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official report, which not only sets forth After waiting for several days for the courage and determined spirit of supplies and the arrival of Sherman's all connected with the expedition, but corps, reconnaisances were made along also presents an instructive picture of the west side of the Big Black River, the internal condition of this portion to within a few miles of Warrenton, of the “ Confederacy.” The substantial and steps were taken to deceive the results may be expressed in a brief ex- rebels, as far as possible, in regard to tract: “ During the expedition we kill. Grant's real designs at the present moed and wounded about 100 of the ene- ment. Apparently, he was about to my, captured and paroled over 500 make a direct attack; but in reality, he prisoners, many of them officers, de- was pushing forward McClernand and stroyed between fifty and sixty miles of Sherman to the railroad, between Edrailroad and telegraph, captured and ward's Station and Bolton, while Mcdestroyed over 3,000 stand of arms, Pherson was to advance rapidly upon and other army stores and property to Raymond, and Jackson, the capital of an immense amount; we also captured the state. It was of prime importance, 1,000 horses and mules. We marched in Grant's estimation, to secure his rear over 600 miles in less than sixteen days. by a march upon Jackson, by destroyThe last twenty-eight hours we marching the property of all descriptions of ed seventy-six miles, had four engage the enemy and the railroad; and then ments with the enemy, and forded the to march with all his force to the asComite River, which was deep enough sault upon Vicksburg.* to swim many of the horses.” After The advance was begun on the 7th speaking of the large and well ap- of May, and the utmost activity and pointed parties sent out against him, enterprise was displayed by both offiand of his being able to elude them or cers and troops in the duty now before fight them to advantage, Grierson concludes in terms of praise of his officers * Pollard, speaking of Grant and his " most extraor and men, without whose hearty co-ope

dinary and audacious game” in the Mississippi cam

paign, says, truly enough,—“in daring, in celerity of ration, under very trying circumstances, movement, and in the vigor and decision of its steps, he could not have obtained such signal it was the most remarkable of the war. The plan of

Grant was, in brief, nothing else than to gain firm

ground on one of the Confederate flanks, which, to be It had at first been Grant's purpose done, involved a march of about 150 miles, through a to detach an army corps to co-operate base of supplies was liable at any moment to be per

hostile country, and in which communication with the with Banks against Port Hudson, and manently interrupted. In addition, a resistance to his effect a junction of forces; but, on re- advance could be anticipated, of whose magnitude

nothing was certainly known, and which, for aught flection, as time was all important to he knew, might at any time prove great enough to his plans, and as Banks could not fur annihilate his entire army. The plan involved the nish more than 12,000 men at best, he enterprise of running a deet of transports past the

batteries, crossing the troops from the Louisiana shore gave up the project, and resolved to de- below Vicksburg, to Mississippi

, and then marching vote all his energy and skill to an im. the army, by the way of Jackson, through the heart of

success.

the Confederacy, so to speak, to the rear of Vicksbarg." mediate advance upon the rebels.

Third Year of tho War,” p. 43, 44.

«0

CH, XXVIII.]

JACKSON, MISSISSIPPI, CAPTURED.

311

my rear.»

them. On the 11th, McClernand reach. lage for four miles. On the 14th of May, ed Hall's Ferry, on the Big Black River, McPherson’s corps, followed by SherSherman was at Auburn, about six man’s, which advanced from its position miles north-east, and McPherson about at Mississippi Springs, moved upon the eight miles further in the same direc- capital of Mississippi. Information had tion. The next day, the advance divi- reached Grant that the rebel commandsion of Sherman's corps encountered aer, J. E. Johnston, was daily receiving body of the rebels, chiefly cavalry, at reiuforcements, and was expected imFourteen Mile Creek; but after some mediately at Jackson, to take command slight skirmishing, the enemy retreated in person. “I therefore determined," toward Raymond, burning the bridge said Grant,“ to make sure of that place, as they retired. A crossing, however, and leave no enemy

in

.” was speedily constructed, and the corps Gen. Crocker's division of McPhermoved on its way.

son's corps had the advance, and charged The principal resistance was made gallantly upon the enemy's position on by the rebels to obstruct McPherson's the crest of a hill, in front of the town, advance. As 'he was marching from driving the rebels before them at the Utica, on the branch road to Jackson, point of the bayonet. On Sherman's on approaching the town of Raymond, coming up on the right, he soon found he was met, on the forenoon of May the enemy's weakness at that point, and 12th, by a body of the enemy, under caused them to retreat northwardly toGregg and Walker, numbering about wards Clinton. After a fight of about 5,000. Skirmishing commenced early three hours, in which the rebels disin the morning, and Logan's division, played less than their usual spirit in which was on the road in advance, was battle, they gave up the contest, and • at once ordered forward to engage the Johnston, having set fire to the buildenemy. The battle was opened about ings filled with commissary and quarterten o'clock, and, after a conflict of more master's stores, made a speedy retreat. than two hours, resulted in the defeat The arsenal, public works, factories, of the rebels, and their abandonment bridges, etc., were effectually destroyed. of Raymond to the Union forces. Our We are sorry to be obliged to state, in loss was 51 killed, and 180 wounded; this connection, that there was also a the rebel loss was 75 killed and 186 large amount of pillaging by the solprisoners captured, beside the wounded. diers, to the disgrace of themselves and

