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and after enduring hardships of no passed freely through the city. Union light kind, from heat, exposure, want men were at liberty to express their of food, and the like, took the cars at sentiments without molestation, and to Annapolis Junction, and reached Wash- act in accordance therewith; and sediington on the 25th of April. tion, though not dead, was held in abey.

Anxious to secure peace while calling ance at least.* Governor Hicks, on the for aid, the president, by advice of Gen. 14th of May, on the last day of the Scott, favored the sending of troops by meeting of the legislature, issued a call way of Annapolis, or around Baltimore, for four regiments to serve for three

instead of forcing a way through months in Maryland or for the defence

that city. Gen. Butler was es- of Washington. The saving of Marypecially serviceable in this emergency. land from the evil designs of those who le not only took post at Annapolis, would have hurried her into secessiou, but he held it. He secured to the gov. was due, in measure, to the active ernment the noble old frigate Constitu- and judicious movements of Gen. B. F. tion, “Old Ironsides," and saw it safely Butler,-a name, by the way, which acconveyed away from danger. He was quired some considerable notoriety in prepared to enforce the rights of those the course of the great rebellion. called by the president to go to Wash- Having been ordered to Fortress ington and defend the capital from invasion. Governor Hicks protested against his landing, or remaining in

For some instructive details in regard to the

movements on the part of the police authorities in Bal. Annapolis; but the general was firm timore and also of the legislature of Maryland, see Mo and decided. The legislature of Mary- Pherson's “ History of the Rebellion,” pp. 392–398.

| The Hon. Reverdy Johnson, one of the high-toned land met at Frederick, on the 27th of patriots of Maryland, in a speech at Frederick, May 7th, April, and the governor endeavored to thus expressed himself: “What is there in the modern assume and claim for the state a neutral teachings to Maryland ? What is there in the intel

history of South Carolina which should recommend her position, helping, as he wished, neither lects of the Rhetts

, the Yanceys, the Cobbs, et id genus side, but in effect cutting off the capital could to achieve the election of Mr. Lincoln, and hailed

omne, to make them our leaders? They did all they from the loyal states. On the 5th of its accomplishment with undissembled delight. They May, General Butler advanced a portion thought they saw in it the realization of their long-cherof his command to the Relay House, into a revolution ; and then fancied exemption from the

ished hopes—the precipitation of the cotton states about nine miles from Baltimore, and worst of the perils—and they now seek to effect it—in on the 14th, he entered the city, took the intervention of the other slave states between

them and the danger. Short-sighted men ! they never possession of Federal Hill, and issued a anticipated the calamities already upon them, and the straightforward proclamation, insisting greater certain to follow. Besides relying on the fact

just stated, they also counted securely on a large inupon the observance of law and order, Auential support in the free states. Little did they and expressing the determination of tbe know the true patriotic heart of the land. government to sustain all good citizens Where, in the past, the South could count its friends

by thousands and hundreds of thousands, rot one is in their rights and privileges.

now to be found. The cry is, the government must The vray through Baltimore was

be sustained; the flag must be vindicated. Heaven

forbid that the duty of that vindication should be for: again open from the Noi:h, and troops gotten by Maryland ***

Ch. 11.)



Monroe, on the 22d of May, Gen. Butler succeeded Gen. Cadwalader in comresigned the charge of matters at Bal. mand. On the 27th, he ordered the timore into the hands of Gen. Cadwala: arrest of police marsbal Kane, and der. This officer acted with that pru- broke up the Board of Police in Baltidence and conciliatory spirit deemed so more, on the ground of complicity and important at the time; yet he was not agreement with traitors. The two pro. lacking in firmness on an important clamations, which Gen. Banks issued, question which came up for decision a show clearly the basis and the necessity few days after Gen. Butler left. This of his action in behalf of law and order. was the suspension of habeas corpus, By these vigorous means Maryland or the prevalence of martial law. The was saved from the evil purposes of president, taking the ground of neces. secession and rebellion, and retained her sity, had authorized Gen. Scott, April rightful place in the Union. Gen. 27th, to suspend the writ above named Banks being called to supersede Patterany where between Philadelphia and son on the Potomac, Gen. Dix took his Washington, which was extended, July place in Maryland, at the close of the 2d, to any where between New York month of July. and Washington. A wealthy Mary. The noble and manly spirit of the lander, John Merryman, was arrested people, which was aroused by the outby military authority, on 25th of May, break of the rebellion, was manifested charged with treasonable practices, etc. in all parts of the loyal states, but Merryman applied to Chief-justice more especially in the large cities. A Taney for a writ of habeas corpus, to vast and imposing assemblage gathered test the legality of the arrest. It was at Union Square, New York, on the 20th granted at once, and efforts made to en- of April, the glorious flag of our country force it against Gen. Cadwalader; but waving in all directions, and the equesto no purpose. Taney then delivered trian statue of Washington being in his opinion adverse to the president's the midst. All party distinctions were action, condemning him and it in no ignored; they stood there as citizens measured terms. Other authorities, of one common country. The meeting quite equal to the chief-justice in weight was addressed by prominent speakers of character and legal acumen, sustain- from various regions. Gen. Dix, Col. ed the course which Mr. Lincoln had onel Baker, Professor Mitchel, and felt himself compelled to pursue, such others (some thirty in all), poured forth as Prof. Parsons, Horace Binney, Attor. eloquent words, adapted to the fearful ney-general Bates, etc.; and the people exigency, and appealing to every heart generally acquiesced in the result, as to stand by and uphold the Constituinseparable from a state of war and tion and laws of the United States. insurrection.*

