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of the uprising and spirit of the people, what was theirs of right, but I have there was good ground to hope that gone to the very extreme of magnanithey would manfully sustain the Union and the integrity of the nation. Few, very few probably, appreciated at all fully, the vastness and fearfulness of the struggle now at hand; and it was not till many months had rolled by, that the loyal supporters of the government understood the greatness of the work imposed upon them, and the many and peculiar trials and hardships yet to be undergone by those who were determined to sustain the Constitution and laws of our country.
mity. The return we receive is war armies marched upon our capital, obstructions and dangers to our navigation, letters of marque to invite pirates to prey upon our commerce, a concerted movement to blot out the United States of America from the map of the globe. . . . The conspiracy is now known. Armies have been raised; war is levied to accomplish it. There are only two sides to the question. Every man must be for the United States or against it. There can be no neutrals in this war-only patriots or traitors."
(Mr. Lincoln and his party) remain unchanged; but I trust the time will never come when I shall not be will ing to make any needful sacrifice of personal feeling and party policy for the honor and integrity of my country. I know of no mode by which a loyal citizen may so well demonstrate his devotion to his country as by sustaining the Flag, the Constitution, and the Union, under all circumstances, and under every administration (regardless of party politics), against all assailants, at home and abroad."
In concluding the present chapter, we may fitly make mention of the clos- On the 10th of May, being too uning scenes of Senator Douglas's life and well to leave his room, he dictated his career. This distinguished statesman, last letter, reiterating his often ex though defeated in the presidential pressed sentiments; in this letter he election, and though, as a democrat, far said: "My previous relations to them too obsequious to the South and its politicians, was nevertheless too good a patriot and too sincere a lover of the Union, not to give all his support to the new administration in its effort to put down secession and rebellion. Having left Washington, after the adjournment of Congress, he was frequently called on, on his way home, to address the people. On the 1st of May, at Chicago, he spoke freely and at large. A sentence or two will give evidence of the spirit of the man: "That the present danger is imminent, no man can conceal. If war must Uttering such sentiments as these come-if the bayonet must be used Stephen Arnold Douglas died, on the to maintain the Constitution-I can 3d of June, 1861, in the 49th year of say before God my conscience is his age. All political animosity ceased clean. I have struggled long for a on his death, and the country generally peaceful solution of the difficulty. I mourned his loss in the existing crisis have not only tendered those states in its affairs.
Kentucky wishes to be neutral-Gov. Magoffin's proclamation - Neutrality impossible-Magoffin's letter to the president - Reply - Legislature in session - Grant's course-Efforts of rebels-Anderson in command - Contests in Kentucky-Condition of Missouri - Governor Jackson-F. P. Blair — Capt. (General) Lyon's zeal - Breaks up Camp Jackson - General Harney's doings-Lyon in command-Gov. Jackson calls out 50,000 militia-Lyon at Jefferson City and Booneville-Western Virginia - Population, character, etc.-Secession denounced — Meeting at Clarksburg - Convention at Wheeling — Its action — Address of Governor Pierrepont - Meeting of the legislature-General McClellan's activity-Attacks rebels at Beverly, Laurel Hill, Rich Mountain - Surrender of Pegram - Death of Garnett- - Eastern Tennessee Feeling of the people-Position of this part of the state Convention at Knoxville-Vote of Tennessee on secession-Convention at Greenville - Declaration of Grievances - Sufferings of the people in East Tennes- Andrew Johnson - The appeal to the sword-Relative position of the loyal and seceding states in respect to population, claims of law and order, habits and education of the people, means of defence and of fence, preparedness for war, importance of cotton to the world, foreign sympathy and aid, etc.
