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1863.

knowing what to expect, he instantly tion was taken from the hands that evacuated East Tennessee, and left in had abused its facilities, and the power such a hurry as not to find time to ap- of the Union became supreme. The prize the rebels at Cumberland Gap of frantic and desperate efforts which the his movements, or to give them any rebels subsequently made to regain orders as to the course they were now their lost authority were all completely to pursue. Thus Burnside, after a very foiled. Their season of triumph had severe and trying march across the passed. Their doom was sealed.” Cumberland Mountains, of some 250 Just before leaving Kentucky, Burnmiles in two weeks' time, found him- side ordered Colonel De Courcy, with self master of the situation.

a brigade of infantry, to march upon The advance, under Col. Foster, en Cumberland Gap by the direct route tered Knoxville on the 1st of Septem. through London and Barboursville. ber, and two days later, Burnside was Learning, on the 4th of September, that welcomed there with enthusiasm and the rebel force defending the Gap was joy rarely if ever equalled during the strong, and likely to offer resistance, war. It was, in fact, a perfect ovation he dispatched Shackelford, with bis which met the deliverers upon their brigade, on the 5th, from Knoxentrance. The town was decorated ville, with instructions to seize with flags, some of which had been all avenues of escape to the south. He hidden for more than two years; and followed himself, with another body of the people, lining the roads and streets, infantry and cavalry, on the 7th, and cried out, “Welcome, Gen. Burnside, arrived within four miles of the Gap welcome to East Tennessee !” “Bless on the 9th, after a forced march of the Lord! The old flag's come back sixty miles. De Courcy and Shackel to Tennessee !" A public meeting was ford had both demanded a surrender held, at which Burnside made some which Frazier, the rebel commander appropriate remarks, and the citizens refused. On Burnside's arrival, the de congratulated themselves upon their mand was renewed, and after some par deliverance from the grinding despot-leying acceded to. In explanation of ism under which they had so long the extraordinary isolation in which groaned. A large amount of public Frazier was left, rebel officers asserted property claimed by the rebel authori- that Bragg had peremptorily ordered ties, as machine shops, foundries, cars, him to remain. Fourteen pieces of locomotives, etc., fell into Burnside's artillery and 2,000 prisoners were caphands. About 2,000,000 pounds of tured at Cumberland Gap, and its loss salt, a large quantity of wheat (the was pronounced, by a rebel journal, to fruits of the tithe tax), and many thou- be “one of the most disgraceful occur sand bags were also taken. “From rences of the war.” that day,” says Woodbury, “the rebel rule in East Tennessee was ended, the

* Davis, in his message to the rebel Congress, sub

sequently spoke of this surrender in the following great western line of rebel communica- terms :-" The country was painfully surprised by the

CA. 1.]

POSITION OF OUR FORCES.

347

Meantime, a column of cavalry as- emergency. By the middle of Septemcended the Valley to Bristol, driving ber, he had taken effectual steps to the enemy across the Virginia line, and guard a line of 176 miles in length from destroyed the railroad bridges over the left of Rosecrans, with whom he the Holston and Watauga Rivers, so was in direct communication, nearly to as to prevent the return of the rebels the Virginia boundary. into East Tennessee. The main body Gen. Halleck congratulated Burnof Burnside's army was now ordered side on his success, and went on to by the general-in-chief to concentrate say: “ It is important that all the on the Tennessee River, from Loudon available forces of your command be west, in order to connect with Rose pushed forward into East Tennessee. crans's army, which 'reached Chatta- All your scattered forces should be nooga on the 9th of September. Burn. concentrated there. So long as we side, not being in good health, wished hold Tennessee, Kentucky is perfectly to resign; but the president refused to safe. Move down your infantry as accept his resignation at that date. rapidly as possible toward Chattanooga, He accordingly put his troops in mo. to connect with Rosecrans. Bragg tion to occupy the different points ne. may merely hold the passes of the cessary to guard his line of defence, the mountains to cover Atlanta, and move Holston River, and to hold the gaps of his main army through Northern Alathe North Carolina mountains. The bama, to reach the Tennessee River rebels under Gen. S. Jones, about and turn Rosecrans's right, and cut off 10,000 in number, were making all the his supplies. In this case he will turn resistance in their power, harassing our Chattanooga over to you, and move to outposts and watching for opportuni. intercept Bragg." On the 17th of Septies of attack; but Burnside, by his tember, Burnside received another disactivity and zeal, was fully equal to the patch from Halleck, at Washington,

dated the 14th, which read thus :

