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of the defenceless condition of Wash. at the time, and the calm, determined ington at the time, it is quite possible manner in which it was met by the loyal that the rebels might bare seized upon men of Massachusetts. On the 18th the city. Happily, they did not make of April, the Sixth Massachusetts regi. the attempt, and the government was ment passed through New York, where roused to provide for the emergency. it was warmly greeted and cheered on

On the 18th of April, a body of ward in its noble work in defence of troops, about 500 in number, arrived the common capital of the Union. It from Pennsylvania, unarmed, it is true, reached Philadelphia the same day, and but ready to take their places at the the next morning was forwarded to Balpost of danger. A few days brought timore. The cars reached the depot, on

. troops from Massachusetts and New the northern side of the city, about ten York, and in a few weeks, under the o'clock, and the troops expected to pass patriotic exertions and energy of the without difficulty in the horse-cars to venerable General Scott, Washington the station, where they were to embark was placed in a position which rendered for Washington. But a crowd was it safe against rebel assault.

found awaiting them, which, like all It was not, however, without toil and crowds under excitement, needed but exposure to outrage and insult that this to be set in motion, in order to proceed result was accomplished. Maryland, to any extreme. Hootings, jeerings, vue of the slave states, and having abusive epithets were freely employed; annong its population many ardent sym- but these were comparatively harmless, pathizers with secession and its ex. and the troops regarded them with cesses, was so situated as to make it silent contempt. In a little while, stones necessary to march the troops through and other missiles were used, and the ber territory in order to reach the capi- leaders of the mob exulted in witnessing tal. Baltimore, through which the the patience with which these tou were great line of railroad communication received. Some of the cars were at last between the North and South passed, got through, but four companies yet was a city of not too good reputation, remained in the rear cars. Soon it be. where political questions and discords canie known that the rails were blocked, were concerned; and there were in this and passage was no longer practicable. city not a few disorderly and unscrupu. In the emergency, the Massachusetts lous characters, who were ready to com- men determined to proceed on foot and mit outrage and violence to any extent, join their companions at the depot. when urged on by passion and self-in. They formed in close order, and started; terest. This was made evident by the when immediately the mob, with terri. scandalous riot of the 19th of April, in ble threats and denunciations, began Baltimore, the particulars of which we anew the assault with brickbats and put on record, not so much because of stones. Not content with this, shots any importance in the riot itself, as to were fired at them from the streets and show forth the detestable spirit existing bouses ; whereupon the commanding

Ch. II.]




grace. The

officer ordered his men to protect them- On the afternoon of this same 19th selves and return the fire. Amid this of April, the gallant Seventh Regiment shocking and outrageous attack, the of New York, a regiment which stands troops fought their weary way for more high in popular favor in the Empire than a mile, and finally rejoined their City, set out on its way to Washing. comrades. Three of the soldiers were ton. They were aware of what their killed and eight wounded; eleven of countrymen from Massachusetts had the Baltimorians were killed, and a just met with in Baltimore; but they large number wounded. Other troops faltered not; they were prepared to from Pennsylvania, being without arms, through whatever was before them. after a furious assault upon them by The enthusiasm of the city, as they de the populace, were finally sent back in parted, was raised to its highest pitch, the cars to Philadelphia.

although no man knew how soon that Law and order, for the time, seemed noble band of soldiers would meet with to be lost. Mayor Brown and police deadly enemies in their path. On marshal Kane, were virtually helpless, as reaching Philadelphia, and finding it well as in sympathy with the rebels, and impossible to go by way of Baltimore, the city to all appearance was given the seventh embarked in the steamer over to mob law and unutterable dis- Boston, to find their way to Washing

gun shops of the city were ton by water. At Annapolis, thirty plundered at night, and the city author- miles south of Baltimore, they found ities, under an impression of its neces. General Butler with the Eighth Masssity, and also its helpfulness to the cause achusetts regiment. He had, on the of secession, the same night issued an 20th of April, reached Perrysville, on order for the destruction of the railroad the Susquehanna, when ascertaining bridges on the northern routes, as the that the bridges were burned and that only means of impeding the arrival of there were no cars to proceed with, he

, the Pennsylvania troops on their way, seized the railroad ferry steamboat and preventing a repetition of the con- Maryland, and early the next morning flict of the day; and the order was arrived at Annapolis. The seventh

promptly executed. The great. joined the troops under Gen. Butler,

est excitement and apprehen- ingly in sympathy with the slaveholders rebellion, and sion prevailed throughout the city. their few determined Unionists completely overawed The most violent secession sympathies and silenced.. The counties ncar Baltimore, between

that city and the Susquehanna, were actively co-operatwere openly avowed, the flag of the ing with the rebellion, or terrified into dumb submisConfederate States was seen in all di. sion to its b hests. The great populous counties of

