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1863.

through the town, hastened to Buford's town road, known to be Hill's corps. support. He deployed his advance di. In the early part of the action success vision immediately, and attacked the was on our side—Wadsworth's division enemy, at the same time sending orders of the 1st corps having driven the enefor the 11th corps (Howard's) to my back some distance, and capturing advance as rapidly as possible. Rey- numerous prisoners, some 1,500 or nolds found himself engaged with a more, among them Gen. Archer of the force greatly outnumbering his own, rebel army. This took place in the and had scarcely made his dispositions rear of the seminary, near Willoughby's for the action, when a ball from one of Run, at about the middle of the day, the enemy's sharpshooters struck him, The arrival of reinforcements to the and he fell mortally wounded, at the rebels on the Cashtown road, and the head of his advance.* This devolved junction with Ewell's corps, coming the command of the 1st corps upon on the York and Harrisburg Doubleday, and the charge of the field roads, which occurred between on Howard, who arrived about midday, one and two o'clock P.M., enabled the with the 11th corps, then command. enemy to bring vastly superior forces ed by Gen. Schurz. Howard pushed against both the 1st and 11th corps, forward two divisions under Schurz outflanking our line of battle and pressand Barlow to support the 1st corps, ing it so severely that, at about four which had bravely and nobly with. P.M., Howard deemed it prudent to with: stood the rebel assault, on the ridge to draw these two corps to Cemetery the north of the town. The other di. Ridge, on the south side of the town, vision of the 11th corps under Steinwehr which operation was successfully acwas posted, by Howard, with three bat- complished—not, however, without a teries of artillery, on Cemetery Hill, on loss in prisoners of 2,500 to 3,000, the south of the town of Gettysburg, arising from the confusion incident to a most important step, and as it hap- the being pressed by the enemy while pened, the one which, in Meade's hands, portions of both corps were passing secured the repulse of the rebels. through the town.

Up to this time the battle had been About the time of the withdrawal with the forces of the enemy debouch- just noted, Hancock arrived, having ing from the mountains on the Cash- been sent by Meade, on hearing of the

death of Reynolds, to take command on * Prof. Jacobs, speaking of Gen. Reynolds, says: “ He has been charged with rashness, with fool-hardi- the field, until he himself should reach ness, and with prematurely bringing on the battle. the front. Hancock, in conjunction But it would, perhaps, be more just to say that he had but little direct agency in bringing it on; that it was

with Howard, proceeded to post troops unavoidable ; that it was forced on us by the rebels; on Cemetery Ridge or Hill, and to rethat if they had not been held in check that day, they pel an attack made on our right flank, would have pressed on and obtained the impregnable position which we were enabled to hold ; and that, which was promptly done. The rebels, most of all the hand of Providence, who gave us a sig seeing the strength of the position ocnal victory, was in the arrangements of that day.”— “Notes on the Rebel Invasion," 1863, p. 26.

cupied, desisted from any further at

Cs. XXIX.]

PREPARATIONS FOR THE SECOND DAY.

329

tack this day. About seven P.m., Slo- o'clock A.m., Thursday morning, July 2d. cum and Sickles, with the 12th corps, So soon as it was light Meade proceeded and part of the 3d, reached the ground, to inspect the position occupied, and and took post on the right and left of to make arrangements for placing the the troops previously posted. The re- several corps as they should reach the bels, according to the accounts of eye- ground. By seven o'clock, the 2d witnesses, were much elated with the and 5th corps, with the rest of the results of the contest thus far, and they 3d, had reached the ground, and expressed themselves as abundantly were posted as follows: The 11th able to cut

up
Meade's

army in detail, retained its position on the cemetery fatigued as it was by long marches, and side, just opposite to the town. The with only two corps which had as yet (1st was posted on the right of the arrived. On the other hand, the pros. 11th, on an elevated knoll, Culp's pect was much more gloomy and dis- Hill, connecting with the ridge extendheartening to our men; yet, though ing to the south and east, on

1863, the hours of that first of July night which the 2d was placed. were weary with painful expectation, The right of the 12th rested on a they did not give way to despondency; small stream, Rock Creek, at a point they nerved themselves to fight for the where it crossed the Baltimore turncause of truth and right, in the confi. pike. Cemetery Ridge extended in a dence that truth and right would pre-westerly and southerly direction, gradvail.*

