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1864,

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three or four days, boarding all vessels latter part of this year. The city of that approached the island. On the Mobile, at the head of the bay, thirty 10th of July, she captured the Electric miles from the Gulf, was protected by Spark, near our coast, while several a series of redoubts, batteries vessels were cruising for her, but she and entrenchments, covering the escaped, and was next heard from at approaches by land from above and on Teneriffe, on the 4th of August. Sub. either side, while the shallow waters of sequently, early in October, she entered the bay rendered defence easy from Bahia, in the Bay of San Salvador, below. The city, it was understood, where she found the U. S. gun boat was garrisoned by a force sufficient to Wachusett, Commander N. Collins. man the fortifications; but the main This latter thought the opportunity dependence against attack was placed too good to be lost, and so, without in the iron-clad fleet which had been being too nice in regard to a neutral diligently prepared, and which was un. harbor, he determined to attack the der the command of Buchanan. This, Florida, and either sink her or carry with the powerful aid of the forts at her off. Accordingly, very early on the mouth of the bay, was relied upon the morning of October 7th, the Wa. for warding off any assault by sea, and chusett steered for the Florida, striking keeping open the communication of the her on the quarter without doing any fort by the blockade runners for the great injury. On demand, the cruiser much needed supplies from abroad. surrendered ; a hawser was made fast, The rebel fleet was composed of the the chain shipped, and the vessel towed powerful iron-clad ram, the Tennessee, out to sea. About seventy, including the iron-clad gun boats Selma, Morgan

officers, were captured with the Florida, and Gaines, and other vessels of lighter and brought to the United States as construction, suited for harbor defence. prisoners. While the subject of the There were two avenues of approach capture of the Florida and its attend to the bay from the Gulf, and both ant circumstances were under discus. were well guarded by fortifications. sion between our government and that The main entrance on the south, by the of Brazil, the vessel was run into, at passage about three miles wide between the close of November, in Hampton the eastern extremity of Dauphin IsRoads, by an army transport and sunk.* land and Mobile Point, was protected

Turning from the story of privateers by Fort Morgan on the latter and Fort and privateering, we shall now proceed to Gaines on the island; while the other give some account of naval and military passage from Mississippi Sound on the operations in Mobile Bay, during the south-west, known as Grant's Pass, was

protected by Fort Powell and a battery * The Tallahassee, an English built ship for running the blockade, was fitted out at Wilmington in and earthworks on the mainland. With

, August, 1864, as a rebel cruiser, and began her depre- these means of defence, and a liberal dations along the coast. Numerous vessels started in

use of obstructions in the channel, the search of her, but she succeeded, after getting supplies at Halifax, in reaching Wilmington again.

operations of our fleet had not as yet

CH. XIV.]

RAM TENNESSEE CAPTURED.

481

been productive of any special result ship, were bearing down upon her, deagainst the rebels. It was determined, termined upon her destruction. Her however, at this date, to make a com-smoke-stack had been shot away, her bined movement against Mobile and its steering chains were gone, compelling defences, by the land and naval forces a resort to her relieving tackles; and of the department.

several of the port-shutters were jam. By an arrangement between Gen. med. Indeed, from the time the HartCanby and Admiral Farragut, troops ford struck her until her surrender, she were landed on Dauphin Island, and never fired a gun. As the Ossipee was early on the morning of August 5th, about to strike her, she hoisted the Admiral Farragut began the attack white flag, and that vessel immediately with the fleet. Five of the iron-clads stopped her engine, though not in time were already within the bar, and four- to avoid a glancing blow. During the teen others, two and two abreast and contest with the rebel gun boats and lashed together, followed up the main the ram Tennessee, and which termiship channel. About seven o'clock, the nated by her surrender at ten o'clock, fort opened fire, and the action soon be we lost many more men than from the came general. For particulars we must fire of the batteries of Fort Morgan.” refer to Farragut's report, which is a The total casualties were about 250; plain and sensibly written narrative twenty officers, including Buchanan, and worthy the reader's attention. It and about 170 men were captured in must suffice here to state, that, in an the Tennessee, and ninety officers and hour's time Fort Morgan was passed, men in the Selma. and the great ram, Tennessee, dashed Having attained this great success, out against the Hartford, Farragut's the reduction of the forts was soon afflag-ship. The rebel gun boat Selma ter secured. Fort Powell, protecting was captured, the Gaines was run ashore Grant's Pass, was evacuated and disand destroyed, and the Morgan escaped mantled the night after the naval ento Mobile. Farragut declares the fight gagement, the garrison escaping, but with the ram to have been “one of the leaving all the guns, eighteen in numfiercest naval combats on record;" but ber, in excellent condition for immediaided by the gun boats and monitors, ate service. Fort Gaines, on Dauphin admirably handled as they were, the Island, after a bombardment by one of Tennessee could not hold out. As the the iron-clads, was unconditionally surold admiral says, looking down upon rendered on the 6th of August. The matters from the main rigging near the articles of capitulation were signed on top, and speaking of the latter part of board the flag-ship Hartford by Admi. the combat, the ram “was at this time ral Farragut and Gen. Granger, on the sore beset; the Chickasaw was pound- part of the Union forces, and by Col. ing away at her stern, the Ossipee was Anderson, the rebel officer in command approaching her at full speed, and the of the post. By this surrender 818 Monongahela, Lackawanna, and this prisoners of war were captured; to