Frederick, Washington, and Alleghany, composing rections, and the glorious Stars and Western Maryland–having few slaves—were pre

Stripes were shamefully insulted. No ponderantly loyal; but they were overawed and para. more troops, this was their determina- Iszed by the attitude of the rest of the state, and still

more by the large force of rebel Virginians-said to be tion, should pass through their city.* 5,000 strong--who had been suddenly pushed forward

to Harper's Ferry, and threatened Western Maryland *“ Baltimore was a secession volcano in full eruption : from that commanding position.”—Greeley's : Ameri while the count is south of that city were overwhelm- I can Conflict,” vol. i., p. 468



and after enduring hardships of no passed freely through the city. Union light kind, from heat, exposure, want men were at liberty to express their of food, and the like, took the cars at sentiments without molestation, and to Annapolis Junction, and reached Wash- act in accordance therewith ; and sediington on the 25th of April.

tion, though not dead, was held in abey. Anxious to secure peace while calling ance at least.* Governor Hicks, on the


, for aid, the president, by advice of Gen. 14th of May, on the last day of the Scott, favored the sending of troops by meeting of the legislature, issued a call way of Annapolis, or around Baltimore, for four regiments to serve for three

instead of forcing a way through months in Maryland or for the defence

that city. Gen. Butler was es- of Washington.t The saving of Mary. pecially serviceable in this emergency. land from the evil designs of those who lle not only took post at Annapolis, would have hurried her into secessiou, but he held it. He secured to the gov. was due, in measure, to the active ernment the noble old frigate Constitu- and judicious movements of Gen. B. F. tion, “Old Ironsides," and saw it safely Butler,-a name, by the way, which acconveyed away from danger. He was quired some considerable notoriety in prepared to enforce the rights of those the course of the great rebellion. called by the president to go to Wash- Having been ordered to Fortress ington and defend the capital from invasion. Governor Hicks protested

* For some instructive details in regard to the against his landing, or remaining in

movements on the part of the police authorities in Bal. Annapolis; but the general was firm timore and also of the legislature of Maryland, see Mo and decided. The legislature of Mary- Pherson's.“ History of the Rebellion,” pp. 392–398.

+ The Hon. Reverdy Johnson, one of the high-toned land met at Frederick, on the 27th of patriots of Maryland, in a speech at Frederick, May 7th, April, and the governor endeavored to thus expressed himself : “What is there in the modern assume and claim for the state a neutral history of South Carolina which should recommend her

teachings to Maryland ? What is there in the intel. position, helping, as he wished, neither lects of the Rhetts

, the Yanceys, the Cobbs, et id genus side, but in effect cutting off the capital omne

, to make them our leaders ? They did all they

could to achieve the election of Mr. Lincoln, and hailed from the loyal states. On the 5th of its accomplishment with undissembled delight

. They May, General Butler advanced a portion thought they saw in it the realization of their long-cherof his command to the Relay House, into a revolution ; and then fancied exemption from the

ished hopes—the precipitation of the cotton states about nine miles from Baltimore, and worst of the perils—and they now seek to effect it-in on the 14th, he entered the city, took the intervention of the other slave states between

them and the danger. Short-sighted men ! they never possession of Federal Hill, and issued a anticipated the calamities already upon them, and the straightforward proclamation, insisting greater certain to follow. Besides relying on the fast

just stated, they also counted securely on a large inupon

the observance of law and order, Auential support in the free states. Little did they and expressing the determination of tbe know the true patriotic heart of the land. government to sustain all good citizens Where, in the past, the South could count its friends

by thousands and hundreds of thousands, r.ot one is in their rights and privileges.

now to be found. The cry is, the government must The way through Baltimore was be sustained; the flag must be vindicated. Heaven

forbid that the duty of that vindication should be for again open from the North, and troops gotten by Maryland ***


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Monroe, on the 22d of May, Gen. Butler succeeded Gen. Cadwalader in comresigned the charge of matters at Bal. mand. On the 27th, he ordered the timore into the hands of Gen. Cadwala: arrest of police marshal Kane, and der. This officer acted with that pru- broke up the Board of Police in Balti.