ually diminishing in elevation till it Meade, satisfied that Lee would re- came to a very prominent ridge, called new the attack in full force the next Round Top, running east and west. day, and also that the position already The 2d and 3d corps were directed to secured offered most valuable means of occupy the continuation of Cemetery defence, resolved to give battle at this Ridge, on the left of the 11th. The point. Early in the evening of July 2nd, pending the arrival of the 6th, was 1st, he ordered all the corps to concen- held in reserve. While these dispositrate at Gettysburg, the trains being tions were being made, the enemy was sent meanwhile to the rear at Westmin. massing his troops on the exterior ster. Headquarters at Taneytown were ridge, distant from the line occupied broken up at eleven o'clock that night, by us from a mile to a mile and a half. and Meade arrived on the field at one At two P.M., the 6th corps (Sedgwick's)

arrived, after a march of thirty-two * It is interesting here to compare Lee's statements, miles since nine o'clock of the evein his report, in regard to the movements and operations of the 1st of July. Having spoken of his men

ning before. On Sedgwick's arrival, driving our forces through Gettysburg with heavy loss, the Army of the Potomac was about and claiming that he had taken 5,000 prisoners and several pieces of artillery, he gave as his reason for not equal in numbers to that of the repressing the attack, that he was waiting for his troops bels, whose line was about five miles to come up. He was, moreover, in doubt as to the in stretch, and was in part well conamount of Meade's force, and as to fighting a general

cealed by a fringe of woods. Imme VOL. IV.-42.

battle so far from his base.

diately on the arrival of the 6th corps, Lee gave the signal for the attack a litthe 5th was directed to remove over to tle before half-past four o'clock, when the extreme left, and the 6th to occupy a terrific cannonading began, accomits place as a reserve for the right. panied by an infantry charge on our

Thursday morning, July 2d, did not left. His plan was to seize the position present quite so bright a prospect to held by Sickles with the 3d corps, the rebels as the night before. Then, that general having pushed his troops they were jubilant over expected suc- beyond the point which Meade wished cess; now, on further examination of and intended, and then to use this posi the position of our army, and being tion from whence to assail the more aware of large reinforcements having elevated ground beyond, and gain posarrived, Lee saw plainly that it was no session of the crest of the ridge. This such

easy task as had been anticipated work was assigned to Longstreet and to drive back Meade; hence, he made his men. Ewell was ordered to attack his arrangements leisurely and with the high ground on our right, and Hill care before beginning the attack. “Here was directed to threaten the centre and I cannot but remark,” says Mr. Everett prevent reinforcements being sent to in his Address,* “on the providential either wing of our army. inaction of the rebel army.

Had the It was a fearful struggle in which contest been renewed by it at daylight, Sickles immediately became involved, on the 2d of July, with the 1st and at a peach orchard near the Emmits11th

corps exhausted by the battle and burg road. Fierce as was the assault the retreat, the 3d and 12th weary of the rebels, it was steadily met by from their forced march, and the 2d, our men; but at last they began to give 5th, and 6th not yet arrived, nothing way. Sickles rallied them again, and but a miracle could have saved the they arrested and hurled back the adarmy from a great disaster. Instead of vancing column for a short time; but this, the day dawned, the sun rose, finding themselves opposed by an overthe cool hours of the morning passed, whelming mass of the enemy, and hard the forenoon and a considerable part of pressed, Sickles himself being severely the afternoon wore away, without the wounded, they gave way a second time. slightest aggressive movement of the It was a most critical moment. The enemy. Thus time was given for half rebels had thrust a portion of their of our forces to arrive and take their force under Hood between the extreme place in the lines, while the rest of the left of Sickles and Round Top, and as army enjoyed a much needed half-day's Little Round Top was not yet occupied, repose.”

Hood might have massed his division, Having perfected his arrangements, pushed boldly for the rocky summit, * On the 19th of November, 1863, a National Ceme and thus grasped the key of the battle tery was consecrated at Gettysburg, with suitable and ground. But help arrived at the imposing ceremonies. The Hon. Edward Everett delivered the address on this interesting occasion, and

opportune moment.

Hancock sent a a dedicatory speech was made by President Lincoln. portion of the 2d corps to cover the

Cu. XXIX.)

THE BATTLE OF JULY SECOND.

331

inen.

right flank of Sickles' corps, and at five fiercely made; but it was resolutely P.M., Sykes's command came up and met; the rebels were killed in great took position on the left of Sickles's numbers, and driven back with fright