VOL. IV -61.

one

man

seven

gether with twenty-six guns and a large were

killed and amount of ordnance stores, ammunition, wounded.” supplies, etc.

The city of Mobile, it is true, was Fort Morgan still held out, and some not yet captured, but that was compatwo weeks were spent in preparing for ratively of minor importance. The its reduction. Powerful batteries were possession of the bay effectually superected on Mobile Point, and at dawn, pressed every attempt to use the harbor on the 22d of August, the combined as heretofore by blockade runners, or attack began. The fire was steadily for fitting out piratical cruisers. Prekept up during the day from the shore sident Lincoln, under date of Septembatteries, the monitors and ships inside, ber 3d, ordered salutes of 100 guns to and the vessels outside the bay. Be be fired at the national arsenals and tween nine and ten in the evening, a navy yards, in commemoration of the shell, from one of the land batteries, brilliant achievements of the army and exploded in the citadel and set it on navy. By another order he congratufire. The bombardment was kept up lated the officers and men who had slowly but steadily through the night, taken part in the work just accomand again became general with the day. lished. “The national thanks are ten- . light on the 23d. An hour afterward, dered by the president to Admiral Farat six A.M., a white flag was hoisted in ragut and Major-General Canby for the the fort, and at two in the afternoon, skill and harmony with which the rethe fort was unconditionally surrender cent operations in Mobile harbor and ed by its commander, R. L. Page. against Fort Powell, Fort Gaines and

By this surrender Canby reported: Fort Morgan were planned and carried “We have about 600 prisoners, sixty into execution; also to Admiral Farrapieces of artillery, and a large quan- gut and Major-General Granger, under tity of material. In the twelve hours whose immediate command they were preceding the surrender, about 3,000 conducted, and to the gallant commandshell were thrown into the fort. The ers on sea and land, and to the sailors citadel and barracks are entirely de- and soldiers engaged in the operations, stroyed, and the works generally much for their energy and courage, which, injured. Many of the guns were under the blessing of Providence, have spiked, the carriages burned, and been crowned with brilliant success, much of the ammunition destroyed and have won for them the applause hy the rebels.* The losses in the army and thanks of the nation."

* Farragut, in his dispatch, contrasts the conduct defended at all, and threw away or broke those weapof Anderson at Fort Gaines with that of Page on this ons which they had not the manliness to use against occasion. The former behaved in an honorable man- their enemies ; for Fort Morgan never fired a gun after ner after the surrender, “whilst Page and his officers, the commencement of the bombardment and the ad. with a childish spite, destroyed guns which they said vance pickets of our army were actually on its they would defend to the last, but which they never glacis.”

CA. XV.]

THE REBEL RAIDER FORREST'S DOINGS.

483

CHAPTER XV.

1864.

INVASION OF TENNESSEE: SHERMAN FROM ATLANTA TO SAVANNAH.

Forrest's cavalry raid and success - Hood moves on Allatoona — Repulsed — Burbridge destroys Saltville and

works there — Hood and Beauregard — Jeff. Davis's speech and wishes — Sherman's bold plan — Hood's invasion of Tennessee - Thomas at Nashville — Rebels beaten at Franklin - Thomas assumes the offen. sive — Decisive battle at Nashville and rout of Hood — Sherman's arrangements and special order — Railroad destroyed and Atlanta dismantled Sherman's line of march — Rebel blindness as to his purpose Howard and the right wing march — Their progress to the south and east - Slocum and the left wing march eastwardly — Demonstration against Augusta — Rebels deceived — Governor Brown and others in the emergency – Milledgeville occupied — Millen, the next point in view, reached, December 2d - The Oconee crossed — The crossing of the Ogeechee secured Sherman's advance to Savannah – Fort McAl. Jister taken Sherman's dispatch - Savannah taken and occupied.

