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CH. 1.1

THE REBEL AGGRESSIVE POLICY.

341

weaken its efforts to suppress the re- ber, and Burnside gladly took the rebellion, by creating distrust in its war quisite steps to secure their service at policy, and its circulation in war-time the earliest moment. being calculated to exert a pernicious A movement upon East Tennessee and treasonable influence.” The pub- was arranged between Gens. Burnside, lication of the Chicago Times was also, Rosecrans, and Thomas; and Burnside, at the same time, ordered to be sup- on the 2d of June, proceeded to Lexpressed, “on account of the repeated ington to take the field; but a dispatch expression of disloyal and incendiary from Washington, received that day, sentiments." President Lincoln, in required him to send reinforcements view of the great delicacy and difficulty to Grant, operating against Vicksburg. of questions connected with the liberty As, by this order, some 8,000 men were of the press, revoked this order of taken from him, Burnside was reluct. Burnside, and the newspapers were antly obliged to postpone, for a time, allowed to go on their own way as the intended movement into Tennessee. usual.

It will be remembered by the reader, Burnside, on assuming command of as was noted on a previous page (see the department, felt the necessity of p. 320), that the rebel leaders, at this an increase of force, to enable him to date, thought that an aggressive policy accomplish the work of establishing would be better for their interests than and maintaining order and efficiency, the one they were pursuing. In accordas well as to secure the deliverance of ance with this view, Lee, as we have East Tennessee. At his earnest request, seen, invaded Maryland and Pennsyltwo divisions of the 9th corps, then in vania, with high hopes and expectations. camp at Newport News, were sent to A similar desire for making inroads inhim. By the aid of these he was able to the loyal states was felt in other to do something towards checking Pe- quarters, and a plan was laid by the gram's movements in Kentucky. Burn- rebels to break through our lines in side's line of defence was necessarily Western or Central Kentucky, cross the long, and had various weak points in it. Ohio, plunder the southern tier of coun Troops were posted in localities offering ties of Indiana and Ohio, and either most favorable means of guarding the escape into West Virginia, or make a line and repressing the enemy; and the bold march through Pennsylvania and lines of railroads, leading to the extreme join Lee iu his invasion of the North. front in Western Kentucky and Tennes. The leader of the projected expedition see, then held by Rosecrans, were was the noted rebel raider, John H. watched and protected with great care. Morgan, a man excellently adapted for Still, Burnside was painfully conscious this kind of work, by his dashing that his available force was inadequate energy and skill, and his utter lack of for the work to be done. Congress had scrupulousness in seeking to attain his authorized the organization of a body ends. This famous raid was remarkable of troops in Kentucky, 20,000 in num- in the annals of the war for the reckless

1963.

zeal with which it was prosecuted, the to the houses. The town was sacked wanton destruction of life and property and Morgan's command freely supplied which attended it, and its ultimately with arms and ammunition from the complete failure.

captured regiment. From Lebanon the Morgan's command having been enemy proceeded to Springfield, on their strengthened by several picked regi- way toward the Ohio. At Bardstown, ments from Tennessee, his force being on the 6th of July, twenty men of the between 3,000 and 4,000 cavalry, with 4th United States cavalry were suprisa battery of artillery, set out, on the ed, and after defending themselves in a 27th of June, from Sparta, Tennessee, stable, while their ammunition lasted, and, by a rapid march, entered Ken- surrendered. At Shepherdsville, on tucky, reaching the Cumberland in the Salt River, Morgan stopped a passenger vicinity of Jamestown. Here he was train from Louisville. Twenty soldiers watched by a brigade of cavalry, with in the cars were captured, and the exartillery, under Colonel Wolford, but press and mail matter, with the valu

managed, on the night of the ables of the passengers, freely pillaged.

2d of July, to cross the river Passing through Lawrenceville, Mor. lower down, at Burkesville, the water gan and his men reached Brandenburg, being high, improvising a number of on the Ohio, on the 7th of July, a place flats for the occasion. There was some which, it was said, had many southern skirmishing with the Union cavalry sympathizers among its inhabitants. guarding the fords, and in the vicinity There they were speedily enabled to of Columbia, whither the enemy pro- cross the river into Indiana, by gaining ceeded. Morgan then moved on Green possession of two steamboats which River, where, on the morning of the 4th came along opportunely for their purof July, he found his progress arrested poses. at the turnpike bridge, by some 200 On the morning of the 8th of July, men of the 25th Michigan cavalry, un. the crossing commenced on the two der Col. Moore, in an entrenched posi- boats. There was some resistance offertion. An attack was made by Morgan, ed to their passage by a company of which, however, resulted in a repulse home guards, with a single gun, from and very severe loss, especially of Leavenworth, in the vicinity, on the officers.

