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beretofore effected so much mischief. Tennessee interfered with the operaThe legislature declined any such meas- tions of the Louisville and Nashville ure, and refused to sanction the gov. Railroad, and prevented traffic over it ernor's views, as set forth in his procla- for general purposes of commerce, esmation, May 20th. In this document, pecially for provisions and supplies. he speaks of “standing aloof from an This roused the Union men to greater unnatural, · horrid

and lamentable efforts, and a small encampment of strife,” of “resisting and preventing en- Federal troops under General Nelson croachment on the soil, rights, honor was formed in Garrard county. This and sovereignty of Kentucky,” and goes was denounced by Governor Magoffin on to declare : “I hereby notify and as a violation of the neutrality of the warn all other states, separated or unit- state, and he sent by the hands of two ed, especially the United and Confeder-“commissioners” a letter to President ate States, that I solemnly forbid any Lincoln, demanding the withdrawal of movement upon Kentucky soil, or occu- the troops. This was under date of pation of any post or place therein for August 19th; a few days afterwards any purpose whatever, until authorized the president, in pretty sharp terms, by invitation or permission of the legis- declined of course to have anything to lative and executive authorities. I es do with the Kentucky governor's compecially forbid all citizens of Kentucky, missioners, and refused to order the whether incorporated in the State Guard Union troops to leave the state. Jefferor otherwise, making any hostile demon-son Davis also was addressed and asked strations against any of the aforesaid to do the same thing with the rebel sovereignties, to be obedient to the or. troops; but Davis replied, that he was ders of lawful authorities, to remain sorry to say that he was compelled by quietly and peaceably at home, when necessity to seize upon points of moment off military duty, and refrain from all to prevent their being taken possession words and acts likely to provoke a col. of by the Union forces. Previous to lision, and so otherwise conduct them- this, Tennessee troops had invaded selves that the deplorable calamity of Kentucky, and carried off six cannons invasion may be averted; but mean- and 1,000 stand of arms. while to make prompt and efficient pre. The legislature met, September 2d; paration to assume the paramount and it was very decidedly Union in its comsupreme law of self-defence, and strictly position, and not at all disposed to favor of self-defence alone."

Magoffin's views; on the contrary, tho As might have been foreseen, the at- legislature resolved, Sept. 9th, that the tempted neutrality of Kentucky could almost daily, dispatched to the mustering rebel hosts not be maintained for any length of in the South and Southeast ; while for months, nothing time. Volunteers entered the Union

was done by Kentucky for the cause of the Union.

The first regiment of Kentuckians raised for the Union service, and others took positions in the armies was encamped on the free side of the river, in confederate armies.* The authorities of deference to urgent representations from professed

Unionists and to Kentucky's proclaimed neutrality.”— * “Men, munitions, and supplies were openly, and Greeley's “ American Conflict,” vol. i., p. 493.




invading secession forces should be the task of public service, resigned, and expelled by calling out all the troops General W. T. Sherman, in October, of the state, that aid be asked from the took command. From henceforth United States, and that Gen. R. Ander- Kentucky showed herself to be, and son be requested to enter upon his remained, heart and soul in the Union. command immediately. Hickman and In regard to Missouri, it deserves to Chalk Bluffs had been seized upon and be noted, that her position and influence fortified by the confederates. General with reference both to the older states Grant, alive to the importance of and the vast territory of the United prompt action, marched u force from States beyond her limits, were of prime Cairo, Sept. 6th, and took possession of importance to the cause of the Union. Paducah,where he foundererything pre. Elements of discord, it is true, existed pared for rebel arrival instead of for him in her midst, and there were not a few and his men. He issued a proclamation, secession agitators in the state; but, simple and straightforward in its terms, on the other hand, there were noble stating that his business was to deal and active loyal men in Missouri, able with armed rebellion, and nothing else and ready to meet and counteract the would be interfered with. Columbus plans of the governor and all his helpers. was occupied by the rebel General Governor Jackson tried to persuade (Bishop) Polk, Sept. 7th. Zollicoffer, the state to cast in her destiny with in the eastern part of the state, had those who had seceded. He advocated some days before seized upon Cumber. an armed neutrality; got the police of land Gap, on the same plea of military St. Louis entirely under his control; necessity, and be further said he meant and expected to be able to help disto hold it for the rebels.

