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Cu. XXV.]



contingent can be.” The London Times the stamp of Richard Cobden, John and other organs of public opinion in Bright, and others, spoke plainly and England reiterated similar views and forcibly of the folly of intervention at expectations, affirming that ninety-nine the risk of war, and of the blindness of Englishmen out of a hundred agreed those who expected to see our country with Mr. Gladstone's statement. broken up by the existing rebellion.

Mr. Adams, to whose vigilance was " It would be idle,” said Mr. Cobden, committed the care of our interests at Oct. 29th, "for England or France or the court of St. James, was deeply im. both together to talk of intervention. pressed with the general unfriendly The idea of employing force must be feeling existing in England towards abandoned. The cause is utterly unour country, in her efforts and determi- manageable by force; and six 'months nation to crush the rebellion; and under of war would cost more than would date of September 12th, wrote to that maintain the entire manufacturing diseffect to the secretary of state. “The tricts ten years.” Mr. Bright also, in breaking out of the insurrection has December, denouncing slavery and all brought to light the existence of na- its adjuncts in the severest terms, drew tional feelings in England towards the an eloquent picture of the future prosUnited States, the strength of which pects of our country :-"I cannot be had scarcely been suspected iu Amer- lieve that civilization in its journey ica. As the struggle has gone on, the with the sun will sink into endless nature and extent of them have become night to gratify the ambition of the so clear and unmistakable as to defy all leaders in this rerolt, who seek to‘wade disavowal. Having their root in the through slaughter to a throne, and shut same apprehensions of the force of a the gates of mercy on mankind. I foreign state which exist in the case have another and far brighter vision of France, they take the same direction before my gaze. It may be but a vistowards efforts to curtail, if not to ion, but I will cherish it. . . I see one neutralize, its energies. The popular people and one law and one language sentiment of Great Britain, as now de- and one faith, and over all that wide veloped, should be a warning to the continent the home of freedom and a statesmen of America by which to refuge for the oppressed of every race." regulate their action, at least for two The attempt of Louis Napoleon to generations. It dictates the necessity interfere in our affairs, jointly with the of union at home far more imperatively English and Russian governments, dethan even the wretchedness which now serves notice in this connection. This fills the country with grief from end to astute politician, who held the opinion end.”

that secession was an accomplished fact, It would be unfair, however, not to and therefore deserved a recognition of take note that more than one friendly its belligerent rights, was anxious to do voice made itself heard in England, in something in aid of the commercial behalf of the United States. Men of wants of France He supposed that he could help to bring the war to a under date of February 6th, 1863, the close, if the other great powers would ground taken and held by the United join with him. Accordingly a diplo- States government was set forth in lanmatic dispatch was addressed, under guage which could not be misunder.! date of Oct. 30th, by M. Drouyn de stood : “This government has not the l'Huys, French minister of foreign af. least thought of relinquishing the trust fairs, to the ministers of state of Eng. which has been confided to it by the land and Russia, and the concurrence nation under the most solemn of all of those nations was solicited in an offer political sanctions; and if it had any of mediation between the loyal states such thought, it would still have abunand the so-called “ Confederate States dant reason to know, that peace proof America.” The idea was, to get the posed at the cost of dissolution would government at Washington and the be immediately, unreservedly, and inrebel government to agree upon an ar- dignantly rejected by the American mistice for six months or longer, and people.”* The effect of this dispatch by means of commissioners from both was very marked, and it put an end to sides to discuss the differences existing, all further talk or offer of foreign interand make arrangements for an amicable vention in any shape, or from any settlement of the same, on terms equal. quarter. No nation was willing to inly honorable and profitable to both par. cur the risk of war with the Great Re. ties. The French emperor, however, if public by undertaking to recognize the he really supposed that any such plan rebellion. as he suggested would be tolerated for Such, in substance, was the condition a moment by the United States, did not of affairs at the close of 1862. There know the people in whose affairs he was much to hope for, and also not a wished to interfere. Russia and Eng. little to apprehend. The people generland likewise declined joining him in ally bad made up their minds that the any such attempt. Early in November, rebellion must and should be crushed, they gave in their answer to M. de no matter what sacrifice might be de l’Huys' note, and expressed the senti- manded; and though discouragements ment that the time had not arrived as of various kinds stood in the way, yet, in which it would be judicious or though a speedy return of peace was safe to propose intervention.

to be hoped and prayed for, rather So the matter was dropped; until, at than expected; yet there was no shrinkthe beginning of the new year, 1863, ing from the contest, there was no hesia dispatch was sent to the French min. ister at Washington, offering, on Louis the Senate a body of resolutions, deprecating, in the

* A few weeks later, Mr. Sumner introduced into Napoleon's part, to do anything in his strongest terms, all foreign intervention in our affairs, power which might tend towards the and distinctly asserting the ability of the United States

to quell the rebellion and re-establish the power of the termination of the war. This offer was government over the entire land. promptly and decisively declined; and, were adopted, March 3rd, 1863, by a vote of 31 to 5 in in an able dispatch from Mr. Seward, kinek's “ War for the Union," Vol. iii., pp. 100—103.

the Senate, and of 103 to 28 in the House. See Duyc

The resolutions

Cn. XIV.]




tation as to where the path of duty our national life. The heart of the lay, and as to the responsibilities rest- loyal people was sound and unshaken ing on Americans in this great crisis in in the hour of trial.