Indiana shore. The party, however After this mishap, Morgan crossed was speedily overpowered when Mor above at New Market, and by the next gan's advance landed. The guards morning reached Lebanon. He found were cut up or captured, and their Parthe town garrisoned by a force of about rot gun taken. On the morning of the 400 men, under Col. Hanson, who, sta- 9th, Morgan's entire force was landed tioning his troops in the depot and on the Indiana shore. other buildings, kept up a contest of The Union troops, which were gather. seven hours, but was at last obliged to ing on the track of Morgan in full

pur surrender, the artillery having set fire suit—Colonel Wolford, with his brigade

CA. 1.]

MORGAN'S RAID AND FLIGHT.

343

from Jamestown, joining Gens. Hobson for two weeks, Morgan, by his boldness and Shackelford at Springfield—arrived and skill, managed to keep ahead of his at Brandenburg just after the crossing pursuers, traversing the highways of of Morgan. Hobson was in command, Indiana and Ohio, and ravaging some his entire force of Kentucky and Ohio of the best of the southern portions of cavalry and mounted infantry, with a those states. howitzer battery and section of artil. Fleeing with all speed through the lery, numbering about 3,000. Gen. south-eastern counties of Indiana, haJudah's division was also summoned rassed meanwhile by the militia along from Southern Kentucky, but not arriv. the road, Morgan more than once ating in Louisville till after Morgan had tempted to find a crossing back into crossed the Ohio, was sent up the river Kentucky; but was in every case bafin boats to intercept the rebels on their filed. After a brief rest in Harrison, he retreat. Hobson immediately crossed crossed the state line into Ohio, July the river at Brandenburg, landing his 13th, burning the bridge over the White force on the Indiana side before dawn Water River behind him. Some apof the 10th of July. The rapid and prehensions were felt at Cincinnati, serpent-like movements of Morgan, now owing to exaggerated accounts of Morthat the pursuers were upon his track, gan's force; but he had no intention of were desperate efforts to escape, rather visiting that city. Passing through than any settled plan of invasion. Glendale, Springdale, and other towns,

The alarm speedily became general. allowing his men only time enough to No one knew when or where, with ravage in every direction, and seize any precision, the bold raider would upon all the horses within reach, he strike; but all were well aware that crossed the Miami River at Miamiville, complete ruin, burning, robbery, pil. at which time our troops were only lage, and such like, followed in his train. four hours behind him. A portion of

Gov. Morton, of Indiana, called the Morgan's force endeavored, on the 14th people of the state to arms, and the of July, to reach the Ohio by way of response was universal. In Ohio, Gov. Batavia, but did not succeed. Onward

Tod was equally on the alert. dashed Morgan and his men, now al.

Large war meetings were held at most desperate; onward pressed our Columbus, Ohio, and Indianapolis, In- determined cavalry, despite the serious diana. At Louisville, Kentucky, on the inconvenience arising out of the rebels recommendation and under the direction having carried off the fresh horses, and of Gen. Boyle, measures were taken to left the jaded ones behind. Day and organize the citizens to resist the enemy. night the pursuit was kept up. Judah At Cincinnati, Gen. Burnside was in led his column along the roads nearest consultation with the authorities, pro- the Ohio; Hobson and Shackelford viding for the defence of the city. pressed forward hy roads farther from Troops were being gathered on all sides the river; while the gun boats on the to resist or intercept the invaders. Yet, Ohio were on the alert, and

the

gave

1863.

rebels shot and shell whenever oppor. in number, managed to swim the river tunity offered.

and escaped. Shackelford followed the Having burned the bridge over the rebel leader in a westerly direction Scioto River, on the 16th of July, Mor- nearly sixty miles, when he came up gan passed through Piketown, which with him and his men, who, after a surrendered at once, to Jackson, where brief fight, gave themselves up. It he was joined by his whole force. turned out, however, that only a small Thence, on the 18th, he pushed rapidly part of Morgan's force was captured at for the Ohio, near Pomeroy, hoping to this time; the cunning raider having make his escape into Kentucky. Trees slipped away with 600 men for another were cut down and laid across the roads, race. Somewhat exasperated at this and everything was done to impede his result, Shackelford and his brave helpprogress. In the course of the after- ers continued the pursuit, starting at noon, however, the rebels reached the day break on the 21st of July. For sevOhio, at Buffington Island, near Pome- eral days and nights they followed bin roy, where they made a desperate at. in his zig-zag course, his appetite for tempt to ford the river. But they wanton plundering and destruction unwere driven back, the gun boats lend. appeased. By burning the bridges, and ing efficient aid; and the next day, be in other ways, he managed to put off ing hemmed in and vigorously attacked, the evil day for a brief period; but they surrendered.* Dick Morgan, Ba- Shackelford was not to be bafiled or sil Duke, and over 700 men fell into wearied out. On the morning of July our hands, with all their ill-gotten plun. 26th, when near New Lisbon, he finally der; but John Morgan was not with came up with and caught the noted them. Shackelford at once started in trooper, who, with about 400 of his pursuit. Another effort was made to men surrendered. The next day, he get across the Ohio, about fourteen was taken to Cincinnati and placed for miles above Buffington, where a por. safe keeping in the Ohio penitentiary.* tion of Johnson's regiment, some 300 This troublesome matter having been