. dence and conciliatory spirit deemed so more, on the ground of complicity and important at the time; yet he was not agreement with traitors. The two pro. lacking in firmness on an important clamations, which Gen. Banks issued, question which came up for decision a show clearly the basis and the necessity few days after Gen. Butler left. This of his action in behalf of law and order. was the suspension of habeas corpus, By these vigorous means Maryland or the prevalence of martial law. The was saved from the evil purposes of president, taking the ground of neces. secession and rebellion, and retained her sity, had authorized Gen. Scott, April rightful place in the Union. Gen. 27th, to suspend the writ above named Banks being called to supersede Patterany where between Philadelphia and son on the Potomac, Gen. Dix took his Washington, which was extended, July place in Maryland, at the close of the 2d, to any where between New York month of July. and Washington. A wealthy Mary- The noble and manly spirit of the lander, John Merryman, was arrested people, which was aroused by the outby military authority, on 25th of May, break of the rebellion, was manifested charged with treasonable practices, etc. in all parts of the loyal states, but Merryman applied to Chief-justice more especially in the large cities. A Taney for a writ of habeas corpus, to vast and imposing assemblage gathered test the legality of the arrest. It was at Union Square, New York, on the 20th granted at once, and efforts made to en. of April, the glorious flag of our country force it against Gen. Cadwalader; but waving in all directions, and the equesto no purpose. Taney then delivered trian statue of Washington being in his opinion adverse to the president's the midst. All party distinctions were action, condemning him and it in no ignored; they stood there as citizens measured terms. Other authorities, of one common country. The meeting quite equal to the chief-justice in weight was addressed by prominent speakers of character and legal acumen, sustain- from various regions. Gen. Dix, Col. ed the course which Mr. Lincoln had onel Baker, Professor Mitchel, and felt himself compelled to pursue, such others (some thirty in all), poured forth as Prof. Parsons, Horace Binney, Attor. eloquent words, adapted to the fearful ney-general Bates, etc.; and the people exigency, and appealing to every heart generally acquiesced in the result, as to stand by and uphold the Constituinseparable from a state of war and tion and laws of the United States. insurrection.*

We cannot pretend to give even a sumGeneral Banks, on the 10th of June, mary of their words; one short extract

must suffice from Prof. Mitchel's speech, * For the legal opinions referred to see McPherson's " History of the Rebellion," op. 155–162.

whose language, though not noted at


the time, was almost prophetic: “ The lars. The appropriations of the states rebels and the traitors in the South, we of Pennsylvania, New York and Ohio, must set aside; they are not our friends. reached the sum of three millions each, When they come to their senses we will and others were quite as liberal in proreceive them with open arms; but till portion to their wealth, if they did not that time, while they are trailing our in some instances exceed them. Con. glorious banner in the dust, when they necticut contributed two millions, and scorn it, condemn it, curse it, and tram- Illinois the same; Indiana, Maine, New ple it under foot, then I must smite. Jersey, Vermont, a million each; and In God's name I will smite, and as long the corporation of the city of New York as I have strength I will do it. 0, an equal sum, which was speedily more listen to me, listen to me! I know these than doubled by the subscriptions of men; I know their courage; I have the citizens. Cincinnati kept pace with been among them; I have been with New York, and the great West gener them; I have been reared with them; ally throughout its borders was as they have courage; and do not you prodigal of its resources as the wealthy pretend to think they have not. I tell East. Patriotic women also took their you what it is, it is no child's play you share in the good work, and especially are entering upon. They will fight, in providing articles of every kind for and with a determiuation and a power the wants of the soldiers, such as hoswhich is irresistible. Make up your pital stores, haversacks, delicacies for mind to it. Let every man put his life the sick, and the like. Many an one, in his hand and say, 'There is the altar too, though bred in luxury, gave her of my country; there I will sacrifice my services in the good cause, quietly and life.' I for one will lay my life down. unostentatiously, but none the less acIt is not mine any longer. Lead me to ceptably; and were the full record ever the conflict. Place me wbere I can do to be made up, it would show such my duty. There I am ready to go, I acts of personal devotion on the part care not where it leads me.”

of our countrywomen as have never But it was not in words merely, that been surpassed.* the loyalty of the nation was manifest- The month of May found the couned. Money as well as men were most try actively engaged in preparations liberally furnished. The subscriptions for the conflict of arms. Forces of individuals, corporations, banking were mustering into service; institutions, towns, cities, and the leg. officers were busy at recruiting stations ; islatures of the northern and western companies were forming; men were enstates, freely offered for the purchase of listing in favorite regiments ; private arms, the raising and equipment of contributions, as well as legislative loans troops, and the support of the govern

* On this subject may be consultad to advantage ment, in a fortnight after the day of "THE TRIBUTE Book, a Record of he Munificence,

“ the attack upon Sumter, reached a sam Self-sacrifice, an.1 Patriotism of the American people estimated at over thirty millions of dol- New York, 1865, pp. 572.

during the war for the Union." By Frank B. Goodrich,




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