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of the uprising and spirit of the people, what was theirs of right, but I have there was good ground to hope that gone to the very extreme of magnani. they would manfully sustain the Union mity. The return we receive is war and the integrity of the nation. Few, armies marched upon our capital, obvery few probably, appreciated at all structions and dangers to our navigafully, the vastness and fearfulness of tion, letters of marque to invite pirates the struggle now at hand; and it was to prey upon our commerce, a concerted not till many months bad rolled by, movement to blot out the United States that the loyal supporters of the govern- of America from the map of the globe. ment understood the greatness of the . . The conspiracy is now known. work imposed upon them, and the Armies have been raised; war is levied many and peculiar trials and hardships to accomplish it. There are only two yet to be undergone by those who were sides to the question. Every man determined to sustain the Constitution must be for the United States or against and laws of our country.

it. There can be no neutrals in this In concluding the present chapter, war-only patriots or traitors." we may fitly make mention of the clos- On the 10th of May, being too uning scenes of Senator Douglas's life and well to leave his room, he dictated his

This distinguished statesman, last letter, reiterating his often ex. though defeated in the presidential pressed sentiments; in this letter he election, and though, as a democrat, far said: “My previous relations to them too obsequious to the South and its (Mr. Lincoln and his party) rema:p politicians, was nevertheless too good a unchanged; but I trust the time will patriot and too sincere a lover of the never come when I shall not be willUnion, not to give all his support to ing to make any needful sacrifice of the new administration in its effort to personal feeling and party policy for put down secession and rebellion. the honor and integrity of my country. Having left Washington, after the ad- I know of no mode by which a loyal journment of Congress, he was fre- citizen may so well demonstrate his dequently called on, on his way home, to votion to his country as by sustaining address the people. On the 1st of the Flag, the Constitution, and the May, at Chicago, he spoke freely and Union, under all circumstances, and at large. A sentence or two will give under every administration (regardless evidence of the spirit of the man : of party politics), against all assailants, “That the present danger is immi- at home and abroad.” nent, no man can conceal. If war must

Uttering such sentiments as these come—if the bayonet must be used Stephen Arnold Douglas died, on the to maintain the Constitution–I can 3d of June, 1861, in the 49th year of say before God my conscience is his age. All political

. All political animosity ceased clean. I have struggled long for a on his death, and the country generally peaceful solution of the difficulty. I mourned his loss in the existing crisis have not only tendered those states in its affairs.

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Kentucky wishes to be neutral — Gov. Magoffin's proclamation – Neutrality impossible – Magoffin's letter to

the president - Reply - Legislature in session — Grant's course — Efforts of rebels — Anderson in com. mand - Contests in Kentucky - Condition of Missouri - Governor Jackson - F. P. Blair - Capt. (General) Lyon’s zeal — Breaks up Camp Jackson - General Harney's doings - Lyon in command — Gov. Jackson calls out 50,000 militia - Lyon at Jefferson City and Booneville – Western Virginia - Population, charac ter, etc.-Secession denounced - Meeting at Clarksburg — Convention at Wheeling - Its action — Address of Governor Pierrepont - Meeting of the legislature - General McClellan's activity — Attacks rebels at Beverly, Laurel Hill, Rich Mountain - Surrender of Pegram - Death of Garnett - Eastern Tennessee Feeling of the people— Position of this part of the state - Convention at Knoxville — Vote of Tennessee on secession - Convention at Greenville - Declaration of Grievances — Sufferings of the people in East Tennessee — Andrew Johnson — The appeal to the sword — Relative position of the loyal and seceding states in respect to population, claims of law and order, habits and education of the people, means of defence and of fence, preparedness for war, importance of cotton to the world, foreign sympathy and aid, etc.