thus disposed of, in the way above nar * The scene of the action at Buffington, and all the rated, Burnside was at liberty to con roads in the vicinity, were literally strewn with the fruits of their raiding operations, and their army tinue his preparations for the long in equipments. There were buggies, rockaways, spring tended advance into East Tennessee. and lumber wagons, without number; rolls of silk, muslin, calico, and other dry goods ; bags full of men's clothing, hats, boots, and shoes, linen, laces, kid gloves, * Morgan was placed here for lack of a proper milicutlery, men's and women's under garments—even tary prison. Some four months afterwards, on the children's petticoats—lying about in every direction, 28th of November, he managed to escape, with six mingled with carbines, shot guns, rifles, sabres, pistols, others, and in December he was heard from, advertising and cartridge-boxes. Many of the latter were found to in a southern paper for recruits to form a new band of contain jewelry instead of ammunition. The woods followers. Pollard is quite jubilant over Morgan's were full of horses and mules. In places the ground“ brilliant expedition.” He says that M. destroyed was covered with pieces of greenbacks and other cur- | thirty-four important bridges, and in the way of steamrency, stolen and torn by the rebels on surrendering. boats, railroads, public stores, depots, etc., destroyed We are sorry to say, that very little, if any, of this spoil not less than $10,000,000 worth.—“ Third Year of the ever found its way back to its rightful owners. War,” p. 104

Св. I]

BURNSIDE'S MARCH TO KNOXVILLE.

345

The 9th army corps had been detach. don, twenty-five miles. On the 24th, ed from Burnside's command to rein. he made Williamsburg, thirty miles force Gen. Grant. This had somewhat further south. On the 26th, he was delayed Burnside's proceedings, and he joined by Hartsuff, at Chetwood, twenwas at last compelled to make his ar- ty-eight miles from

from Williamsburg. rangements independently of the sup- The enemy being reported near, he diport and presence of his favorite corps. rected a cavalry regiment to reconnoitre Rosecrans, with whom Burnside was to toward Jackborough. From Chetwood co-operate, had pushed forward his lines the march was continued across New as far as Winchester. On the 16th of River up the Cumberland Mountains August, he crossed the Cumberland to Montgomery, Tenn., forty-two miles Mountains, reached the Tennessee River distant on the summit of the range, on the 26th, established bis headquar- where the column arrived on the 30th

ters at Stevenson, Alabama, and of August. Here it was met by Gen. 1863.

was ready for further advance. White's command. Col. Burt having Burnside, on his part, was actively en- been sent forward with a cavalry brigaged in his portion of the work.* On gade, reported that the rebel Gen. Pethe same day that Rosecrans left Win. gram, with a body of cavalry, held a chester, August 16th, he left Camp very strong position at the gap near Nelson and started for Lexington. His Emory Iron Works, leading into Clinch plan was to make his way by unfre. River Valley. Additional troops were quented roads, and thus take the rebels sent forward with the expectation of a by surprise. Having arranged his force, battle on the morning of the 31st, but about 18,000 in number, to march in with daylight it was discovered that three columns, the first set out by way

the
enemy

had fled. of London, under the commanding gen.

The road to Knoxville was now clear, eral; the second, consisting of the 23d Having reached Emory River, sevenarmy corps, under Gen. Hartsuff, by teen miles from Montgomery, Gen, way of Somerset; and the third, under Burnside ordered Col. Foster, with a Gen. J. White, by way of Jamestown, mounted brigade, to make a forced Kentucky

march over a direct road to Kingston, On the 20th of August, Burnside six miles further. Being anxious to reached Crab Orchard, by way of Dan save the most extensive and important ville and Stanford. On the 22d, he bridge over the Tennessee, at Loudon, marched to Mount Vernon, twenty twenty miles from Kingston, Burnside miles, and on the following day to Lon- directed Shackelford, with his cavalry

brigade, to push on as rapidly as possi* On the importance to the rebels of holding East ble; but they were unable to prevent and also respecting the sufferings and trials, of the its being burned by the rebels.

to most terrible description, of loyal men in that region,

The rebel commander in this region, see Woodbury's “Burnside and the Ninth Army Buckner, was astounded by the sudden War,"p. 204.

appearance of Burnside's force, and not

VOL. IV.–44.

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