“There are several reasons why you intelligence that the officer in command of Cumber-should reinforce Rosecrans with all posland Gap had surrendered that important and easily defensible pass, without firing a shot, upon the

sum-sible dispatch. It is believed that the mons of a force still believed to have been inadequate enemy will concentrate to give him batto its reduction, and when reinforcements were witbin supporting distance

, and had been ordered to his aid. tle. You must be there to help him.” still held prisoners by the enemy, I am unable to sug: and the operations required at his | gest any explanation of this disaster, which laid open

Eastern Tennessee and South-western Virginia to hos- hands, we turn to the movements of tile operations, and broke the line of communication Rosecrans and the important results

seat of government and Middle Ten. neesee."

consequent thereupon.

between tb

CHAPTER II.

1863.

DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND: ADVANCE TO CHATTANOOGA : BATTLE OF

CHICKAMAUGA.

Position of Rosecrans and his army, Rebel attack on Fort Donelson repulsed — Colburn and his force captured

by the rebels — Various skirmishes, raids and contests of minor importance - Rosecrans's preparationsExecution of spies - Army begins to advance in June - Position of Bragg and his forces – Rosecrans's plan successfully carried out-Advance on Chattanooga in August — Progress of the army across the Cum berland Mountains — Chattanooga evacuated by the rebels — Halleck's fears— Rosecrans's reply - Reinforce ments called in from every direction - Hooker sent out with 11th and 12th corps — Scant supplies - Bragg’e movements — Address to his soldiers - Rosecrans's position for battle — Bragg begins the battle-Description of the battle of Chickamauga - Heavy losses - Rosecrans falls back on Chattanooga - Bragg's movements to cut off supplies - The separate commands combined - Gen. Grant in charge of the Military Division of the Mississippi, embracing the departments of the Ohio, of the Cumberland, and of the Tennessee – Rosecrans relieved of his command - Gens. Thomas, Sherman, and Burnside in command of the several departments.

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AFTER the battle of Murfreesborough my began in the afternoon by throwing (see p. 253), several months were spent solid shot into the fort, and made seveby Gen. Rosecrans and the Army of ral feints at storming the works. Forthe Cumberland in bringing up sup- rest twice sent a flag of truce, urging plies, opening lines of communication, his superior force and demanding a sur and establishing a base of operations render, which Harding resolutely refor an advance upon the rebels at Chat- fused. At eight o'clock in the even : tanooga. Various raids and skirmishes ing, the enemy had invested the work occurred in this interval, the rebels on three sides to the river above and it manifesting much activity, and inter- below, and were about pressing the fering seriously with Rosecrans's sup. final attack which, as the defenders plies, but not gaining any special or were nearly out of ammunition, propermanent advantages. Several of mised to be successful. At this mothese assaults and engagements may ment, however, a number of gunboats, properly here be noted.

under Capt. Fitch, which were convoy. On the 3d of February, an attack was ing transports from below, opportunely made

upon Fort Donelson by the re-arrived on the spot, and warned of the i bels under Wheeler and Forrest, with attack, skilfully opened fire upon the about 4,000 men and eight pieces of assailants. The gun boats, effectively artillery. Col. A. C. Harding was in placed, speedily drove off the enemy.

command of the post, with Their loss in killed and wounded was

about 500 available men of his not less than 900. Col. Harding's loss regiment, one company of cavalry, and was thirteen killed and fifty-one Floyd's battery of artillery. The ene wounded.

1863.

Ch. II.]

VARIOUS RAIDS AND SKIRMISHES.

349

1863.

On the 4th of March, Col. Colburn, started, April 9th, on a raid into Georwith some 1,800 men, attempted a re- gia to cut the enemy's communication. connaissance from Franklin towards After heavy losses in skirmishes with Springfield, encountering in his way Forrest's cavalry, and when near its Van Dorn's column of the rebel force, destination, he was forced to surrender. estimated to be over 7,000 men. The On the 22d of May, Gen. Stanley made enemy retreated, drawing Colburn into a raid upon Middleton, capturing eighty a gorge, where he was surrounded, and prisoners and 200 horses, 600 stand of nearly all his force captured. Two arms, and other property. On the 4th weeks later, on the 20th of March, Col. of June, Forrest made a raid upon Hall, while on a reconnaissance, with Franklin, and on the 11th, attacked about 1,400 men, met the famous raider Triune. His losses in these unsuccessJ. H. Morgan, whose force was between ful skirmishes were estimated at over 2,000 and 3,000. Hall succeeded in 100, while ours were only seventeen repulsing the enemy, after a sharp con- killed and wounded. test of three and a half hours. On the During the months of preparation 25th of March, the rebel cavalry leader, alluded to above, Rosecrans was acForrest, made a raid on the Nashville tively and earnestly engaged in seeking and Columbia Railroad, burning the to strengthen his army by a thorough bridge and capturing Col. Bloodgood's system of discipline, and also command at Brentwood. Gen. G. c. to excite in the minds of his Smith, arriving opportunely with about men a proper sense and appreciation of 600 cavalry, attacked the enemy in the the nature of the conflict which was rear, and recovered a large portion of being carried on between law and order the property captured at Brentwood, on the one hand, and wicked and causepursuing the rebels to Little Harpeth, less rebellion on the other. Writing at where they were reinforced. On the this date, Rosecrans characterized the 10th of April

