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indulged freely in significant intima-
tions of events near at hand,* and as
the gathering of Stuart's cavalry at
Culpepper clearly indicated some pur-
pose of evil which ought to be looked
after, Hooker resolved to send a strong
force against Stuart and break up his
encampment. Accordingly, on the 9th
of June, early in the morning, Pleasan-upper forks of the river; but
ton, with Buford's and Gregg's divisions
of cavalry, and two brigades of infantry
under Russell and Ames, crossed the
Rappahannock at Beverley's and Kel-
ly's Fords. Buford first encountered the
enemy a short distance south of Beverley
Ford, when a sharp conflict occurred.
Gregg having crossed at Kelly's Ford,
pushed on towards Brandy Station, and
carried the heights. Stuart brought up
a large force, and a determined fight
ensued. Gregg, finding that Buford
was not able to unite with him, fell
back after a time and joined his troops
with the other division; whereupon
Pleasanton retired his force across the
Rappahannock. His loss was about
500; the rebel loss was fully equal to
ours. It was a noted engagement on
this occasion, for the cavalry of both
armies were not only in full force, but
they fought in legitimate cavalry style,
gallantly dashing to the charge and
using their sabres with tremendous
effect. In other respects, the move-
ment of Pleasanton was of great mo-

ment, for it not only proved Lee's pre-
sence at Culpepper, but, by the capture
of some rebel correspondence, disclosed
clearly Lee's purpose of invading the

Hooker, on the 11th of June, advanc ed his right up the Rappahannock, and sent his cavalry to watch the

*"So hopeful were the leaders of the rebellion in the success of this their project, that they did not deem it necessary to keep their intentions a secret. Many weeks before their attempted invasion, their newspapers freely referred to it as an event that would surely happen, and boasted loudly of the manner in which they would fatten on the spoils they would take from the rich farmers and well-filled storehouses of the North."-Jacobs's "Notes on the Rebel Invasion," p. 6. VOL. IV. 41.


Lee, while Hooker was doing this, pushed forward his left into the Shenandoah Valley. Ewell's corps, on the 10th, passed the Blue Ridge at Chester Gap, crossed the Shenandoah, and marching rapidly, arrived before Winchester on the evening of the 13th, af ter an advance, from Culpepper, of seventy miles in three days. "A glance at the map will reveal the extraordinary situation of the Confederate forces at this time. On the 13th of June, with the Army of the Potomac yet lying on the Rappahannock, Lee's line of battle was stretched out over an interval of upwards of a hundred miles; for his right (Hill's corps) still held the lines of Fredericksburg; his centre (Longstreet's corps) lay at Culpepper; and his left (Ewell's corps) was at the mouth of the Shenandoah Valley !"* In this state of things, Hooker's course seemed to be plain; he must regulate his movements so as to defend the approaches to the capital, and also advance as rapidly as possible on Lee's

*"Army of the Potomac," p. 314. Mr. Swinton, noting Lee's implied contempt of his opponent, criticizes the neglect of Hooker in not striking the exposed rear of this long line, and either destroying Hill or compelling Lee to hasten back to his support. This would have put an end to the invasion. But Halleck, at Washing. ton, did not favor any steps of the kind; Hooker, therefore, ought probably to be held excused for not taking an initiative which promised so excellent results.

flank, awaiting the further development sued by the enemy, a portion of the of that general's designs. He accordingly broke up camp on the Rappahannock, June 13th, moved on the direct route towards Washington, by way of the Orange and Alexandria Railroad, and reached Fairfax Court House on the evening of the 15th of June.

The enemy's earliest demonstration was in the Valley of the Shenandoah, upon the outposts at Winchester and Berryville. Jenkins, with his cavalry brigade, was sent forward toward Win


chester, while Imboden was sent towards Romney, to cover the movement. Both of these officers were in position when Ewell left Culpepper, on the 10th of June. Ewell, having crossed the Shenandoah, with his corps, near Front Royal, detached Rodes's division to Berryville, with instructions, after dislodging the force stationed there, to cut off communication between Winchester and the Potomac; while, with the divisions of Early and Johnson, he advanced directly upon Winchester.