We cannot pretend to give even a sumGeneral Banks, on the 10th of June, mary of their words ; one short extract

must suffice from Prof. Mitchel's speech, * For the legal opinions referred to see McPherson's " History of the Rebellion," op. 155–162.

whose language, though not noted at


the time, was almost prophetic: “The lars. The appropriations of the states rebels and the traitors in the South, we of Pennsylvania, New York and Ohio, must set aside; they are not our friends. reached the sum of three millions each, When they come to their senses we will and others were quite as liberal in proreceive them with open arms; but till portion to their wealth, if they did not that time, while they are trailing our in some instances exceed them. Conglorious banner in the dust, when they necticut contributed two millions, and scorn it, condemn it, curse it, and tram- Illinois the same; Indiana, Maine, New ple it under foot, then I must smite. Jersey, Vermont, a million each ; and In God's name I will smite, and as long the corporation of the city of New York as I have strength I will do it. 0, an equal sum, which was speedily more listen to me, listen to me! I know these than doubled by the subscriptions of men; I know their courage; I have the citizens. Cincinnati kept pace with been among them; I have been with New York, and the great West gener

I have been reared with them; ally throughout its borders was as they have courage; and do not you prodigal of its resources as the wealthy pretend to think they have not. I tell East.

I tell East. Patriotic women also took their you what it is, it is no child's play you share in the good work, and especially are entering upon. They will fight, in providing articles of every kind for and with a determination and a power the wants of the soldiers, such as hoswhich is irresistible. Make up your pital stores, haversacks, delicacies for mind to it. Let every man put his life the sick, and the like. Many an one, in his hand and say, 'There is the altar too, though bred in luxury, gave her of my country; there I will sacrifice my services in the good cause, quietly and life. I for one will lay my life down. unostentatiously, but none the less acIt is not mine any longer. Lead me to veptably; and were the full record ever the conflict. Place me wbere I can do to be made up, it would show such my duty. There I am ready to go, I acts of personal devotion on the part care not where it leads me."

of our countrywomen as have never But it was not in words merely, that been surpassed.* the loyalty of the nation was manifest- The month of May found the couned. Money as well as men were most try actively engaged in preparations liberally furnished. The subscriptions for the conflict of arms. Forces of individuals, corporations, banking were mustering into service; institutions, towns, cities, and the leg. officers were busy at recruiting stations islatures of the northern and western companies were forming; men were enstates, freely offered for the purchase of listing in favorite regiments ; private arms, the raising and equipment of contributions, as well as legislative loans troops, and the support of the govern

* On this subject may be consulted to advantage ment, in a fortnight after the day of “The TRIBUTE Book, a Record of he Munificence, the attack upon Sumter, reached a sum Self-sacrifice, and Patriotism of the American people estimated at over thirty millions of dol- New York, 1885, pp. 572.

during the war for the Union.” By Frank B. Goodrich. As Washington was now considered * The activity, zeal, and courage of the governors of he loyal states, deserve especial mention. Not only in he older states, but in the great West, these qualities * On the 20th of May, the United States marshals, were nobly exemplified. In Indiana, for instance, Gov- by order of the government, seized upon all the disernor Morton called for the troops apportioned to that patches and communications in the leading telegraph state by the president's proclamation. In less than offices in the North. This was done in order to diseight days, more than 12,000 men, three times the corer secret confederate allies and sympathizers in the number asked for, tendered their services in behalf of loyal states, and thus to defeat their plans and pr.r. their country


Cu. II.]



