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ton. At Holly Springs, pillaging and of Tennessee. Unacquainted with the plundering were the order of the day, peculiar difficulties in his way, public and to the utter disgrace of Van Dorn expectation had looked for the imme and his men, the armory hospital was diate reduction of Vicksburg; but that burned, and the sick and wounded was a more serious matter than was treated with shocking cruelty.

contemplated, and was not brought The principal effect of these attacks about till the middle of the following was to keep Grant within the borders / summer.

CHAPTER XXII.

1862.

LEE'S INVASION OF MARYLAND: BATTLES OF SOUTH MOUNTAIN AND ANTIETAM.

State of affairs after Pope's exit — McClellan called on to fill the gap - Enters on command — Lee resolves to

invade Maryland — His army crosses the Potomac — Enter Frederick - Course pursued – Lee's address to the people of Maryland — How received — Miserable condition of the rebel army - Apprehensions — Action of governors of Maryland and Pennsylvania—McClellan sets out from Washington after Lee-Enters Frederick on 12th of September – Harper's Ferry held by Halleck's orders -- Exposed condition – Jackson sent to capture it - Lee's order falls into McClellan's hands — Active movements in consequence-Feeble defence of Harper's Ferry - Invested by Jackson and captured – The surrender severely censured as disgraceful – Movement in advance to cross South Mountain — Conflict in forcing Turner's Gap and Crampton's Pass — Lee takes position on Antietam Creek, near Sharpsburg — Judiciously chosen — Preparations for the battle

- Action of the 16th and 17th of September – Burnside's failure to move forward in time — Length and severity of the battle - Heavy loss — McClellan does not renew the attack on the 18th – Lee retires to Vir ginia — Invasion of Maryland a failure — McClellan's and Lee's congratulatory addresses to their armies.

1862.

GENERAL POPE having made his exit, | ally suited to the emergency, except under the circumstances already nar. McClellan. For he, however the direcrated (see p. 214), it became a question tors of' military operations at Washing. at once of no little difficulty as well as ton may have acted towards him, how

delicacy, what was to be done ? ever much also he may have failed to

Affairs were in such a position accomplish what was expected of him, that delay and inaction threaten ed the was certainly immensely popular with most serious consequences, and, on the army. If any man could rouse them Pope's removal, it seemed almost of afresh, and nerve them to a spirited necessity that McClellan should again renewal of the contest against the rebels, be called to the place he had filled, a now flushed with victory and threatenmonth or so before, as commander of ing to carry fire and sword into the the Army of the Potomac. There was, loyal states, it was McClellan ; and, in fact, hardly a choice in the matter. therefore, the president and his advisAmong all the officers of merit and ers turned to bim in their present perhigh standing there was no one especi- plexities and trials. It deserves to be

CH. XXII.]

LEE ENTERS FREDERICK, MARYLAND.

227

1962,

remembered, to McClellan's credit, that to cross the Potomac higher up, and so be promptly met the call of the gov- invade Maryland. The former was ernment, and devoted his best energies not to be thought of, as being entirely to the important work before him. beyond Lee's capacity. He accordingly

Halleck, on the night of the 31st of adopted the other alternative. Having August, wrote to McClellan, in camp at advanced from Leesburg to the river, Alexandria, entreating his help: “I on the 4th of September, he managed, beg of you to assist me in this crisis, in two or three days, to cross his troops with your ability and experience. I am by fords near Point of Rocks.* entirely tired out.” On the 2d of Sep. The advance of Lee's army, under tember, the president and Halleck call. Hill, skirting the eastern slope of Caed upon McClellan, then in Washington, toctin Mountains, marched toward Fred. and placing before him the fact that erick, the capital of the state, a town of Pope's army was in full retreat, that some importance, forty-four miles norththe road was filled with stragglers, etc., west of Washington, and sixty west of required of him to take command of Baltimore. Much alarm was felt the fortifications, and of all the troops in Frederick, and many of the for the defence of the capital. This he inhabitants hastily departed; the rebel at once did, and endeavored as rapidly troops, however, quietly entered the as possible to restore the morale of the town and took possession on the 6th troops, by effective drilling and disci- of September. Col. B. T. Johnson, a plining for service against the rebels at strong Maryland sympathizer in the the earliest moment.

rebel army, was appointed provost. The success of Lee in routing Pope, marshal, to maintain order and to keep as he did, seems to have persuaded the the hungry and ragged invaders withrebel authorities that it would be safe in due bounds. Foraging parties were and wise to seize the present moment sent out for live stock and provisions, foi invading, or, as they called it, de- and large purchases were made of drugs, livering Maryland. When Lee left shoes, clothing and other articles, from Richmond there was no purpose of the shopkeepers of the town; but to the kind had in view, for it could hardly tradesmen's infinite disgust, payment have been imagined what a termination was made in the worthless confederate of the campaign would be made by Pope, and how completely, by the praised Gen. Lee in the highest terms not only for his