McPherson's force was immediately the cause in which they were engaged. pushed on, and the next day occupied Although Johnston had been unable Clinton, a small town about eight miles to maintain his position, still, as Grant west of Jackson, on the Vicksburg and learned at Jackson, he had ordered

Jackson Railroad. The tele- Pemberton,* in very positive terms, to graph office and post office, with

* Pollard is bitterly severe on Pemberton; calls him their contents, were seized, and the rail.

“the creature of the private and personal prejudices road destroyed on both sides of the vil- of President Davis;" asserts that he was extremely un

1863.

march out of Vicksburg, and“ re-estab. upon the main force of Pemberton in lish the communications” by an assault the vicinity of Edward's Station. Three upon Grant's rear. This Pemberton miles south-east of this is a road which had undertaken to do, having, it was runs parallel with the railroad, crosses reported, some eighty regiments and Champion's Hill, through which runs a ten batteries of artillery, and about small stream called Baker's Creek 25,000 men in all. He was, howerer, Hovey, who was in the advance with too late to accomplish anything; John. his division, discovered, about nine ston had been put to flight, and Grant, o'clock, that the enemy were in front on by his rapid and skilful combinations, Champion's Hill, to the left of the road, aided, as he was, by several of the best near Baker's Creek, apparently in force. officers in the United States army, Skirmishers were thrown out, and the simply faced about, and advanced division advanced cautiously across the promptly to rout Pemberton in the open field at the foot of Champion's same wise that he did in the case of Hill, in line of battle. At eleven Johnston. McPherson was ordered to o'clock the battle commenced. The move out on the Clinton road, and on hill itself was covered with timber, the 15th of May was about a mile from and was flanked, on both sides, by Bolton, within supporting distance of deep ravines and gullies, and in many Hovey's division of McClernand's corps; places covered with an impenetrable while McClernand, with the remaining growth of scrubby white-oak brush divisions, was ordered to Edward's Sta. The woods, on both sides of the road tion; he was, however, directed not to leading up to the face of the bill, bring on a general engagement, unless and winding back on the ridge a mile he was sure of success. Blair moved or more, were filled with sharpshootwith McClernand, and Sherman, with ers, supported by infantry. Here the his forces, was soon to follow.

battle began, just as our men entered Early on the morning of May 16th, the edge of the timber, and raged tertwo days after the occupation of Jack- ribly from eleven o'clock till between son, the left wing of the army, under three and four, P.M. Hovey'e division McClernand, advanced to the line of the carried the heights, and making a dash railroad east of the Big Black River, on the first battery, drove the gunners

and, in concert with Sherman's from their posts and captured the and McPherson's corps, came pieces.

The rebels having been reinforced at popular with the army, incapable,“ never on a battle this point, made fresh efforts to disfield in the war," and in a state of deplorable “ignor. ance and bewilderment as to the enemy's designs." As lodge our troops on the hill. Hovey a pet and favorite of Davis, and with nothing else to re- was slowly driven back to the brow, commend him, of course, in Pollard's opinion, only dis but help coming up, the ground was aster could follow his being placed in command at Vicksburg. It is only fair, however, to remember that recovered, and the rebels finally rePollard is no friend to Davis and his helpers at Rich: pulsed. At the commencement of the mond, and also that he is rather fond of using caustic and bitter language when the opportunity occurs. engagement, Logan's division marched

1863.

CA. XXVIII.]

REBEL DEFEAT AT THE BIG BLACK.

313

past the brow of the hill, and, forming ing out, "all is fost !” and refused to in line of battle on the right of Hovey, fight at all. Seventeen cannon and advanced in grand style, sweeping about 2,000 prisoners fell into our everything before them. At the edge hands by their panic-stricken conduct, of the wood in front of Logan the battle and late at night the rebel troops was very hotly contested. Two bat reached Vicksburg, in a state which teries and a large number of prisoners hardly admits of description. were captured by this division.

