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weeks, more or less, is of no import attack was determined upon. “At six,

A.M.," writes one of the officers, “the Some further operations in the South Clifton stood in the bay, and opened and West, at this time, we may here, fire on the fort, to which no reply was for convenience sake, put on record in made. At nine, A.M., the Sachem, Ari. closing the present chapter. Gen. zona and Granite City, followed by the Banks, as we have stated on a previous transports, stood over the bar, and with page (p. 318), was reinforced by Gen. much difficulty, owing to the shallowGrant, after the capture of Vicksburg ness of the water, reached anchorage, and the fall of Port Hudson, and an two miles from the fort, at eleven, A., expedition was fitted out, early in Sep- the gun boats covering the transports. tember, under Gen. Franklin, to occupy At half-past three, P.M., the Sachem, Sabine City, at the mouth of the Sabine followed by the Arizona, ad

1863. River, on the dividing line between vanced up the eastern channel Louisiana and Texas. The defences at to draw the fire of the forts, while the Sabine Pass consisted, as nearly as Clifton advanced up the western chancould be ascertained, of two 32-pound. nel, followed by the Granite City, to ers, placed en barbette, a battery of cover the landing of a division of troops field pieces, and two boats used on the under Gen. Weitzel. No reply to bay, converted into rams. Franklin's the fire of the gun

boats was made until force, consisting of 4,000 men, left New we were abreast of the forts, when they Orleans in transports, September 4th, opened with eight guns, three of which accompanied by a squadron of four gun were rifled, almost at the same moment. · boats, the Clifton, Sachem, Arizona and The Clifton and Sachem were struck Granite City. The plan was for the in their boilers, enveloping the vessels attack to be made by the gun boats, in steam. There not being room to each one having about forty-five sharp- pass the Sachem, the Arizona was backshooters on board; then, so soon as the ed down the channel, and a boat was rebels should be driven from their de- sent to the Sachem." The officers and fences and the rams destroyed, the crews of the Clifton and Sachem, and transports were to advance and land about ninety sharpshooters, who were the troops. The expedition reached on board, were captured. The Union the entrance to the harbor, September loss, in killed and wounded, was about 7th, and a reconnaissance having been thirty. The whole expedition now re: made the next morning, an immediate turned to Brashear City, whence, after

considerable delay, the * For the rebel view of the position of affairs in respect to Charleston, the reader can refer to Pollard. forward by Franklin and VermillionHe ridicules the statements concerning Fort Sumter ville and occupied Opelousas.* and the progress of our naval force, and asserts that while "a large besieging force was in sight of the * Pollard rather boasts of this “brilliant victory spires of Charleston, yet the city was safe, and pro- won by the little Confederate garrison of Sabine Pass claimed to the Confederacy new lessons of brilliant against the fleet of the enemy;" and says, “the result courage and hope.”—Third Year of the War,” pp. of this gallant achievement was the capture of two

fine gun boats, fifteen heavy guns, over 200 prisenen

army moved

85-98.

Ca, IV.]

QUANTRELL'S RAID INTO LAWRENCE.

373

On the 27th of October, an expedi- tempted, October 28th, to capture the tion under Gen. Banks sailed from New garrison at Pine Bluff, on the Arkansas; Orleans. It consisted of about twenty in this they failed entirely, being revessels, accompanied by three gun boats, pulsed with great loss, and glad to esand was destined to the mouth of the cape toward the Red River. Arkansas Rio Grande, which is the boundary line was thus virtually relieved of the rebel between Texas and Mexico. During usurpation, except that here and there the first three days out the weatber was the guerrillas pursued their infamous fine, but the next day a storm arose, trade in plunder and bloodshed.* and one light draft steamer and two In connection with these outgrowths schooners were lost, but no lives. The of lawlessness and ruffianism, we may expedition anchored off the mouth of make mention of Quantrell and his the river, October 31st, and on the next doings on a certain occasion. Ascer day a force was landed on Brazos Island. taining that the city of Lawrence, Kan By the 4th of November, the troops sas, was undefended, this noted ma were all landed, and the day following rauder, with a force of about 800 men, Banks entered Brownsville, on the Rio crossed the Missouri below Leaven Grande, which place had become an worth, and by a rapid march entered important depot of rebel trade in con- the city on the night of the 20th of nection with Matamoras.