or grants, were freely supplied; and and order, and with those, of happi. early in May, there were at least 100,- ness and prosperity throughout our 000 men in active preparation for the country." field. The promptitude and enthusi- It was not, however, in the loyal states asm of the people were ably seconded alone that active and energetic measby

the governors of the states, and it ures were pursued. The southern lead. was a truly noble and inspiriting spec- ers, who had long before marked out tacle to behold the heartiness and un- their course of proceedings, pushed forselfishness of those who had resolved ward operations in every direction. The that the Union should never perish work of public spoliation, which was through their neglect or lack of devo. begun at Charleston, Savannah and tion to its best interests. *

New Orleans, was also vigorously carOn the 3d of May, the president is ried on in other regions of the country. sued a proclamation, calling for troops, Within a few days of the fall of Sumter, to serve for three years, unless sooner the steam transport Star of the West, discharged. Forty-two thousand vol. loaded with provisions, sent for the unteers were thus called for, while the relief of the United States troops in regular army was directed to be in Texas, was treacherously seized at Increased by the addition of eight regi. dianola by a body of insurgents, under ments of infantry, one of cavalry, and Colonel Van Dorn; the arsenals at one of artillery, making an aggregate Liberty in Missouri, Fayetteville in of nearly 23,000 officers, and men. North Carolina, and Napoleon in ArEighteen thousand seamen were, at the kansas, with stores of arms and ammunsame time, ordered to be enlisted for ition, were plundered by the rebels; the naval service of the United States. Fort Smith, in Arkansas, was taken posHaving stated that these requisitions session of by Colonel Solon Borland, and acts would be submitted to Con the leader of a volunteer band of seces. gress, as soon it assembled, the presi- sionists. In consequence of the vardent said :-“In the meantime, I earn. ious acts of robbery and violence in estly invoke the co-operation of all good Virginia and North Carolina, defeating citizens in the measures hereby adopted the exercise of the proper powers of the for the effectual suppression of unlaw. federal government, President Lincoln, ful violence, for the impartial enforce on the 27th of April, by proclamation, ment of constitutional laws, and for the extended the blockade of the southern speediest possible restoration of peace coast to those states.*

| poses.


to be safe from any rebel attack, it was man by the name of Jackson, met him, but natural that some active steps and seeing what had been done, fired should be called for, in order to put an into his bosom. Ellsworth fell dead,

end to the insolent pretensions and Jackson immediately after was

of secessionists and violators of killed by one of the zouaves in comthe law. Arlington Heights might be, pany. The funeral ceremonies in conand probably would be, taken posses- nection with Ellsworth's death were sion of by the rebels, if time were impressive and largely attended, both allowed them; and then, what roused in Washington and New York. On the blood of many a patriotic citizen the other hand, the southern press laudand soldier, there, just across the river, ed Jackson's act as a noble deed, and in full sight from the capital, the seces- worthy of perpetual memory.* At the sion flag was displayed, as if in mockery North, Ellsworth was looked upon as of the majesty and dignity of that gov. having been assassinated ; at the South, ernment which the father of his country Jackson was called a hero and a martyr. gave his whole life to uphold. It was However the incident may be viewed, therefore resolved to make a forward it certainly indicated at the time, that movement into Virginia. This was ac- there was likely to be a terrible earn. complished on the night of the 23d of estness on both sides; that the contest May, under the direction of Gen. Mans was a real one which was now inaug. field. The force which crossed the Poto- urated; that the day of words had mac consisted of some 13,000 in all, and passed ; and that the hour for deeds bad immediate possession was taken of Ar. arrived. lington Heights and of Alexandria. The determination of the government At this latter place, Colonel Ellsworth, to use such force as was at its command, with his noted New York Fire Zouaves, in order to suppress the rebellion, caused arrived by water, very early in the no little alarm to the secession leaders; morning of the 24th of May. His first and notwithstanding much boasting op impulse was to destroy the railroad their part as to their superior prowess, communication, and to seize upon the it was felt that the North was now fully telegraph office, both of them measures roused, and settled in its conviction in of importance; but, as he was on his regard to the duty owed to our native way to the office of the telegraph, he land in this hour of trial. All the espied flying from the Marshall House, hopes and expectations based on the a second class hotel, a confederate flag. alliance and aid looked for from north Although accompanied by only three ern sources were futile and valueless, t or four persons, Ellsworth, with more enthusiasm than discretion, rushed into * See Duyckinck’s “ War for the Union," vol. i., pp. the house, mounted to the roof, cut 195 to 202, for a full account of Ellsworth's death and

the circumstances attending it. For the "fire-eating" down the flag, and having wrapped it statement

, overflowing with furious words, sce Polround his body was coming down the lard's “ First Year of the War," vol. i., pp. 72–76, and

the “ Charleston Mercury," of that date. stairs. The proprietor of the house, a + Franklin Pierce, formerly president of the United

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