Gen. Milroy was in command at Winchester at this time, with a force of about 10,000 men; McReynolds was at Berryville, with his brigade; and Martinsburg was held by Tyler, as an outpost of Harper's Ferry. Neither Winchester nor Martinsburg was susceptible of a good defence; and the with drawal of the garrisons had been advis ed, though not ordered, as early as the 11th of June, by Halleck, at Washing


On the 13th, Rodes's division of the rebel force appeared before Berryville, when Col. McReynolds, with his command, fell back to Winchester, pur

rear guard escaping in the direction of Harper's Ferry. On arriving at Winchester in the evening, he found Milroy closely pressed by the enemy. On the evening of the next day, June 14th, Early carried the outer works of the town by storm. That night Milroy, after spiking his guns, left with the whole of his command on his retreat to Harper's Ferry, taking with him his artillery horses and wagons. Four miles from the town, on the Martinsburg road, he was intercepted by rebel troops, and had to fight his way, as best he could, through their midst, his loss being very great. Rodes, meanwhile, proceeded from Berryville to Martinsburg, where he took 700 prisoners and a quantity of stores. Tyler, with the main body of his command, after a sharp fight, made good his retreat to Harper's Ferry. Thus, the lower part of the Valley was swept of the Union forces, and the rebels captured over 4,000 prisoners, 29 pieces of artillery, 270 wagons and ambulances,.and 400 horses, together with a large amount of military stores.*

In view of the threatened invasion, preparations were at once made for the defence of Pennsylvania. Gen. Couch, on the 9th of June, was assigned to the department of the Susquehanna, having his headquarters at Harrisburg; and Gen. Brooks, at the same time,

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general disposition in all the states to furnish the necessary aid.

took charge of the department of the Monongahela, with his headquarters at Pittsburg. Gov. Curtin, of Pennsyl The rebel commander, inspirited by vania, issued a proclamation, on the his success thus far, endeavored to en12th of June, calling on the people to tice Hooker further from his base, and rouse themselves in the existing emer- thus gain an opportunity to strike a gency. So soon as the attack on Win- blow at Washington. With this object chester became known at Washington, in view, Hill's corps having been sent Mr. Lincoln, on the 13th of June, to join Ewell's in the valley, Longstreet, Issued a proclamation, in which he de- with his corps augmented by three briclared that "the armed insurrectionary gades of Pickett's division, moved from combinations now existing in several of Culpepper along the eastern side of the the states, are threatening to make in- Blue Ridge, and took position at Ashroads into the states of Maryland, West. by's and Snicker's Gaps. His front ern Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Ohio, was secured by Stuart's cavalry, against requiring an additional military whom Hooker sent Pleasanton with his force for the service of the Uni- energetic force. A sharp encounter ted States." He therefore called into occurred, on the 17th of June, at the service 100,000 militia to serve for Aldie, which served in part to develop six months; from Maryland 10,000, Lee's position; and again, on the 21st, Pennsylvania 50,000, Ohio 30,000, our cavalry met Stuart's troopers on West Virginia 10,000; he also, with the road between Aldie and Ashby's Gov. Seymour's prompt acquiescence, Gap, and drove them through Middlecalled for 20,000 men from New York. bury and Upperville, and beyond. "It Gov. Curtin issued another procla- was a most disastrous day to the rebel mation, on the same day that the pres- cavalry," said Pleasanton, in a dispatch. ident's was sent forth, appealing ear-"Our loss has been very small, both in nestly to those "who hate treason and men and horses. I never saw the men its abettors, and invoking them to rise and troops behave better, or under in their might and rush to the rescue more difficult circumstances. Very in this hour of imminent peril." The governor's words hardly produced their proper effect, and in less than a week, he had to call upon the people again; but now, the rebels were actually in Pennsylvania, committing depredations very extensively, and as this was an argument they felt to the full, they bestirred themselves accordingly. The governors of West Virginia, Ohio, and Maryland, also issued spirit-stirring appeals to the people, and there was a

heavy charges were made, and the sabre was used freely, but always with great advantage to us."

The great success of Ewell at Winchester, noted on a previous page (p. 322), was immediately followed up by the passage of a body of 1,500 rebel cavalry, under Jenkins, across the Potomac, who passed through Hagerstown and Greencastle, and then advanced to Chambersburg, which town they entered without opposition on the

property was withheld or concealed, it was liable to peremptory seizure.*

The day following this order, June 22d, Ewell's corps crossed the Potomac at Williamsport, passed thence to Hagerstown, and entered Greencastle early in the afternoon. On the 23d, Chambersburg was re-occupied by Rodes's division of Ewell's force. The next day, Lee, with the main body of his army, crossed into Maryland at the fords at Shepherdstown and Williamsport, and moved up the Cumberland

evening of the 15th of June. Horses, cattle, forage, goods (paid for in confederate scrip) were freely seized upon; the bridges on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, from Harper's Ferry to Cumberland, a distance of a hundred miles, were destroyed by Imboden, and the road itself torn up to a considerable extent; and the rebels displayed the utmost activity in supplying their needs out of the property of the rich farmers of Pennsylvania. No wonder that an unparalleled excitement was roused in the loyal states, and intense interest | Valley on the west side of the Cotoctin manifested in the movements of that Mountains. His advance was made in army on which rested the grave respon- two divisions, one by way of the Har sibility of repulsing and driving out risburg and Chambersburg Railroad tothe daring rebels. wards Harrisburg, and the other from Gettysburg eastward to the Northern Central Railroad from Baltimore to Harrisburg, and thence to York and Lancaster, in Pennsylvania. On the 25th of June, the enemy was at Carlisle, from which Gen. Knipe, who was stationed at the place with two New York militia regiments, retired to Harrisburg from the presence of a superior force.