the "State Guard," under Gen. S. B. Buckner's command. This person recruited all he could and dispatched them as soon as possible to join the rebel army; and when he had corrupted as many Kentuckians as he was able to reach, he followed them into the camp of treason, ready to imbrue his hands in the blood of those who loved and meant to uphold the Union. The government, on its part, was not prepared to give up its rights; and the Union men in Kentucky sought the aid of loyal troops to keep down secession plans and movements in their state. The legislature met, April 28th, and Gov. Magoffin, asserting that the Union was dissolved, called on the members of the legislature to summon a convention of the people, that process by
TURNING our attention to the Southwest, we find matters of interest and importance transpiring in Kentucky and Missouri. We have spoken on a previous page (see p. 23) of Virginia and Tennessee, and the means resorted to by secessionists, not only to crush out Union sentiments, but to force those states into joining Davis and company. In Kentucky and Missouri similar efforts were made, and it was from no want of exertion on the part of 1861. the rebels that these states were saved from being dragged into the vortex of disunion. Kentucky, by advice of the governor and secession sympa. thizers, was asked to take the ground of neutrality between the loyal and insurrectionary states; a ground which, from the nature of the case, could never be maintained. Gov. Magoffin placed which disunionists and traitors had
tions of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad, and prevented traffic over it for general purposes of commerce, es
heretofore effected so much mischief. Tennessee interfered with the opera. The legislature declined any such measure, and refused to sanction the governor's views, as set forth in his proclamation, May 20th. In this document, pecially for provisions and supplies. he speaks of "standing aloof from an This roused the Union men to greater and unnatural, horrid lamentable efforts, and a small encampment of strife," of "resisting and preventing en- Federal troops under General Nelson croachment on the soil, rights, honor was formed in Garrard county. This and sovereignty of Kentucky," and goes was denounced by Governor Magoffin on to declare: "I hereby notify and as a violation of the neutrality of the warn all other states, separated or unit- state, and he sent by the hands of two ed, especially the United and Confeder- "commissioners" a letter to President ate States, that I solemnly forbid any Lincoln, demanding the withdrawal of movement upon Kentucky soil, or occu- the troops. This was under date of pation of any post or place therein for August 19th; a few days afterwards any purpose whatever, until authorized the president, in pretty sharp terms, by invitation or permission of the legis declined of course to have anything to lative and executive authorities. I es- do with the Kentucky governor's compecially forbid all citizens of Kentucky, missioners, and refused to order the whether incorporated in the State Guard Union troops to leave the state. Jeffer or otherwise, making any hostile demon- son Davis also was addressed and asked strations against any of the aforesaid to do the same thing with the rebel sovereignties, to be obedient to the or- troops; but Davis replied, that he was ders of lawful authorities, to remain sorry to say that he was compelled by quietly and peaceably at home, when necessity to seize upon points of moment off military duty, and refrain from all to prevent their being taken possession words and acts likely to provoke a col- of by the Union forces. Previous to lision, and so otherwise conduct them- this, Tennessee troops had invaded selves that the deplorable calamity of Kentucky, and carried off six cannons invasion may be averted; but mean- and 1,000 stand of arms. while to make prompt and efficient preparation to assume the paramount and supreme law of self-defence, and strictly of self-defence alone."
As might have been foreseen, the attempted neutrality of Kentucky could not be maintained for any length of time. Volunteers entered the Union service, and others took positions in the confederate armies.* The authorities of
* "Men, munitions, and supplies were openly, and
The legislature met, September 2d; it was very decidedly Union in its composition, and not at all disposed to favor Magoffin's views; on the contrary, the legislature resolved, Sept. 9th, that the almost daily, dispatched to the mustering rebel hosts in the South and South-east; while for months, nothing was done by Kentucky for the cause of the Union. The first regiment of Kentuckians raised for the Union armies was encamped on the free side of the river, in deference to urgent representations from professed Unionists and to Kentucky's proclaimed neutrality."— Greeley's "American Conflict," vol. i., p. 493.
CONDITION OF MISSOURI.
invading secession forces should be the task of public service, resigned, and expelled by calling out all the troops General W. T. Sherman, in October, of the state, that aid be asked from the took command. From henceforth United States, and that Gen. R. Ander- Kentucky showed herself to be, and son be requested to enter upon his remained, heart and soul in the Union. command immediately. Hickman and In regard to Missouri, it deserves to Chalk Bluffs had been seized upon and be noted, that her position and influence fortified by the confederates. General with reference both to the older states Grant, alive to the importance of and the vast territory of the United prompt action, marched a force from States beyond her limits, were of prime Cairo, Sept. 6th, and took possession of importance to the cause of the Union. Paducah,where he found everything pre- Elements of discord, it is true, existed pared for rebel arrival instead of for him in her midst, and there were not a few and his men. He issued a proclamation, secession agitators in the state; but, simple and straightforward in its terms, on the other hand, there were noble stating that his business was to deal and active loyal men in Missouri, able with armed rebellion, and nothing else and ready to meet and counteract the would be interfered with. Columbus plans of the governor and all his helpers. was occupied by the rebel General Governor Jackson tried to persuade (Bishop) Polk, Sept. 7th. Zollicoffer, the state to cast in her destiny with in the eastern part of the state, had those who had seceded. He advocated some days before seized upon Cumber- an armed neutrality; got the police of land Gap, on the same plea of military St. Louis entirely under his control; necessity, and he further said he meant to hold it for the rebels.