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TURNING our attention to the South-| the “State Guard,” under Gen. S. B. West, we find matters of interest and Buckner's command. This person reimportance transpiring in Kentucky and cruited all he could and dispatched Missouri. We have spoken on a pre. them as soon as possible to join the vious page (see p. 23) of Virginia and rebel army; and when he had corrupt. Tennessee, and the means resorted to ed as many Kentuckians as he was able by secessionists, not only to crush out to reach, he followed them into the Union sentiments, but to force those camp of treason, ready to imbrue his states into joining Davis and company. hands in the blood of those who loved In Kentucky and Missouri similar and meant to uphold the Union. The efforts were made, and it was from no government, on its part, was not prepar- .

want of exertion on the part of ed to give up its rights; and the Union

the rebels that these states were men in Kentucky sought the aid of saved from being dragged into the vor. loyal troops to keep down secession tex of disunion. Kentucky, by advice plans and movements in their state. of the governor and secession sympa. The legislature met, April 28th, and thizers, was asked to take the ground Gov. Magoffin, asserting that the Union of neutrality between the loyal and in was dissolved, called on the members surrectionary states ; a ground which, of the legislature to summon a convenfrom the nature of the case, could never tion of the people, that process by be maintained. Gov. Magoffin placed which disunionists and traitors had

1861.

heretofore effected so much mischief. Tennessee interfered with the operaThe legislature declined any such meas- tions of the Louisville and Nashville ure, and refused to sanction the gov. Railroad, and prevented traffic over it ernor's views, as set forth in his procla- for general purposes of commerce, esmation, May 20th. In this document, pecially for provisions and supplies. he speaks of “standing aloof from an This roused the Union men to greater unnatural, · horrid

and lamentable efforts, and a small encampment of strife," of "resisting and preventing en. Federal troops under General Nelson croachment on the soil, rights, honor was formed in Garrard county. This

nd sovereignty of Kentucky,” and goes was denounced by Governor Magoffin on to declare : “I hereby notify and as a violation of the neutrality of the warn all other states, separated or unit- state, and he sent by the hands of two ed, especially the United and Confeder- “ commissioners" a letter to President ate States, that I solemnly forbid any Lincoln, demanding the withdrawal of movement upon Kentucky soil, or occu- the troops. This was under date of pation of any post or place therein for August 19th; a few days afterwards any purpose whatever, until authorized the president, in pretty sharp terms, by invitation or permission of the legis- declined of course to have anything to lative and executive authorities. I es do with the Kentucky governor's compecially forbid all citizens of Kentucky, missioners, and refused to order the whether incorporated in the State Guard Union troops to leave the state. Jefferor otherwise, making any hostile demon- son Davis also was addressed and asked strations against any of the aforesaid to do the same thing with the rebel sovereignties, to be obedient to the or. troops; but Davis replied, that he was ders of lawful authorities, to remain sorry to say that he was compelled by quietly and peaceably at home, when necessity to seize upon points of moment off military duty, and refrain from all to prevent their being taken possession words and acts likely to provoke a col. of by the Union forces. Previous to lision, and so otherwise conduct them- this, Tennessee troops had invaded selves that the deplorable calamity of Kentucky, and carried off six cannons invasion may be averted; but mean. and 1,000 stand of arms. while to make prompt and efficient pre- The legislature met, September 2d; paration to assume the paramount and it was very decidedly Union in its comsupreme law of self-defence, and strictly position, and not at all disposed to favor of self-defence alone."

Magoffin's views; on the contrary, tho As might have been foreseen, the at- legislature resolved, Sept. 9th, that the tempted neutrality of Kentucky could almost daily, dispatched to the mustering rebel hosts not be maintained for any length of in the South and Southeast ; while for months, nothing time. Volunteers entered the Union

was done by Kentucky for the cause of the Union.

The first regiment of Kentuckians raised for the Union service, and others took positions in the armies was encamped on the free side of the river, in confederate armies.* The authorities of deference to urgent representations from professed

Unionists and to Kentucky's proclaimed neutrality.”— * “Men, munitions, and supplies were openly, and Greeley's “ American Conflict,” vol. i., p. 493.

CH, III.]

CONDITION OF MISSOURI.

39

invading secession forces should be the task of public service, resigned, and expelled by calling out all the troops General W. T. Sherman, in October, of the state, that aid be asked from the took command. From henceforth United States, and that Gen. R. Ander- Kentucky showed herself to be, and son be requested to enter upon his remained, heart and soul in the Union. command immediately. Hickman and In regard to Missouri, it deserves to Chalk Bluffs had been seized upon and be noted, that her position and influence fortified by the confederates. General with reference both to the older states Grant, alive to the importance of and the vast territory of the United prompt action, marched a force from States beyond her limits, were of prime Cairo, Sept. 6th, and took possession of importance to the cause of the Union. Paducah, where he found everything pre. Elements of discord, it is true, existed pared for rebel arrival instead of for him in her midst, and there were not a few and his men. He issued a proclamation, secession agitators in the state; but, simple and straightforward in its terms, on the other hand, there were noble stating that his business was to deal and active loyal men in Missouri, able with armed rebellion, and nothing else and ready to meet and counteract the would be interfered with. Columbus plans of the governor and all his helpers. was occupied by the rebel General Governor Jackson tried to persuade (Bishop) Polk, Sept. 7th. Zollicoffer, the state to cast in her destiny with in the eastern part of the state, had those who had seceded. He advocated some days before seized upon Cumber- an armed neutrality; got the police of land Gap, on the same plea of military St. Louis entirely under his control; necessity, and be further said he meant and expected to be able to help disto hold it for the rebels.