As Hooker was not to be lured away from the direct defence of the capital in order to make an attack upon Longstreet, Lee resolved at once to carry out his original purpose of invasion, and to give up the hoped-for chance of any blow against Washington. Accordingly, Ewell, having been relieved by Hill and Longstreet, began to move with the advancing column on Sunday, June 21st. On the same day, Lee issued an order to his army, regulating the mode of procuring supplies "while in the enemy's country," as he phrased it. No private property was to be injured or destroyed. The chiefs of the commissary, quarter-master, ordnance, and medical departments were authorized to make requisitions upon the local authorities or inhabitants for the supplies they might need, payment for which should be tendered, and if refused, receipts should be given for the property taken.



Ewell, on entering Chambersburg, issued an order to the inhabitants, forbidding the sale of intoxicating liquors to his command, and admonishing all citizens of the country to abstain from all acts of hostility, upon the penalty of "being dealt with in a summary

occasion to retaliate "the ferocity of the enemy," by laying waste and ravaging Pennsylvania while he had weak and strained chivalry, or more probably that of an opportunity. "Such tenderness, the effect of a deference to European opinion, is another of the many instances which the war has furnished of the simplic

* Pollard complains bitterly that Lee did not take

ity and sentimental facility of the South."-“ Third

Year of the War,” p. 23.



manner." On the 27th of June, the main body of Ewell's, Longstreet's, and Hill's corps were encamped near Chambersburg. Early's division was detached for the purpose of crossing South Mountain, and proceeded as far east as York, while the remainder of the corps proceeded to Carlisle. Imboden, in pursuance of his instructions, had been actively engaged on the left of Ewell during the progress of the latter into Maryland, in destroying railroad bridges, etc.

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Several hundred of the enemy's advance guard of cavalry rode into Gettysburg, on the afternoon of June 26th, shouting and yelling," says an observer, "like so many savages from the wilds of the Rocky Mountains; firing their pistols, not caring whether they killed or maimed man, woman or child; and rushing from stable to stable in search of horses." The same afternoon, Gordon's brigade, consisting of 5,000 men, of Early's division of Ewell's corps, entered Gettysburg, driving before them a Pennsylvania militia regiment, which had been stationed as an outpost of the town. Early who accompanied this brigade, immediately demanded of the authorities a large amount of supplies, viz. :—1,200 pounds sugar, 600 pounds

*Stuart with his cavalry had been left east of the

Blue Ridge, in order to harass Hooker in crossing the Potomac, after which, he was ordered to pass into Maryland, and take position on the right of the advancing column. Not being able to effect anything, he crossed below the point where Hooker passed over the Potomac, and thus found the army between him and Lee, which necessitated, on Stuart's part, a wide detour. He reached Carlisle on the 1st of July, after Ewell had left the place.

From the appearance of the ragged, dirty, shoeless, and hatless rebel troops, on the present occasion, it appears that the "chivalry" had not improved since the former invasion (see p. 228).


of coffee, 60 barrels of flour, 1,000 pounds of salt, 7,000 pounds of bacon, 10 barrels of whiskey, 10 barrels of onions, 1,000 pairs of shoes, and 500 hats, amounting in value to $6,000; or in lieu thereof, $5,000 cash. On being assured, however, that the demand was entirely beyond any possibility of their meeting it, Early did not attempt any forcible requisition, and comparatively little damage was done to the town.

Hurrying forward, Early passed through Hanover the next morning, and on Sunday, June 28th, entered and occupied York. His headquarters were in the town, with the larger part of his force, and he made an immediate demand for money and supplies. The authorities were called upon for $100,000 in United States Treasury notes, 200 barrels of flour, 40,000 pounds of fresh beef, 30,000 bushels of corn, 1,000 pairs of shoes, 1,000 pairs of stockings, and 1,000 coats and caps, beside various other articles, amounting in value to not less than $150,000; but the rebels did not get more than $30,000 in cash and subsistence. At Wrightsville, on the Susquehanna, our troops there retreated across the river, and the bridge having been fired, the rebels were prevented from ravaging east of the Susquehanna.*

Early retreated from York on the 30th of June, and in doing so took great credit to himself and his men for

* The same day, a train of 178 wagons was captured by the rebels between Rockville and Tenallytown; a number of army officers were taken prisoners near Rock ville by some of Stuart's cavalry; and at Edwards' Ferry fifteen barges, loaded with government stores, were burnt by Stuart's men. A raid, of no great moment, was made in several directions by Stuart, almost to the capital; he then marched through Westminister to Carlisle.

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