, Van Dorn, with a large “Confederacy” as kept alive by “an oli. mounted force, attacked Franklin, but garchy of traitors to their friends, to civil was repulsed by Gen. Granger, with a liberty, and human freedom. Whereloss of nineteen killed, thirty-five wound- ever they have the power, they drive ed left on the field, and forty-eight pri- before them into their ranks the southsoners. * Gen. J. J. Reynolds made a ern people, and they would also drive raid

upon the Manchester and McMinn- us. Trust them not; were they able, ville Railroad, destroying the depot, they would invade and destroy us withrolling stock, supplies, and other pro- out mercy. Absolutely assured of these perty, and capturing 180 prisoners. things, I am amazed that any one could Col. Streight, with about 1,800 men, think of peace on any terms. When under this government, there will be to his making an early advance, Roseno difficulty in fraternization."* crans had not unduly hurried himself.

the power of the unscrupulous rebel * This man Van Dorn, an unscrupulous debauchee, leaders is removed, and the people are was shot in open daylight, at his quarters, early in free to consider and act for their own May, by a Dr. Peters, with whose wife he had been guilty of adultery.

interests, which are common with ours

Early in June, there was a military He had taken time to recruit his army, execution in this department, which at- to procure horses for his dismounted! tracted some attention from the auda- cavalry, and, as far as possible, to percity displayed by two rebel officers, L. fect all his arrangements, while he was A. Williams and W. J. Peter, in play- carefully watching the dispositions of ing the parts of spies. Towards even the enemy in his front. So that it was ing, on the 8th of June, it appears that the month of June before the Army of two persons rode into Col. Baird's quar- the Cumberland was in motion. ters at Franklin, Tenn., representing The rebel Gen. Bragg, after the batthemselves to be Col. Austin and Ma- tle of Murfreesborough, (p. 253), withjor Dunlap, Inspectors-general of the drew his forces to Shelbyville, TullaUnited States Army. They had with homa, and the line of the Duck River, them counterfeit official papers from which crosses the state in a westerly Gen. Rosecrans, and told a well con- direction to the Tennessee, at its nearcocted story of their being plundered est point, about thirty miles south of by the rebels on their way. They were the line held by Rosecrans. Bragg's force admitted into camp, had an opportunity was understood to be strongly entrenchof noting its defences, and just before ed in its main positions, while in front departing borrowed money of the offi. the occupation of the roads running cer in command. When they had left, south from Murfreesborough, with the en route for Nashville, as they said, the natural features of the country, gave it suspicion suddenly flashed upon Col. additional security against attack. It Baird that they were spies; and he was Rosecrans's plan, in his advance, immediately ordered them to be pur- to neutralize these advantages by turn. sued and arrested. This was done; ing Bragg's position and making a Rosecrans, in reply to a telegram, stated flank attack on his right, and thus to that no such persons were known to reach his immediate base of operations him; and on being searched, they were at Tullahoma, on the Chattanooga Rail. clearly proven to be spies. By Rose- road. In this way, he purposed comcrans's direction, they were tried by a pelling the enemy to an engagement on court martial the same night, were ground of his own choosing, or forcing found guilty, and the next morning, at him to a retreat. nine o'clock, were hung in the presence

On the 24th of June, the camps were of the garrison.

broken up at Murfreesborough, and the Although urged hy the military au- army began its march in three corps, thorities at Washington, and aware of the right under McCook, the centre the expectation of the public in regard under Thomas, and the left under Crit

tenden. By an admirably combined Major-General Rosecrans in reply to a resolution movement, Rosecrans was able to deof the Honourable the General Assembly of the State of Ohio, Murfreesborough, Tenn., February, 1863.

ceive the rebels by threatening an ad

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