August. The unarmed citizens were After the surrender of Vicksburg shot down in cold blood; the stores, (p. 318), Gen. Steele was sent to Hele- dwellings, hotels, and churches were na, Arkansas, and was ordered to form set on fire and nearly all burned to the a junction with Gen. Davidson and ground; and the property stolen and drive the rebels south of the Arkansas destroyed was estimated at more than River. On the 1st of August, Steele ad. $2,000,000. Two hundred and five vanced against the rebel force, who fell men were killed and a large number back toward Little Rock. Having reach- wounded in this infamous onslaught. ed the Arkansas, he pressed actively for Senator Lane (Gen. J. H. Lane) was in ward, threw a part of his troops across Lawrence at the time, and escaping the the river, drove the rebels in disorder massacre, hastily gathered a small before him, and entered Little Rock on mounted force and started in pursuit the 10th of September. His entire loss of Quantrell and his men. Some forty did not exceed 100; while he was successful in capturing 1,000 prisoners and much public property. Our cavalry Early in November, a meeting was held at Little continued to press the rebels in a south- Rock, to consult with reference to an entire restoration

of the state to its position in the Union. At this and erly direction; a portion of these, how. other meetings much enthusiasm was displayed, and ever, deflecting to the eastward, at- various steps were taken in favor of the right and true or more of the guerrillas were caught pursued by the Missouri militia, they and killed ; but the remainder got away were brought to a stand a few miles safely with their plunder. The com- from Arrow Rock, on the 12th of Ocmander of the department of Missouri, tober. Gen. E. B. Brown attacked Gen. Schofield, was freely denounced the rebels the same evening, and the by the people of Kansas, as wanting in next morning routed them completely. efficiency, zeal, etc., and an effort was About this same date, Quantrell and made to have him removed. Vengeance his men made an effort to capture and was denounced upon the whole border re- murder Gen. Blunt who, with his staff, gion occupied by the guerrillas. In a was at the time marching toward Fort speech at Leavenworth, on the 27th of Scott, Kansas. Blunt, on this occasion, August, Gen. Lane declared that the was in advance of his wagons, with his first tier of counties in Western Mis- escort of about 100 men, when the resouri ought to be exterminated, and if bels, in disguise of Union troops, 300 in that were not sufficient, the second and number, drew near, as if to give Blunt third must be served in like manner, so a reception. Directly after, throwing as to interpose an effectual barrier off all pretence, they dashed furiously against such murderous incursions in upon Blunt's escort, and speedily the future. An assembly of armed slaughtered nearly the entire number. loyal men was proposed, with the evi. Quantrell and his band were quite ex. dent intention of carrying the sugges- ultant, supposing that Blunt was among tion into effect.

cause ; so that, in January, 1864, the president issued

his proclamation to enable the people to re-organize the and over fifty of the enemy killed and wounded, while state government by the election of a governor, etc.not a man was lost on our side, or a gun injured.”— See Appleton's “ Annual Cyclopædiafor 1863, PP " Third Year of the War,” p. 165.

14-16.

the slain; but he was fortunate enough In the latter part of September, the to escape and rejoin the rest of his comrebel Gen. Cabell, gathering together mand. On the 20th of October, Gen.

guerrillas, Indians, and some of McNeil was appointed Blunt's succes

the routed troops driven from sor in command of the Army of the Little Rock, started with a force of from Frontier. 5,000 to 8,000 men from the Choctaw Further movements in the region west settlement of the Indian Territory, and of the Mississippi were comparatively of crossed the Arkansas, east of Fort little interest or importance. The final Smith, which had been occupied by result of the war was in no wise depenGen. Blunt, on 1st of September. A dent on what here took place. The opedetachment of Cabell's troops, under rations in the department under Gen. Shelby, joined Coffey, on the 1st of Grant's control, as well as in that in which October, at Crooked Prairie, Missouri, the Army of the Potomac was specially for the purpose of making a raid into concerned, were, it began to be well un. the south-western portion of the state. derstood, those which would be deci. This collection, numbering about 2,500 sive of the contest, and by which the men, penetrated as far as the Missouri rebellion would be ultimately crushed River at Booneville ; but having been out of existence.

1863.

CA. V.]

SECRETARY SEWARD'S CIRCULAR.

378

OHAPTER V.

1863.

ENROLLMENT AND DRAFTING : RIOTS: MR. LINCOLN'S COURSE AND POLICY :

MILITARY OPERATIONS.

Socretary Seward's diplomatic circular — Its statements, etc. – National enrollment — Preparations for the

draft-Unpopular measure. Riotous demonstrations - City of New York — The disgraceful riot there, in July, 1863 — Details of the lawless proceedings, cruelty and outrage of the mob and their leaders — Loss of life, property, etc. Reaction — Riots in other places, Boston, Portsmouth, etc. — The measures and policy of the administration generally approved - Result of the autumn elections – Mr. Lincoln's proclamation respecting the habeas corpus suspension - The president's letter to Mr. Drake in regard to Missouri and border state affairs -- Proclamation calling out 300,000 volunteers — Army of the Potomac - Its position in the autumn of 1863 — Gen. Meade's purpose – Lee's offensive movements — Meade retires rapidly to Centreville — Rebels repulsed at Bristoe Station - Lee retreats to the line of the Rapidan - Meade plans the Mine Run move - Causes of its failure - Occasional encounters with the rebels - Gen. Averill's famous raid on Longstreet's communications — Rebel plot on the Canada frontier - Came to nothing - Daring act of piracy — The steamer Chesapeake seized by pirates off Cape Cod — Recaptured by United States gun boat, Ella and Annie, near Halifax - Restored by the colonial court to her owners.