union in this way, and sooner or later Gen. Anderson assumed command to get Missouri into the secession ranks. of the district allotted him, on Sept. But, under the clear sighted intelligence 20th. Union volunteers were called and action of Col. F. P. Blair, in St. for to drive out the invaders and sup. Louis, a volunteer military guard, port the cause of our common country. largely composed of Germans, was Zollicoffer advanced to Barboursville, raised, which became the nucleus of a and captured a Union camp. A month national army on the soil of that city. later, October 21st, he marched upon Captain (afterwards General) N. Lyon Camp Wild Cat, where Gen. Schoepf, was also an efficient helper in the good in command of the forces, repulsed him cause. He was in command at the with severe loss. A rebel force at arsenal in St. Louis, and durPiketown, in Eastern Kentucky, was ing the absence of General gathered under Col. Williams. Gen. Harney, was in charge of the entire Nelson marched to disperse it, Nov. 8th, department.

He had served under but Williams succeeded in getting off

, Gen. Scott in Mexico, and was a fine and retreated to Pound Gap. Gen. specimen of a loyal, brare, and enerAnderson, finding his health unequal to getic soldier. Acting under instruc


tions from Washington, Captain Lyon the enraged secessionists; shots were delivered, on the 25th of April, a large fired; and the soldiers returning the fire quantity of arms, some 20,000 or more, at last, killed and wounded some forty to Captain Stokes of Chicago, who had to fifty persons. Great excitement was been sent with a requisition from the produced, and threats of vengeance secretary of war to convey these arms made; but it was evident, that the to Springfield, Illinois. The transfer United States commander was in was not effected without considerable earnest and not to be trifled with. danger from the excited crowd of seces. Capt. Lyon's course was highly approv sionists in St. Louis ; but, by zeal and ed at Washington, and he was at once courage combined, the arms were saved raised to the rank of brigadier-general froin falling into the hands of those of the first brigade of Missouri Volunwho did not scruple to steal United teers. States property, as in Virginia, North General Harney returned from the Carolina, and other states.

east on the 12th of May, and resumed Being entrusted with further powers command in Missouri. He issued two by the president, to enrol 10,000 loyal proclamations, giving the governor and men if needed for the maintenance of legislature to understand that he would the authority of the United States in maintain the authority of the United St. Louis and Missouri generally, Cap. States against all secessionary move. tain Lyon proceeded to vigorous mea- ments. A week or so later, however,

He resolved, with Colonel Gen. Harney entered into a sort of truce Blair's help, to break up Camp Jack. or compact with Gen. Sterling Price, son, as it was called, where the State who had been placed by Governoi Guard were gathered, waiting their Jackson in command of all the state opportunity to give help to secession militia. The professed object of this and rebellion. Early on the morning arrangement was to restore peace and of May 10th, with some 6,000 men good order, and to put a stop to iniliand artillery, Lyon appeared, wholly tary movements of various kinds in the unexpectedly, at the camp. He de state. “ We do, therefore, mutually manded its immediate surrender, as enjoin upon the people of the state to being made up of elements hostile to attend to their civil business, of whattho government and in open communi. ever sort it may be; and it is to be cation with the southern confederacy. hoped that the unquiet elements which General Frost, who was in command have threatened so seriously to disturb of the state troops, had no alternative. the public peace, may soon subside, and Lyon was resolute and peremptory. be remembered only to be deplored." Everything was surrendered ; 20 can- But, as notwithstanding this so-called non, 1,200 new rifles, a large amount of truce, Union men in Missouri were ammunition, etc. On the return to St. hunted down and maltreated, and as it Louis with the prisoners, the troops was evident the compact was, as it was were mobbed and grossly insulted by meant to be, by secessionists, of service


C1. III.]






and protection to treason only, General infamous and degrading sway of its Harney's course was promptly re- wicked minions in this state. No brave pudiated at Washington, and General and true-hearted Missourian will obey Lyon, on the 1st of June, was placed the one or submit to the other. in command of the department. This then, and drive out ignominiously the active and energetic officer, at an inter- invaders, who have dared to desecrate view with Governor Jackson and the soil which your labors have made General Price, on the 11th, positively fruitful, and which is consecrated by refused to agree to any measures other your homes.” than those which he had thus far Gen. Lyon, in carrying out his in. steadily been carrying out. He put no structions from headquarters, not only faith in the professions of the governor issued a proclamation, denouncing the and his sympathizers, and he would action of the governor as setnot listen for a moment to any proposal ting at defiance the authori. which looked towards giving up the ties of the United States and consum.