union in this way, and sooner or later Gen. Anderson assumed command to get Missouri into the secession ranks. of the district allotted him, on Sept. But, under the clear sighted intelligence 20th. Union volunteers were called and action of Col. F. P. Blair, in St. for to drive out the invaders and sup. Louis, a volunteer military guard, port the cause of our common country. largely composed of Germans, was Zollicoffer advanced to Barboursville, raised, which became the nucleus of a and captured a Union camp. A month national army on the soil of that city. later, October 21st, he marched upon Captain (afterwards General) N. Lyon Camp Wild Cat, where Gen. Schoepf, was also an efficient helper in the good in command of the forces, repulsed him cause. He was in command at the with severe loss. A rebel force at arsenal in St. Louis, and durPiketown, in Eastern Kentucky, was ing the absence of General gathered under Col. Williams. Gen. Harney, was in charge of the entire Nelson marched to disperse it, Nov. 8th, department.

He had served under but Williams succeeded in getting off, Gen. Scott in Mexico, and was a fine and retreated to Pound Gap. Gen. specimen of a loyal, brave, and enerAnderson, finding his health unequal to getic soldier. Acting under instruc

1861.

tions from Washington, Captain Lyon the enraged secessionists; shots were delivered, on the 25th of April, a large fired; and the soldiers returning the fire quantity of arms, some 20,000 or more, at last, killed and wounded some forty to Captain Stokes of Chicago, who had to fifty persons. Great excitement was been sent with a requisition from the produced, and threats of vengeance secretary of war to convey these arms made; but it was evident, that the to Springfield, Illinois. The transfer United States commander was in was not effected without considerable earnest and not to be trifled with. danger from the excited crowd of seces. Capt. Lyon's course was highly approv sionists in St. Louis; but, by zeal and ed at Washington, and he was at once courage combined, the arms were saved raised to the rank of brigadier-general from falling into the hands of those of the first brigade of Missouri Volunwho did not scruple to steal United teers. States property, as in Virginia, North General Harney returned from the Carolina, and other states.

east on the 12th of May, and resumed Being entrusted with further powers command in Missouri. He issued two by the president, to enrol 10,000 loyal proclamations, giving the governor and men if needed for the maintenance of legislature to understand that he would the authority of the United States in maintain the authority of the United St. Louis and Missouri generally, Cap. States against all secessionary movetain Lyon proceeded to vigorous mea ments. A week or so later, however,

He resolved, with Colonel | Gen. Harney entered into a sort of truce Blair's help, to break up Camp Jack- or compact with Gen. Sterling Price, son, as it was called, where the State who had been placed by Governor Guard were gathered, waiting their Jackson in command of all the state opportunity to give help to secession militia. The professed object of this and rebellion. Early on the morning arrangement was to restore peace and of May 10th, with some 6,000 men good order, and to put a stop to iniliand artillery, Lyon appeared, wholly tary movements of various kinds in the unexpectedly, at the camp. He de- state. “ We do, therefore, mutually manded its immediate surrender, as enjoin upon the people of the state to being made up of elements hostile to attend to their civil business, of whatthe government and in open communi. ever sort it may be; and it is to be cation with the southern confederacy. hoped that the unquiet elements which General Frost, who was in command have threatened so seriously to disturb of the state troops, had no alternative. the public peace, may soon subside, and Lyon was resolute and peremptory. be remembered only to be deplored.” Everything was surrendered ; 20 can- But, as notwithstanding this so-called non, 1,200 new rifles, a large amount of truce, Union men in Missouri were ammunition, etc. On the return to St. hunted down and maltreated, and as it Louis with the prisoners, the troops was evident the compact was, as it was were mobbed and grossly insulted by meant to be, by secessionists, of service

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