and expected to be able to help dis union in this way, and sooner or later Gen. Anderson assumed command to get Missouri into the secession ranks. of the district allotted him, on Sept. But, under the clear sighted intelligence 20th. Union volunteers were called and action of Col. F. P. Blair, in St. for to drive out the invaders and sup- Louis, a volunteer military guard, port the cause of our common country. largely composed of Germans, was Zollicoffer advanced to Barboursville, raised, which became the nucleus of a and captured a Union camp. A month national army on the soil of that city. later, October 21st, he marched upon Captain (afterwards General) N. Lyon Camp Wild Cat, where Gen. Schoepf, was also an efficient helper in the good in command of the forces, repulsed him cause. He was in command at the with severe loss. A rebel force at arsenal in St. Louis, and durPiketown, in Eastern Kentucky, was ing the absence of General gathered under Col. Williams. Gen. Harney, was in charge of the entire Nelson marched to disperse it, Nov. 8th, but Williams succeeded in getting off, and retreated to Pound Gap. Gen. Anderson, finding his health unequal to
He had served under
tions from Washington, Captain Lyon the enraged secessionists; shots were delivered, on the 25th of April, a large fired; and the soldiers returning the fire quantity of arms, some 20,000 or more, at last, killed and wounded some forty to Captain Stokes of Chicago, who had to fifty persons. Great excitement was been sent with a requisition from the produced, and threats of vengeance secretary of war to convey these arms made; but it was evident, that the to Springfield, Illinois. The transfer United States commander was in was not effected without considerable earnest and not to be trifled with.
danger from the excited crowd of secessionists in St. Louis; but, by zeal and courage combined, the arms were saved from falling into the hands of those who did not scruple to steal United States property, as in Virginia, North Carolina, and other states.
Capt. Lyon's course was highly approv ed at Washington, and he was at once raised to the rank of brigadier-general of the first brigade of Missouri Volunteers.
General Harney returned from the east on the 12th of May, and resumed Being entrusted with further powers command in Missouri. He issued two by the president, to enrol 10,000 loyal proclamations, giving the governor and men if needed for the maintenance of legislature to understand that he would the authority of the United States in maintain the authority of the United St. Louis and Missouri generally, Cap- States against all secessionary movetain Lyon proceeded to vigorous mea- ments. A week or so later, however, sures. He resolved, with Colonel Gen. Harney entered into a sort of truce Blair's help, to break up Camp Jack or compact with Gen. Sterling Price, son, as it was called, where the State who had been placed by Governor Guard were gathered, waiting their Jackson in command of all the state opportunity to give help to secession militia. The professed object of this and rebellion. Early on the morning arrangement was to restore peace and of May 10th, with some 6,000 men good order, and to put a stop to miliand artillery, Lyon appeared, wholly tary movements of various kinds in the unexpectedly, at the camp. He de- state. "We do, therefore, mutually manded its immediate surrender, as being made up of elements hostile to the government and in open communication with the southern confederacy. General Frost, who was in command have threatened so seriously to disturb of the state troops, had no alternative. Lyon was resolute and peremptory. Everything was surrendered; 20 cannon, 1,200 new rifles, a large amount of ammunition, etc. On the return to St. Louis with the prisoners, the troops were mobbed and grossly insulted by
enjoin upon the people of the state to attend to their civil business, of whatever sort it may be; and it is to be hoped that the unquiet elements which
the public peace, may soon subside, and be remembered only to be deplored.” But, as notwithstanding this so-called truce, Union men in Missouri were hunted down and maltreated, and as it was evident the compact was, as it was meant to be, by secessionists, of service