vantage ground already held mating his treasonable purposes, but

by the government. He fur- he also resolved to arrest the rebel auther demanded the disarming of the thorities and break up their military state militia and the rejection of the preparations. He moved at once on obnoxious militia bill, and insisted Jefferson City, which was reached on upon the full and unrestricted right of the 15th of June; but he found that the

government to take any steps it Jackson had retreated some forty miles deemed necessary, in order to protect above, to Booneville, cutting off the Union men and repress insurrection. telegraph and destroying the railroad

Governor Jackson, thinking these bridges on the route. Gen. Lyon folterms to be “degrading,” as he phrased lowed him, and two days afterwards it, issued a proclamation, calling for defeated and dispersed the hostile forces. 50,000 state militia to repel federal in. At the same time, in a proclamation vasion, and to protect life, liberty and the next day, he avowed the most property in Missouri. He acknow. liberal and conciliatory policy towards ledged that the state was still one of all quiet and orderly persons in Misthe United States, and to a certain ex- souri. tent bound to obey the government; It is interesting, in this connection, to but he closed in the following words, take note of the position of affairs in which show plainly the animus at the Western Virginia and Eastern Tennesbottom :—“It is my duty to advise see. Virginia, as previously related, you that your first allegiance is due to (see p. 22) had, through its unscrupul. your own state, and that you are under ous governor and legislature, been carno obligation whatever to obey the ried into the arms of secession. But unconstitutional edicts of the military there was, notwithstanding, a large despotism which has enthroned itself portion of the people who abhorred the at Washington, nor to submit to the course which had been forced upon the

VOL. IV.-6.

state, and who resolved to resist to the counties west of the Alleghanies, and utmost the designs of the rebels, and to a convention was held at Wheeling, stand by the Union in its integrity. Espe May 13th, to consider and determine cially was this the case in Western Vir- upon the action requisite in the existginia. In the counties west of the Blue ing crisis. Resolutions were passed, Ridge there were some 10,000 slaves, condemning the ordinance of secession, while in those on the east the number as “unconstitutional, null and void," reached to nearly half a million. The and declaring the annexation to the white population was decidedly more southern confederacy“ a plain and numerous in the western part of the palpable violation of the constitution state than elsewhere, and rapid ad of the state, and utterly subversive of vances were being made in the develop- the rights and liberties of the good ment of its agricultural and industrial people thereof." Provision was also resources, in comparison with the stag. made for a convention of representanation in the counties more favored in tives of the people, to be held at many respects on the seaboard. That Wheeling, June 11th, in case the ordinextensive western region, bounded by ance of secession should be ratified, as the Alleghany Mountains and the Ohio was proposed, on the 23d of May, River, and bordering on the north upon (see p. 23). Pennsylvania, had little indeed in com- On the day appointed the convention mon with the slave-bolding, slave-trad- assembled. Forty counties (five to the ing interests and southern sympathies of east of the Alleghanies) were reprethe eastern division. Thus socially and sented, and the delegates entered upon industrially, as well as geographically, their work, first taking an oath to sup situated, thuy felt the pressure of taxa- port the Constitution and laws of the tion to be very unequal as compared United States. It was maintained, that with the more favored slave-holders, and the government at Richmond, having they were not prepared to give them- violated the constitution of the state, selves up to joining the secessionists in its authority was thereby annulled, and their mad and wicked purposes against that the offices of all who adhered to the very life of the Republic.

the usurping convention and executive Acting on their convictions, these were, ipso facto, vacant. After a few patriotic Virginians denounced the pro- days' discussion, this view was found ceedings of Governor Letcher and the to prevail, and a declaration, setting secession leaders. A meeting was held forth the motives of the decision, and at Clarksburg, in Harrison county, on an ordinance for the reorganization of

the 22d of April, and the the state government, were passed by

initial step was taken to sepa- a nearly unanimous vote. The declararate Western Virginia from any part or tion was forcible and clear in its statelot in the evil counsels prevailing ments as to the necessity of energetic throughout the rest of the state. Dele-action. The ordinance, reorganizing gates were chosen from the various the state government, provided for the


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