On the morning of the 18th of May, Between three and four o'clock, P.M., Sherman's corps crossed the Big Black Osterhaus's and McArthur's divisions above, at Bridgeport, on a pontoon came into action on the extreme left, bridge, and the next day McClernand's and by five o'clock Pemberton's troops and McPherson's corps, having regave way in great confusion. Loring, paired the bridge which had been parthe rebel commander on the right, drew tially destroyed, joined the forces on off his men and escaped, by taking a the other side before Vicksburg. The large circuit, to Canton, where he join. various roads were occupied, and im. ed Johnston. Immediately troops were portant positions taken, investing the sent in pursuit of Pemberton, who re- city from the direction of Warrenton treated to the Big Black, where he on the left, to the bluffs on the Yazoo purposed making one more effort be- River, on the right. Sherman occupied fore betaking himself to the entrench- the right of the line, McPherson the ments of Vicksburg.

centre, and McClernand the left.* At an early hour on Sunday, May The efficient co-operation of the fleet 17th, McClernand's corps marched to under Porter, deserves honorable menthe Big Black River bridge of the rail. tion in this place. Porter, having come road, sixteen miles west of Champion's over to the Yazoo to be ready for any Hill battle ground, and twelve miles

* The defeat at the Big Black caused some sharp east of Vicksburg. The rebels were crimination and recrimination between Johnston and found to be strongly posted on both Pemberton. Pollard sides with the former, of course ;

and in view of Pemberton being shut up within his sides of the river, where, with the help defences, says, “ As it was, the full of Vicksburg had of the excellent natural defences, and become but a question of time. Gen. Johnston was their rifle-pits and field guns, they force to break the investment of the city, should it be

convinced of the impossibility of collecting a sufficient promised apparently a vigorous resist- completed. He appreciated the difficulty of extricating But when our batteries were

the garrison. It was with this foresight that, on

learning that Pemberton had been driven from the Big brought to play on their works, and Black, he ordered the evacuation of Vicksburg. He when Lawler's brigade of Carr's divi. wrote, “If Haynes's Bluff be untenable, Vicksburg is of

no value, and cannot be held. If, therefore, you are sion charged across the open fields, the invested in Vicksburg, you must ultimately surrender

. rebels set fire to the bridge before their Under such circumstances, instead of losing both troops were across, and ignominiously troops. If not too late, evacuate Vicksburg and its

troops and place, you must, if possible, save the fled. Pemberton and his officers could dependencies, and march to the north-east,” This do notking to rouse them; they rushed was too much for Pemberton ; and so he remained

where he was until the end came on the memorable from the field in a species of terror, cry. 4th of July, 1863.

VOL. IV 40.

ance.

1863.

help which he could render, heard of moment upon the rebel line. WithGrant's cannonading, on the 18th of in a few days, Grant's arrangements for May, and inferred his success thus far. drawing supplies from Memphis and He dispatched a number of vessels up above were completed, and under an the Yazoo to open communications with impression that Vicksburg could be Grant and Sherman. This he succeeded taken by assault, notwithstanding the in doing, and learned the gratifying experience of the 19th, he ordered news of what had been accomplished. another and determined onset to be Having destroyed the formidable works made.* “There were many reasons," at Haines' Bluff, Porter dispatched as Grant stated afterwards, “ to deter- : Lieut. Walker, in the De Kalb, up the mine me to adopt this course. I believed Yazoo River, with sufficient force to an assault from the position by this destroy all the enemy's property in time could be made successfully. It that direction, with orders to return was known that Johnston was at Canwith all dispatch, and only to proceed ton with the force taken by him from as far as Yazoo City, where the rebels Jackson, reinforced by other troops had a navy-yard and storehouses. Wal from the East, and that more were ker proceeded at once to the work daily reaching him. With the before him, and promptly and effect. force I had, a short time must ually performed it. Three rams of the have enabled him to attack me in the most powerful kind, two just ready for rear, and possibly to succeed in raising use, and one, a monster of its class, the siege.... Accordingly, on the 21st of 370 ft., and 75 ft. beam, on the stocks, May, orders were issued for a general were burned, as were also a vast stock assault on the whole line, to commence of materials for naval purposes, ma- at ten A.m., on the 22d. Promptly, at chine shops, etc. The estimated value the hour designated, the three army of the property thus destroyed was corps then in front of the enemy's fully $2,000,000. On the morning of works commenced the assault. I had May 22d, Lieut. Walker returned with taken a commanding position near the vessels under his command to the McPherson's front, and from which I mouth of the Yazoo River, having lost could see all the advancing columns only one man killed and seven wound from his corps, and a part of each of ed in the expedition.

Sherman's and McClernand's. A porIn the flush of the several victories tion of the commands of each sucwhich the army had recently gained, and supposing that Pemberton's force * In accordance with Grant's request, Porter directed

a vigorous attack from the mortar and gun boats upon was almost entirely demoralized, Grant the hill and water batteries of the city, inflicting con ordered a general assault to be made siderable damage. The bombardment was at short on the enemy's works, at two o'clock, and forty yards of the batteries. “ It was the hottest

range, the vessels advancing to within four hundred P.M., on the 19th of May. Our troops fire,” said Porter, “the gun boats had ever been under." behaved with great gallantry; but they Unable to gain intelligence of the progress of the

army, the gun boats fought on after Grant's assault were not able to make any impression had proved unsuccessful.

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