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CA. XXIX.]

REBEL CAVALRY CROSS THE POTOMAC.

323

1863.

took charge of the department of the general disposition in all the states to Monongahela with his headquarters at furnish the necessary aid. Pittsburg. Gov. Curtin, of Pennsyl. The rebel commander, inspirited by cania, issued a proclamation, on the his success thus far, endeavored to en12th of June, calling on the people to tice Hooker further from his base, and rouse themselves in the existing emer- thus gain an opportunity to strike a gency. So soon as the attack on Win- blow at Washington. With this object chester became known at Washington, in view, Hill's corps having been sent Mr. Lincoln, on the 13th of June, to join Ewell's in the valley, Longstreet, issued a proclamation, in which he de- with his corps augmented by three briclared that “the armed insurrectionary gades of Pickett's division, moved from combinations now existing in several of Culpepper along the eastern side of the the states, are threatening to make in- Blue Ridge, and took position at Ashroads into the states of Maryland, West. by's and Snicker's Gaps. His front ern Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Ohio, was secured by Stuart's cavalry, against

requiring an additional military whom Hooker sent Pleasanton with his

force for the service of the Uni- energetic force. A sharp encounter ted States." He therefore called into occurred, on the 17th of June, at the service 100,000 militia to serve for Aldie, which served in part to develop six months; from Maryland 10,000, Lee's position; and again, on the 21st, Pennsylvania 50,000, Ohio 30,000, our cavalry met Stuart's troopers on West Virginia 10,000; he also, with the road between Aldie and Ashby's Gov. Seymour's prompt acquiescence, Gap, and drove them through Middlecalled for 20,000 men from New York. bury and Upperville, and beyond. “It

Gov. Curtin issued another procla- was a most disastrous day to the rebel mation, on the same day that the pres. cavalry,” said Pleasanton, in a dispatch. ident's was sent forth, appealing ear- “ Our loss has been very small, both in nestly to those who hate treason and men and horses. I never saw the men its abettors, and invoking them to rise and troops behave better, or under in their might and rush to the rescue more difficult circumstances. Very in this hour of imminent peril.” The heavy charges were made, and the governor's words hardly produced their sabre was used freely, but always with proper effect, and in less than a week, great advantage to us." he had to call upon the people again; The great success of Ewell at Winbut now, the rebels were actually in chester, noted on a previous page Pennsylvania, committing depredations (p. 322), was immediately followed up very extensively, and as this was an by the passage of a body of 1,500 argument they felt to the full, they be- rebel cavalry, under Jenkins, across the stirred themselves accordingly. The Potomac, who passed through Hagers. governors of West Virginia, Ohio, and town and Greencastle, and then adMaryland, also issued spirit-stirring ap- vanced to Chambersburg, which town peals to the people, and there was a they entered without opposition on the

eveuing of the 15th of June. Horses, property was withheld or concealed, it cattle, forage, goods (paid for in con. was liable to peremptory seizure.* federate scrip) were freely seized upon; The day following this order, June the bridges on the Baltimore and Ohio 22d, Ewell's corps crossed the Potomac Railroad, from Harper's Ferry to Cum at Williamsport, passed thence to berland, a distance of a hundred miles, Hagerstown, and entered Greencastle were destroyed by Imboden, and the early in the afternoon. On the 23d, road itself torn up to a considerable Chambersburg was re-occupied by extent; and the rebels displayed the Rodes's division of Ewell's force. The utmost activity in supplying their needs next day, Lee, with the main body of out of the property of the rich farmers his army, crossed into Maryland at the of Pennsylvania. No wonder that an fords at Shepherdstown and Williamsunparalleled excitement was roused in port, and moved up the Cumberland the loyal states, and intense interest Valley on the west side of the Cotoctin manifested in the movements of that Mountains. His advance was made in army on which rested the grave respon- two divisions, one by way of the Harsibility of repulsing and driving out risburg and Chambersburg Railroad tothe daring rebels.

wards Harrisburg, and the other from As Hooker was not to be lured away Gettysburg eastward to the Northern from the direct defence of the capital Central Railroad from Baltimore to in order to make an attack upon Long. Harrisburg, and thence to York and street, Lee resolved at once to carry Lancaster, in Pennsylvania. On the out his original purpose of invasion, 25th of June, the enemy was at Carand to give up the hoped-for chance of lisle, from which Gen. Knipe, who was any blow against Washington. Accord stationed at the place with two New ingly, Ewell, having been relieved by York militia regiments, retired to Har. Hill and Longstreet, began to move risburg from the presence of a superior with the advancing column on Sunday, force. June 21st. On the same day, Lee Ewell, on entering Chambersburg, issued an order to his army, regulating issued an order to the inhabitants, forthe mode of procuring supplies “while bidding the sale of intoxicating liquors in the enemy's country,” as he phrased to his command, and admonishing all it. No private property was to be in- citizens of the country to abstain jured or destroyed. The chiefs of the from all acts of hostility, upon the

pencommissary, quarter-master, ordnance, alty of“ being dealt with in a summary and medical departments were authorized to make requisitions upon the occasion to retaliate “the ferocity of the enemy," by