* The rebel Congress, on the 12th of September, abandonment of the Peninsula added to brilliant victory, but also for his “masterly movement” this, the way would be open for an ad. in crossing the Potomac. Most of the members were

filled with lofty expectations as to what was to be acFance into the loyal states. But the complished by Lee, and Jackson's opinion was quoted opportunity was now at hand, and as decidedly in favor of an invasion of the North (see though it vas something of a venture, p. 150). Here and there a member pointed out the im

policy and danger of an attempted invasion; it was still Lee acted with promptitude and also noted that the entering Kentucky for a similar decision. He had his choice, either to purpose turned out a failure (see p. 222); but remon

strance and argument were of no avail. Aggression make an assault upon Washington, or was voted, 63 to 15.

1862.

currency: Beyond this compulsory When the invasion became a settled traffic there appears to have been little fact, there was much apprehension lest if any violation of the ordinary rights the rebels should advance to the east and privileges of the inhabitants. toward Baltimore, to seize upon the city

Anxious to conciliate, and acting on with the aid of sympathizing the baseless theory that the people of insurgents, and cut off Washing. Maryland were desirous to join seces- ton from its northern communications; sion and rebellion, Lee, on the 8th of there was also a rumor of a probable September, issued an address to the in- attempt on the Central Railroad, and habitants of that state. It was well movement up the Cumberland Valley and temperately written, and appealed into Pennsylvania. Governor Bradford to the Marylanders to throw off tyran- issued a proclamation, calling upon the ny, to regain their rights in connection citizens to enroll themselves in volunwith their southern brethren, and to tary military organizations of infantry secure, by his aid, their ancient freedom and cavalry to meet the emergency. of thought and speech. Col. Johnson General Wool, also, in command at also begged the people to enlist at once, Baltimore, gave earnest attention to deand stated that he had arms in abund- fensive preparations against a possible ance for instant use.

advance of Lee's army. The invitations of Lee, though In Pennsylvania, Governor Curtin, smoothly and temptingly expressed, warned of inapending danger by the were treated with almost entire indiffer- rumored approach of the rebels to ence by the people of Maryland. There Hagerstown, called out all the ablewas no uprising, no enthusiastic recep- bodied men of the state to organize im. tion of the deliverers, no disposition to mediately for its defence, and be ready cast in their lot with Jeff. Davis and for marching orders at an hour's notice his company. As a whole, the state The people freely responded to the call was unquestionably loyal, and adhered upon them, and hastened in great numto the Union from motives of principle bers to Harrisburg. The danger, in more than those of interest. In addi- fact, appeared nearly equal to Penntion to all this

, the miserably squalid, sylvania and Maryland, as the rebel filthy condition of the troops under Lee army, unless speedily checked, might did not tend to recommend them or the strike either at Harrisburg or Baltiprofessed object of their coming. It more. was enough to “smell” them, as a In this position of affairs, McClellan gentleman in Frederick said, to settle made his arrangements to follow Lee, the matter. Barefooted, scant in cloth- and if possible defeat his probable pur. ing, and with plenty of vermin on their pose in entering Maryland. Uncertain persons, they certainly offered small in- as to the rebel general's intentions, Mo ducement for any one to enlist in their Clellan moved cautiously from Wash ranks, however good they might be at ington. Gen. Banks was placed in hard fighting

command of the defences at the capital

Cu. XXII.]

MCCLELLAN'S FORTUNATE FINDING.

229

1862

and Gen. Heintzelman in charge of the brought it to a conclusion as speedily forces on the Virginia side. The right as was possible. At this date, there wing consisted of the first and ninth was at Harper's Ferry, a garrison of corps, under Burnside ; the centre, of about 9,000 men, under Col. D. H. the second and twelfth corps, under Miles; there were also some raw troops Sumner; and the left wing, of the sixth and a body of about 2,000 cavalry corps, ur.der Franklin; the entire force doing outpost duty, under Gen. White being a little over 87,000. The advance at Winchester and Martinsburg, which was made by five parallel roads, and came into Harper's Ferry on the 3d the columns were so disposed as to of September, thus making cover both Washington and Baltimore. the entire force some 13,000 in The object of McClellan in this arrange number. Jackson was ordered, on the ment was, as he states, “ to feel the 18th of September, to cross the Potoenemy; to compel him to develop his mac above, and invest Harper's Ferry intentions; to attack him should be in the rear. Two other divisions, under hold the line of the Monocacy; or to McLaws and Walker, were, the one to follow him into Pennsylvania if neces seize Maryland Heights, the other to sary." The van of our army entered cross the river and take possession of Frederick, on the 12th of September, Loudon Heights; both were to coafter some severe skirmishing with the operate with Jackson. Longstrect was enemy's cavalry, and found that the at the same time ordered, with Hill's main body of Lee's troops had left the division as a rear guard, to move totown two days hefore, in the direction ward Hagerstown, where they were to of Harper's Ferry.