1863.

Tar important victories of July, ly with the people of the United States." 1863, at Vicksburg, Port Hudson, and It was frankly admitted that no great Gettysburg, not only afforded to the progress had been made by our arms country at large encouraging hope of in Virginia; and the reason given for it

the rebel military organization was, that “the opposing forces there

being speedily broken down, have been too equally matched to allow but also gave the secretary of state an great advantages to accrue to either opportunity of furnishing the principal party, while the necessity of covering foreign governments with some useful the national capital in all contingencies information in regard to the progress has constantly restrained our generals, of the national arms. Under date of and forbidden such bold and dangerous August 12th, Mr. Seward issued a dip- movements as usually conduct to brillomatic circular, addressed to the con- liant military success.” Looking with suls of the United States abroad, for far more satisfaction to the great West, the purpose of convincing “ those who Mr. Seward declared that, in the recent seek a renewal of commercial prosperity campaign, 50,000 square miles had been through the restoration of peace in reclaimed from the insurgents; and he America, that the quickest and short. further called attention to the fact that, est way to gain that desirable end is to “ since the breaking out of the insurrecwithdraw support and favor from the tion, the government had extended its insurgents, and to leave the adjustment former sway over and through a region of our domestic controversies exclusive of 200,000 square miles, an area as large as Austria or France, or the peninsula gress, passed at the close of its session, of Spain and Portugal.”* The rebels, in March, 1863, the national enrollment, in his judgment, had lost in the opera- preparatory to the draft, was made tion of July, fully one-third of their generally throughout the loyal states. entire forces, and at best, by the rigid Col. J. B. Fry was appointed by the enforcement of their conscription act, president provost-marshal general, with they could only gather anew a force his office at Washington, and provostvarying in number from 70,000 to 100, marshals were appointed for the various 000 men. On the other hand, not only districts into which the country was were our armies already superior in divided. The enrolling officers were numbers and ability, but the increase directed to enrol all able-bodied persons from the draft of 300,000, ordered by between the ages of eighteen and forty. the president, would be more than suf- five, the object being to ascertain, as far ficient to replace those whose terms of as possible, how many men liable to miliservice had expired, and to fill up the tary duty there were, on the 1st of July, ranks of the veteran regiments. Affirm in the United States, and also to arrange, ing positively that the people were in regard to military service, how much ready and willing to sustain the gov- had already been rendered, and how ernment in its efforts to put down the much was still due in the several disrebellion, at any cost, he stated, as one tricts. Opposition, to some extent, was evidence, that the national six per cent. made to the action of the officers, but loan was purchased at par by our own in general it was readily and promptly citizens at the average rate of $1,200,- repressed. The result of the enrollment, 000 a day. Gold was selling in our which was not completed in all the market at 123 to 128, while in the rebel states, showed that there were considerdistricts it commanded 1,200 per cent.ably more that 3,000,000 men liable to premium.t Urging, with much skill, military duty. For making the draft, considerations of this kind, Mr. Seward one-fifth the number of men enrolled was content to leave his statement of in the first class (i. e. between the ages facts to make its due impression upon of twenty and thirty-five), was adopted all those concerned in the issue now ap- as the quota of a district; and the proaching its final settlement.

boards in charge of this matter apporIn accordance with the act of Con- tioned this quota among the towns and * The rebels, according to Pollard's way of represent

wards forming sub-districts, so as in ing matters, grew cheerful and quite hopeful under this state of things. “While Mr. Seward,” he says, ing doleful statement: “The condition of the currency

was making to Europe material calculations of Yan has become so alarming that its importance has risen kee success in the square miles of military occupation, even above the excitement of military movements. and in the comparative arithmetic of the military From every quarter of the Confederacy essays, schemes, power of the belligerents, the Confederacy had merely expedients and remedies are daily scattered broadcast postponed its prospect of a victorious peace, and was over the country, and suggestions of every character even more seriously confident of the ultimate issue and description are urged. One thing is certain and than when it first declared its independenc ?.”—Third indisputable, that the present financial management is Year of the War,” p. 82.

an utter and absolute failure, rendered so not by Mr. + A Richmond paper, in October, mad the follow. Memminger, but by the people themselves."

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