* Pollard complains bitterly that Lee did not take local authorities or inhabitants for the laying waste and ravaging Pennsylvania while he had supplies they might need, payment weak and strained chivalry, or more probably that of

an opportunity. “Such tenderness, the effect of a for which should be tendered, deference to European opinion, is another of the many and if refused, receipts should instances which the war has furnished of the simplic

ity and sentimental facility of the South."-" Third be given for the property taken. If Year of the War,” p. 23.

1863.

Cu. XXIX.]

REBEL ADVANCE INTO PENNSYLVANIA.

325

manner." On the 27th of June, the of coffee, 60 barrels of flour, 1,000 main body of Ewell's, Longstreet's, pounds of salt, 7,000 pounds of bacon, and Hill's corps were encamped near 10 barrels of whiskey, 10 barrels of Chambersburg.* Early's division was onions, 1,000 pairs of shoes, and 500 detached for the purpose of crossing hats, amounting in value to $6,000; or South Mountain, and proceeded as far in lieu thereof, $5,000 cash. On being east as York, while the remainder of assured, however, that the demand was the corps proceeded to Carlisle. Imbo- entirely beyond any possibility of their den, in pursuance of his instructions, meeting it, Early did not attempt any had been actively engaged on the left forcible requisition, and comparatively of Ewell during the progress of the little damage was dont to the town. latter into Maryland, in destroying rail. Hurrying forward, Early passed road bridges, etc.

through Hanover the next morning, Several hundred of the enemy's ad. and on Sunday, June 28th, entered and vance guard of cavalry rode into Get occupied York. His headquarters were tysburg, on the afternoon of June 26th, in the town, with the larger part of his

shouting and yelling," says an ob- force, and he made an immediate deserver, “ like so many savages from the mand for money and supplies. The wilds of the Rocky Mountains ; firing authorities were called upon for $100,their pistols, not caring whether they | 000 in United States Treasury notes, killed or maimed man, woman or child; 200 barrels of flour, 40,000 pounds of and rushing from stable to stable in fresh beef, 30,000 bushels of corn, 1,000 search of horses.” The same afternoon, pairs of shoes, 1,000 pairs of stockings, Gordon's brigade, consisting of 5,000 and 1,000 coats and caps, beside various men, of Early's division of Ewell's corps, other articles, amounting in value to not entered Gettysburg, driving before them less than $150,000 ; but the rebels did a Pennsylvania militia regiment, which not get more than $30,000 in cash and had been stationed as an outpost of the subsistence. At Wrightsville, on the town. Early who accompanied this Susquehanna, our troops there retreated brigade, immediately demanded of the across the river, and the bridge having authorities a large amount of supplies, been fired, the rebels were prevented viz.:-1,200 pounds sugar, 600 pounds from ravaging east of the Susquehanna.*

* Stuart with his cavalry had been left east of the Early retreated from York on the Blue Ridge, in order to harass Hooker in crossing the 30th of June, and in doing so took Potomac, after which, he was ordered to pass into Maryland, and take position on the right of the ad- great credit to himself and his men for vancing column. Not being able to effect anything, he crossed below the point where Hooker passed over * The same day, a train of 178 wagons was captured the Potomac, and thus found the army between him by the rebels between Rockville and Tenallytown; a and Lee, which necessitated, on Stuart's part, a wide number of army officers were taken prisoners near Rock detour. He reached Carlisle on the 1st of July, after ville by some of Stuart's cavalry; and at Edwards' Ewell had left the place.

Ferry fifteen barges, loaded with government stores, † From the appearance of the ragged, dirty, shoe- were burnt by Stuart's men. A raid, of no great moless, and hatless rebel troops, on the present occasion, ment, was made in several directions by Stuart, almost

appears that the "chivalry” had not improved since to the capital ; he then marched through Westministhe former invasion (see p. 228).

it

ter to Carlisle.

1863,

their excellent conduct: “Had I applied requested to be relieved, and the next the torch without regard to conse morning an order came from Washingquences, I would have pursued a course ton, acceding to his request, and apthat would have been fully vindicated pointing Gen. George G. Meade to the as an act of just retaliation for the un- command of the Army of the Potomac * paralleled acts of brutality perpetrated The appointment was an excellent by your own army on our soil. But one, probably the best that could have we do not war upon women and child- been made, and both the officers and ren, and I trust the treatment you have the army felt every confidence in the met with at the hands of my soldiers judgment, courage, and skill of their will open your eyes to the odious tyr- new commander. Warned by what anny under which it is apparent to all had taken place on previous occasions, you are groaning."