1.—THE EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION. vailing testimony, be deemed conciusive evidence

that such state, and the people thereof, are not then " I, ABRAHAM LINCOLN, President of the United in rebellion against the United States. @tates of America, and Commander-in-chief of the That attention is hereby called to an act of Con Army and Navy thereof, do hereby proclaim and gress, entitled “An Act to make an additional Ardeclare that hereafter, as heretofore, the war will be ticle of War,' approved March 13th, 1862, and which prosecuted for the object of practically restoring the act is in the words and figures following: constitutional relation between the United States and Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Repreeach of the states, and the people thereof, in which sentatives of the United States of America, in Conthat relation is, or may be, suspended or disturbed. gress assembled : That hereafter the following shall

“ That it is my purpose, upon the next meeting be promulgated as an additional article of war, for of Congress, to again recommend the adoption of a the government of the army of the United States, practical measure tendering pecuniary aid to the and shall be obeyed and observed as such :- Section free acceptance or rejection of all slave states, so 1. All officers or persons in the military or naval . called, the people whereof may not then be in re- service of the United States are prohibited from embellion against the United States, and which states ploying any of the forces under their respective commay then have voluntarily adopted, or thereafter mands for the purpose of returning fugitives from may voluntarily adopt, the immediate or gradual service or labor who may have escaped from any abolishment of slavery within their respective limits; persons to whom such service or labor is claimed to and that the effort to colonize persons of African be duc; and any officer who shall be found guilty descent, with their consent, upon this continent or by a court-martial of violating this article, shall be elsewhere, with the previously obtained consent of dismissed from the service. Section 2. And be it furthe governments existing there, will be continued. ther enacted: That this act shall take effect from

“That on the first day of January, in the year of and after its passage. our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty- Also, to the ninth and tenth sections of an act three, all persons held as slaves within any state, or entitled · An Act to Suppress Insurrection, to Punany designated part of a state, the people whereof shall ish Treason and Rebellion, to Seize and Confiscate then be in rebellion against the United States, shall Property of Rebels, and for other purposes ;' apbe then, thenceforward and forever, free, and the ex- proved July 16th, 1862, and which sections are in ecutive government of the United States, including the words and figures following:the military and naval authority thereof, will recog- “ Section 9. And be it further enacted : That all nize and maintain the freedom of such persons, and slaves of persons who shall hereafter be engaged in will do no act or acts to repress such persons, or any rebellion against the government of the United of them, in any efforts they may make for their ac- States, or who shall in any way give aid or comfort tual freedom.

thereto, escaping from such persons and taking re" That the Executive will, on the first day of Jan- fuge within the lines of the army; and all slaves uary aforesaid, by proclamation, designate the states captured from such persons, or deserted by them and parts of states, if any, in which the people there and coming under the control of the government of os respectively shall then be in rebellion against the the United States; and all slaves of such persons United States; and the fact that any state, or the found or being within any place occupied by rebel people thereof, shall on that day be in good faith forces, and afterwards occupied by forces of the represented in the Congress of the United States, by United States, shall be deemed captives of war, and members chosen thereto, at elections wherein a ma- shall be forever free of their servitude, and not jority of the qualified voters of such state shall have again held as slaves. Section 10. And be it further participate i, shall, in the absence of strong counter-I enacted : That no slave escaping into any state, ter

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ritory, or the District of Columbia, from any other government of the United States, and as a fit and state, shall be delivered up, or in any way impeded necessary war-measure for suppressivg said rebellion, or hindered of his liberty, except for crime or some do, on this first day of January, in the year of our offence against the laws, unless the person claiming Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, said fugitive shall first make oath that the person to and in accordance with my purpose so to do, pubwhom the labor or service of such fugitive is alleged licly proclaimed for the full period of one hundred to be due is his lawful owner, and has not borne days from the day first above-mentioned, order and arms against the United States in the present rebeldesignate as the States, and parts of States, wherein lion, nor in any way given aid and comfort thereto; the people thereof, respectively, are this day in rebel and no person engaged in the military and navalion against the United States, the following, to wit: service of the United States shall, under any prc- Arkansas, Texas, Louisiana, (except the Parishes of tence whatever, assume to decide on the validity of St. Bernard, Plaquemines, Jefferson, St. John, St. the claim of any person to the service or labor of Charles, St. James, Ascension, Assumption, Terre any other person, or surrender up any such person Bonne, Lafourche, Ste. Marie, St. Martin, and Orto the claimant, on pain of being dismissed from the leans, including the City of New Orleans), Mississipservice.

pi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, S. Carolina, N. Caro"And I do hereby enjoin upon and order all per- lina, and Virginia, (except the forty-eight counties sons engaged in the military and naval service of the of West Virginia, and also the counties of Berkeley, United States to observe, obey, and enforce, within Accomac, Northampton, Elizabeth City, York, Printheir respective spheres of service, the act and sec- cess Anne and Norfolk, including the cities of Nor tions above recited.