be joined by the forces sent against Some time previous to this, McClel. Harper's Ferry, after the latter had aclan had advised the evacuation of complished the objects of their expedi. Harper's Ferry, as a point of no im- tion. The place was to be taken by portance to hold, now that Lee had the morning of the 13th of September, crossed the Potomac, and as being ex. and the troops were to rejoin Lee im. posed, with its garrison, to imminent mediately, and move danger of capture. But Halleck, the borough or Hagerstown. general-in-chief, rejected McClellan's sug- By a most opportune accident, Mc zestions. Lee, however, who had sup- Clellan found, on a table at Frederick, posed that, of course, there would be on the day of his arriral, a copy of no attempt made to hold the place, now Lee's official order, addressed to D. H. found it necessary to delay, for a few Hill, which directed the several move. Jays, the carrying forward of his ul- ments above noted. This important terior designs, until he should have document revealed to McClellan Lee's taken Harper's Ferry, and opened his whole plan of operations, and what he communication with Richmond by intended and expected to accomplish. way of the Shenandoah Valley. The Heretofore McClellan had moved very work was committed to Jackson, who slowly, for the reasons given on a previous page, so slowly indeed that gave up the heights to McLaws, retir Lee calculated upon being able to cap- ing to Harper's Ferry ; and by the ture Harper's Ferry, with its valuable morning of the 14th, the investment stores, and to get his troops together was complete. The artillery was placed again before he should be overtaken or in position during the day on Bolivar interfered with by the Union general. and Loudon Heights, and at dawn, on Being possessed of knowledge so im- the 15th of September, the combined portant at this juncture, McClellan attack began. In two hours the conacted with vigor and promptitude. He test was settled. Miles raised the ordered a rapid movement towards white flag, and Harper's Ferry surrenHarper's Ferry, so as to save it, if possi- dered. It deserves to be noted, how. ble, and, to Lee's surprise, he manifest- ever, that all the cavalry, numbering ed a purpose of immediately forcing the some 2,000, under command of Col. passes of South Mountain, which, if Davis, cut their way out on Saturday accomplished, would enable him to re- evening, the 13th, going by the road to lieve Harper's Ferry and also strike Sharpsburg, and capturing, on their Lee's divided columns, with fatal effect. march, Longstreet's train and over 500 Lee, therefore, at once ordered Hill's prisoners. Miles was killed by a shell, division back from Boonsborough to after the white flag was raised; our guard the passes, and sent Longstreet loss besides, in killed and wounded, , from Hagerstown to Hill's support. was about 200.* Immediately after

upon Boons. upon the fact that his incapacity, amounting to almost on the 13th of September; but he tant post.” Col. Ford and Major Baird were cashiered. waited for McLaws and Walker to act The commission also censured McClellan for not hav.

As things were now situate, McClel. the surrender, Jackson hurried off to lan expected to be able to carry out his rejoin Lee, and by an active night plan of relieving Harper's Ferry, and march, he reached Sharpsburg on the by cutting the enemy in two, to beat morning of the 16th of September. him in detail; and had Miles at the McClellan, as we have before stated, Ferry, and Ford on Maryland Heights, was pushing forward to overtake Lee displayed a fair share of soldierly intel. His line of advance across South Moun ligence and vigor, he might readily tain was, for the right and centre, under have succeeded. In consequence, how. Burnside, by Turner's Gap, and for the ever, of the feeble defence under Miles, left, under Franklin, by Crampton's and the hasty abandonment of the Gap, six miles to the southward. The Heights, which, with astonishing fatuity, had not been fortified so as to resist president, was appointed to inquire into this surrender.

* A military commission, of which Gen. Hunter was the

enemy, McClellan's proposed relief After fully reviewing the circumstances, the commiscame too late. It is hardly needful to sion decided that the defence of Maryland Heights

was conducted by Col. Ford“ without ability," and go into details of the capture of Har- that he was unfit to hold any command in the army per's Ferry. Jackson was in position in respect to Miles, the commission were“ unanimous and ready to storm the place by noon imbecility, led to the shameful surrender of this impor

ing relieved Harper's Ferry ; respecting which, seo in concert. On this same day, Ford McClellan's official report and defence.

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