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1864.

AFTER the fall of Atlanta, the rebel remained near the place till the next cavalry made special efforts to break morning, when he renewed his demand, Sherman's extended line of railroad and received the same refusal as before. communication with Nashville. On the He withdrew in the direction of Athens, 20th of September, the noted rebel which town had been re-garrisoned, and

raider, Forrest, with a strong attacked it on the afternoon of the 1st

cavalry force, crossed the Ten- of October; but without success. The nessee near Waterloo, Alabama, and at. next morning, he renewed the attack; tacked the garrison at Athens, consist- but he was decisively repulsed. Aning of 600 men, who surrendered the other column, under Forrest, appeared next day. Two regiments of reinforce before Columbia, October 1st; but did ments, which arrived shortly after the not make an attack. Two days later, capture of the garrison, were also com- he moved toward Mount Pleasant. pelled to surrender to the enemy. For Every exertion was made by Gen. rest destroyed the railroad westward, Thomas to catch and destroy the forces captured the garrison at Sulphur Branch under Forrest, before he could recross trestle, skirmished with the garrison the Tennessee; the rebel raider, how. at Pulaski, on the 27th of September, ever, was too active for our men, and and on the same day cut the Nashville succeeded in escaping to Corinth, Misand Chattanooga Railroad near Tulla- sissippi. homa and Dechard. One column of In the meantime, Hood had crossed Forrest's command, under Buford, ap- the Chattahoochee from the Macon peared before Huntsville, on the 30th Railroad and moved on Allatoona, of September, and summoned our troops which was attacked by a division of to surrender. This being refused, he his force, under French, on the 5th of

.

1864.

October. Gen. Sherman, who had been ed on, by a forced march, to Bristol, took engaged in active preparation to resist the town by surprise, and made many this threatened assault on his line of important captures. He then moved

communications, had ordered on Abingdon, Va., Gillem advancing to

Gen. Corse, with reinforcements, Marion, routing Vaughan's forces there from Rome to Allatoona. The enemy's and pursuing him to Wytheville, deattack was accordingly met and repuls. stroying the valuable lead mines in the ed, Gen. Sherman himself having reach. vicinity. A portion of Burbridge's ed Kenesaw Mountain from Atlanta in command, being left in the neighbortime to gain a distant view of the bood of Glade Spring, near Saltville, military operations being carried on. was attacked by Breckenridge, with a

Hood, observing our approach,” as superior force, and routed, when GilSherman wrote, on the 9th of October, lem, coming up, turned the tide of bat" has moved rapidly back to Dallas and tle, and put Breckenridge to flight. Van Wert, and I am watching bim, in Saltville, and its extensive salt manucase he tries to reach Kingston or Rome. factories and works, were now effectuAtlanta is perfectly secure to us, and ally destroyed; a loss to the rebels of this army is better off than in camp." immense severity. Our forces soon af

In September, an expedition from ter returned to Tennessee with a vast East Tennessee, under Gen. Burbridge, amount of spoils. was sent to destroy the salt works at After the movement on Allatoona, Saltville, Virginia. He met the enemy Hood, reaching Resaca on the 14th of on the 2d of October, about three miles October, made a partial attack on that and a half from Saltville, and drove place, which was successfully defended him into his strongly intrenched posi- by Gen. Watkins, when Hood advanced tion around the salt works, from which, and took possession of Dalton. Col however, he was unable to dislodge him. Johnston, in command there, surrender. During the night, Burbridge withdrew ed the garrison, about 1,200 men, to his command and returned to Kentucky. the vastly superior force brought against In December, another and successful him. The enemy now threatened Chatattempt was made to destroy the works tanooga, but Gen. Sherman was in pur at Saltville, where the rebel Gen. Breck- suit of Hood, who, retiring from Dalenridge now had his headquarters, de- ton, moved westwardly to Lafayette, tachments of his command being at and thence across the Alabama state Greenville, Jonesboro' and Rogersville. line, south-west to Jacksonville. Here The new expedition was led by Gen. he was reinforced by Beauregard, who, Stoneman, Gen. Gillem, with his bri- on the 17th, assumed command of the gade, taking the advance, coming up Military Division of the West, as it was with the

enemy, under Duke and Mor. called by the rebels, Hood, at the same gan, at Kingsport, defeating him and time, remaining at his post. capturing Morgan, a brother of the no

* Beauregard issued an addess, as usual, striving to torious John Morgan. Stoneman push- arouse the spirit of the Georgians :-“The army of

*

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