folk and Portsmouth,) and which excepted parts are, " And the Executive will in due time recommend for the present, left precisely as if this Proclamation that all citizens of the United States who shall have

were not issued. remained loyal thereto throughout the rebellion, * And by virtue of the power and for the purpose shall (upon the restoration of the constitutional re- aforesaid, I do order and declare that ALL PERSONS lation between the United States and their respective HELD AS SLAVES within said designated States and States and people, if the relation shall have been sus- parts of States, ARE, AND HENCEFORWARD SHALL BE, pended or disturbed) be compensated for all losses FREE; and that the Executive Government of the by icts of the United States, including the loss of United States, including the Military and Naval

authorities thereof, will recognize and maintain the • In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand freedom of said persons. and caused the seal of the United States to be “And I do bereby enjoin upon the people so de. affixed.

clared to be free, to abstain from all violence, unless “Done at the City of Washington, this twenty- in necessary self-defence; and I recommend to them second day of September, in the year of our Lord that in all cases, when allowed, they labor faithfully one thousand eight hundred and sixty-two, and for reasonable wages. of the Independence of the United States the

“ And I further declare and make known, that eighty-seventh.

such persons, of suitable condition, will be received “ ABRAHAM LINCOLN."

into the armed service of the United States, to gar

rison forts, positions, stations, and other places, and II.-PRESIDENT'S PROCLAMATION, to man vessels of all sorts in said service. JAN. 1st, 1863.

" And upon this act, sincerely believed to be an

act of justice, uranted by the Constitution, upon “ Whereas, on the 22d day of September, in the military necessity, I invoke the considerate judg. year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and ment of mankind and the gracious favor of Alsixty-two, a proclamation was issued by the presi. mighty God. dent of the United States, containing, among other “In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set my things, the followig, to wit: That on the first day of name, and caused the seal of the United States to be January, etc., (see paragraphs three and four of the affixed. Proclamation, p. 271) “Now, therefore, I, ABRAHAM “Done at the City of Washington, this first day LINCOLN, President of the United States, by virtue of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand of the power in me vested as Commander-in-chief eight hundred and sixty-three, and of the Indepen of the Army anc Navy of the United States, in time dence of the United States the eighty-seventh. of actual armed rebellion against the authority and



Cu. XXIV.]






Admission of new state, West Virginia — Wheeling convention, June, 1861 — Decision of Congress — Prospects

of the new state – Position of affairs in the “ Confederacy” — Rebel Congress – Davis's message — Antici. pations, complaints, censure of the emancipation proclamation, etc.—Proceedings of rebel Congress United States navy- Affair at Galveston — Loss of the Harriet Lane — The Alabama destroys the United States steamer Hatteras Senator Harlan's resolution - President appoints a day of prayer and humiliationHooker in command of the Army of the Potomac — Introduces reforms, changes, etc. — Position of Lee and his forces — Hooker's plan of operations — Movement of his troops up the Rappahannock — Crossing the river - Crosses also the Rapidan - Occupies Chancellorsville – Value of the position - Brilliant expectations — Lee's course – Advance of our troops beyond the Wilderness — Ordered back Lee's demonstrations — Jackson and his flank movement - Success — Panic of the 11th corps -Critical moment - Rebels checked - Jackson shot in the dark by his own men - Change of line by Hooker — The fight on Sunday, Hooker retires nearer the river - Sedgwick's movements—Carries the Heights at Fredericksburg by storm -Advanco-Attacked by the rebels—Retreats across the river–Hooker's retreat-Stoneman’s raid—No great value-Hooker's gratulations ill timed-Army resumes its old quarters.

THE opening of the new year was vened in extra session, had called a marked by the addition of a new state, convention, to be held on the 14th of 1, West Virginia, to the number of February, 1861, at Richmond, to de. those contending for the integrity of cide on the secession question. A vote the national life. The admission of a was also required to be taken, when the new state, under the existing circum- delegates to the convention were electstances, deserves attention, as being the ed, whether, if the convention should first instance of the kind which has as pass an ordinance of secession, that oryet happened in the United States. dinance should or should not be reAs the Constitution declares, that no ferred back to the people for their new state shall be formed within the adoption or rejection. This was de jurisdiction of any state without the cided in the affirmative by a majority consent of the legislature of the state of nearly 60,000. The convention met, concerned, as well as of Congress, it is a secession ordinance was passed, and evident that the validity of the action it was referred to the people to be votin Congress and in Virginia depends ed upon on the 28th of May, 1861. upon its conformity to the requisitions The very day after passing the ordinof the Constitution. The facts here- ance, in February, the authorities of the with briefly presented will make this state began to levy war on the United point clear and satisfactory.

States, joined the rebel confederacy, At the outbreak of the rebel conspir- and invited rebel troops to take posacy, during the winter of 1860–61, the session of various points of importance legislature of the state of Virginia, con in the state. In Western Virginia,

VOL. JV-35

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