Happily, Gen. Warren, chief ful loss. Johnson's attack on Culp's engineer, reached Little Round Top, Hill was more successful, for Geary's which was being used as a signal sta- force, stationed there, had been so much tion, just at the time of Hood's attack. weakened by detachments sent to aid He instantly obtained a portion of the left in its great extremity, that only Sykes's command to seize and occupy a single brigade, under Green, remained; this all-important point; this was ac and hence the rebels, after some two complished after a most furious hand hours' fighting, penetrated our lines to to-hand contest, in which Hood's men the breastworks on the furthest right, made a most desperate effort to gain and retained their foothold during the the position, but were repulsed and night. This closed the second day's hurled back. At six P.M., Crawford's struggle, in which our loss was fearfully division of the 5th corps, consisting of large-some 20,000—but the real adtwo brigades of Pennsylvania Reserves, vantage was still in our hands, and having until this time been held in Meade and his corps commanders were reserve, went into a charge with loud quite confident of being able to mainshouts and most determined spirit, and tain their position, and effectually re. drove the rebels down the rocky front pulse the rebel host under Lee. of Little Round Top, across the val- Gen. Buford's division of cavalry, afley below, and over the next hill into ter its arduous services at Gettysburg, the woods beyond, taking 300 prisoners. on the 1st of July, was, on the 2d, sent This gallant charge saved our left from to Westminister, to refit and guard our further loss, although Birney, who had trains. Kilpatrick’s division, wbich, on taken command of the 3d corps when the 29th and 30th of June and 1st of Sickles was wounded, was pressed so July, had been successfully engaging hard, and with such large numbers the rebel cavalry, was, on the 3d, sent of the enemy, that he was obliged to to our extreme left, on the Emmitsburg fall back nearly half a mile, and reform road, where good service was rendered behind the line originally held on or in assaulting the enemy's line and occunear the Emmitsburg road.

pying his attention. At the same time Owing to some cause unexplained, Gen. Gregg was engaged with the rebels Ewell's demonstrations on our right on our extreme right, having passed against the forces on Cemetery and across the Baltimore turnpike and BonCulp’s Hills, were very much delayed, aughton road, and boldly attacked Lee's and it was nearly sunset when he order. left and rear. ed the attack. The artillery began to The lodgment effected by Ewell's play, and Early's division advanced troops, on the night of the 2d of July, against Cemetery Hill, and Johnson's was esteemed by Lee important for his against Culp's Hill. The assault was purposes, his idea being that Ewell

should take possession of Culp's Hill shot." The cannonade gradually ceasand the Baltimore road, and then ed, without having produced any nothrow his whole force upon and break ticeable effect, and then came “ the tug our right. This purpose, however, was of war.” Successive lines of rebel in defeated by Meade, who ordered a fantry advanced over the intervening powerful artillery force against the space, resolved, if possible, to carry the point entered by the enemy, and open- heights, where our men coolly but resed a heavy fire, at four o'clock in the olutely awaited them. It was a ter. morning of July 3d. Geary, with his rible, an awfully bloody struggle. Pic force, having returned during the night, kett's division of Longstreet's men immediately attacked the rebels with dashed forward with such impetuosity great spirit, and having been reinforced as fairly to mount the crest of Ceme by a brigade of the 6th corps, he suc- tery Ridge ; but it was in vain; they ceeded, after a four hours’ sharp contest, were cut down, discomfited and broken. in driving the rebels back and re-occupy. Pettigrew's division of North Carolina ing his former position. Thus our right fresh troops on Pickett's right, had flank was secured, and Lee turned his been foolishly told that they would attention to another point of attack. meet only Pennsylvania militia ; but,

For several hours there was entire on receiving the first fire, their eyes silence in all directions; Lee was pre were opened; the cry ran through the paring his last great effort; Meade was ranks," the Army of the Potomac !" waiting for the shock. The rebel ar- They quailed before the dreaded enemy, tillery, nearly 150 guns, was placed on and they broke in disorder, leaving the ridge occupied by Longstreet and 2,000 prisoners and fifteen stands of Hill, and a few minutes after one o'clock colors in our hands. The rebels, meanin the afternoon of this eventful day, while, showed considerable activity on the portentous silence was broken: their extreme right, opposite Little Our artillery, which crowned the left Round Top, from which Hood's diviand left centre, was not so great in sion strove to drive our men and turn number as that of the enemy, but it our flank; but they were not successwas very effective in its important posi- ful

. A vigorous charge was made tion. For nearly two hours some 250 upon the enemy, and they were thogreat guns“ belched forth the missiles roughly repulsed, with severe loss. of death, producing such a continuous Thus, as the sun was setting, the succession of crashing sounds as to third day of the great battle was make us (we quote Professor Jacobs) brought to its close. The rebels were feel as if the very heavens had been beaten ; Lee gave up all hope of breakrent asunder,—such as were never equal ing through Meade's position, and imed by the most terrific thunderstorm mediately devoted himself to preparaerer witnessed by mortal man. The tion against assault and for a speedy air was filled with lines of whizzing, retreat.* Gen. Meade, in his report, screaming, bursting shells and solid

* Mr. Swinton exercises the office of military critic

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