Meade's address to the army, June 28th, , The Army of the Potomac, mean- was simple, unadorned by rhetorical while, was slowly advancing to its work. flourishes, and straightforward :-“By Having crossed the Potomac, on the direction of the President of the United 25th and 26th of June, at Edwards' States, I hereby assume command of the Ferry, the army advanced to Frederick, Army of the Potomac. As a soldier, Maryland, where Hooker established in obeying this order, an order his headquarters, and whence he might totally unexpected and unsolimove upon Lee in the direction which cited, I have no promises or pledges to seemed most advantageous. It appears make. The country looks to this army to have been his purpose to menace the to relieve it from the devastation and rebel rear by a movement towards disgrace of a hostile invasion. WhatChambersburg, and he ordered Slocum ever fatigues and sacrifices we may be to march with the 12th corps to Har. called upon to undergo, let us have in per's Ferry, and taking with him the view constantly the magnitude of the garrison there, under French, 11,000 interests involved, and let each man strong, to push forward the proposed determine to do his duty, leaving to an demonstration; but Halleck interfered. all-controlling Providence the decision Hooker remonstrated, in earnest terms, of the contest.” and pointed out that the garrison at At this date, Lee was preparing to the Ferry was of no earthly use in the cross the Susquehanna and strike Har present state of affairs; but the general. risburg, but having received informain-chief was not to be moved; Mary- tion from a scout that Meade's army land Heights must be held; “ much expense and labor had been incurred in

* Mr. Swinton, who does not spare Halleck for his fortifying them.” Hooker, indignant at vexatious interference

, thinks that “ the conduct of having his plans interfered with, and Gen. Hooker cannot be accounted noble or highminded.

A truly lofty sense of duty would have dictated much probably not altogether comfortable in long suffering, in a conjuncture of circumstances, amid other respects, determined to throw up compromised by the sudden change of commanders?

which the success of the campaign might be seriously

.' his command. On the 27th of June, he See Swinton's "Army of the Potomac," p:. 321-323.

CH, XXIX.]

OPENING OF THE BATTLE.

327

was advancing northward, and that the deadly struggle, Meade issued an address head of the column had reached South to the army, in which, with the utmost Mountain, he was compelled, by this earnestness, he besought the officers and rapid gathering on his flank, to concen- soldiers to bear in mind what vast intertrate his forces on the east side of the ests depended on their steadiness and mountain, in order to preserve his com- good conduct. “Homes, firesides, and do munications with the Potomac. Acmestic altars are involved. The

army

has cordingly, Longstreet and Hill were or fought well heretofore. It is believed dered to proceed from Chambersburg that it will fight more desperately and towards Gettysburg, about twenty miles bravely than ever, if it is addressed eastward, to which point Ewell also was fitting terms. Corps and other comdirected to countermarch from York and manders are authorized to order the inCarlisle.

stant death of any soldier who fails to It was evident, from the state of do his duty at this hour.” things, that a collision between the two On the night of June 30th, the right armies could not be far distant. Meade, wing of the army was ordered to Manhaving compelled Lee to loose his hold chester, in rear of Pipe Creek, the cenupon the Susquehanna, was carefully tre was directed towards Two Taverns considering where to select a position and Hancock, while the left wing, conin which to receive battle on advantage- sisting of the 1st, 11th, and 3d ous terms.* The line of Pipe Creek, corps, under Gen. Reynolds, moved on the ridge between the Monocacy and forward to occupy Gettysburg the next the waters running into Chesapeake morning. Buford, with his cavalry, Bay, seemed adapted to his purpose; passing through the town, pushed out but no decision was yet formed, and reconnaissances west and north, to asvarious circumstances soon after occur certain, if possible, the movements of ring, led, providentially, to the making Lee's army. On the morning of Tueschoice of Gettysburg as the point where day, June 30th, a portion of Hill's the rebels were to be signally repulsed. corps advanced on the Chambersburg On the 29th of June, Meade's army was road as far as the crest of Seminary in motion, and at night was in position, Hill, half a mile north-west of the vilthe left at Emmittsburg and the right lage, but did not remain, retiring toat New Windsor. Buford's division of wards Cashtown. About nine o'clock, cavalry was on the left flank, with its the next morning, July 1st, Buford advance at Gettysburg; Kilpatrick's found himself engaged, rather unexdivision was in front at Hanover. The pectedly, with the van of Hill's force, next day, in view of the approaching about a mile west of the town. Aware

of the importance of retarding Hill's * Gen. French, who was in command at Harper's Ferry, was ordered, on the 28th of June, to leave that advance, Buford skilfully arranged his post, which was represented, incorrectly

, however, as men and used his artillery to good destitute of supplies ; to occupy Frederick with 7,000 effect. In less than an hour, Reynolds of his men, and with the remaining 4,000 to remove and escort the public property to Washington.

reached Gettysburg, and dashing

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