an gave conclusive proof of the existence explicit disapproval of the general line and intents of this association; a conof policy he had pursued, and a distinct siderable part of the democratic press, repudiation by the people of the north- however, rather sneered at the matter, ern states of the Baltimore declaration, as something got up for political effect. that the war should be prosecuted to There were also threats of raids and the complete and final overthrow of the invasions along the northern frontiers, rebellion. This view of the case com- by rebel agents and sympathizers, which pletely controlled the sentiment and led to active measures, on the part of action of the people, and left little the government, to protect our exposed room or disposition for wrangling over line next to Canada; and rumors were the many petty issues to which such a freely circulated of a proposed revolucontest gives birth. As the canvass tion, especially in New York city, advanced, the confidence of success in. Mr. Lincoln were re-elected, all danger creased (on the part of Mr.. Lincoln's of which was effectually put an end to friends), and received a still further im- by. the sending a body of regulars from pulse from the grand military victories the Army of the James, under Gen. which, in quick succession, began to Butler, who took up their residence in crown the Union arms." On both New York for the

of sides, the best talent was engaged, and tion. speeches and addresses were made all Happily, there was no need whatever through the country, in favor or against of interference. The state elections, in one or the other of the candidates. September and October, in Vermont, Various charges, of a more or less Maine, Ohio, Indiana, and Pennsylvania, serious character, were made against the resulted in large republican administration, in order to affect the majorities; and in Maryland election; but they did not produce the new free state constitution was much impression; while, on the other adopted. These clearly foreshadowed hand, events occurred which tended to the termination of the contest. On the

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Raymond's " Life of Abraham Lincoln," p. 602. 8th of November, the presidential ele

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1864.

tion was held. There was no disturb. could have been changed in the purpose ance or excitement; everything was of its government, in the indomitable conducted quietly and orderly; and, as valor of its troops, or in the unquenchwas expected, it was decisive in its reable spirit of its people. The bafiled sult. McClellan received the votes of and disappointed foe would in vain three states, viz., New Jersey, Delaware have scanned the reports of your proand Kentucky; Mr. Lincoln received in ceedings, at some new legislative seat, his favor the votes of all the other for any indication that progress bad loyal states, twenty-three in number. been made in his gigantic task of conThe total of McClellan's vote was, quering a free people. The truth so 1,797,019; the total of Lincoln's vote patent to us must, ere long, be forced upwas, 2,203,831, showing a popular ma- on the reluctant northern mind. There jority of 406,812.

are no vital points on the preservation Early in November, Jeff. Davis ad- of which the continued existence of the dressed a message to the rebel congress, Confederacy depends. There is no milithen in session at Richmond. It was tary success of the enemy which can accouched in the usual style, confidently complish its destruction. Not the fall of anticipating success, and earnestly urg. Richmond, nor Wilmington, nor Charing all under his rule to activity and leston, nor Savannah, nor Mobile, nor zeal in order to obtain it. Sherman's of all combined, can save the enemy having obtained possession of Atlanta from the constant and exhaustive drain was made light of, and, as on former of blood and treasure which must conoccasions, severe blows and losses were tinue until he shall discover that no counted to be rather an advantage, or peace is attainable unless based on the at least no material disadvantage. “If recognition of our indefeasible rights.” the campaign against Richmond,” Davis Severe and bitter complaints were went on to say, “ had resulted in suc- made by Davis respecting the conduct cess instead of failure ; if the valor of of European nations in not recognizing the army, under the leadership of its the “ Confederacy ;” at the same time accomplished commander, had resisted he said, "we seek no favor, we wish no in vain the overwhelming masses which intervention, we know ourselves fully were, on the contrary, decisively repuls- competent to maintain our rights and ed; if we had been compelled to evac- independence against the invaders of uate Richmond as well as Atlanta, the the country." In speaking of the finanConfederacy would have remained as cial condition of affairs it was stated, erect and defiant as ever.* Nothing that the total amount of the public

* In an article in the Richmond Examiner, under the hour of giving up the seat of government, our date of February 27th, 1865, this extravagance of Davis cause would sink into a mere rebellion in the estima was sharply criticised, and the folly and absurdity of tion of foreign powers, who would cease to accord to attempting to maintain such ground as that set forth us the rights of belligerents; while the enemy would by the rebel chief abundantly manifested. Richmond, be free to treat our officers and soldiers as traitors and it was held, was absolutely essential to the life of the criminals ; so that every rebel' would fight thence Confederacy,” and as the writer forcibly said, “ from forth with a halter round his neck."

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