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rilla system of warfare, a system so erals and commanders on many occalawless and so utterly unscrupulous sions. as to indicate a desperate condition of The months of July and August were affairs among those making use of it. marked by efforts of guerrilla parties In fact, this mode of fighting for or along the borders of Tennessee and Ken. against a cause was denounced as a tucky, and even in the heart of the latter species of land piracy and highway state. Raids and assaults of this partic. robbery, and the men who made them- ular description became quite common. selves prominent and notorious in it, At day-break, on the morning of July the Morgans, the Forrests, the Ashbys, 13th, an unexpected attack was and the like—were looked upon as made upon the Union brigade, leaders of bands who hesitated not to under command of Gen. T. T. Crittenden, murder as well as plunder in every in charge of Murfreesborough, by a direction. War, under any circum- cavalry force over 3,000 in number, led stances, is a terrible scourge, and with by N. B. Forrest, a fit compeer of Morall the restraints placed upon a regular, gan in these flying expeditions. The organized army, there has ever been Union effective force at the place was room enough for acts of outrage and only about eight hundred. The sur wrong; but the guerrillas, bound by prise was complete, and after some no law, and under no restraint, carried weak fighting, our men were compelled fear and trembling wherever they went. to surrender. The prisoners, including At one time they would dash into a Gen. Crittenden, were carried to Chattown or village, seizing horses, cattle, tanooga, and a large quantity of ammuand stores, shooting Union men and nition and stores was brought away dragging away whom they pleased ; or destroyed. Considerable excitement at another, they would attack railroad was caused at Nashville by the news trains, plunder the mails, burn the of this capture, and though the expedibridges, or fire from ambush upon tion retired to Chattanooga, whence it wagons; though frequently dispersed had come, the vicinity continued to be they would suddenly reappear, and, much harassed by guerrillas. being men of desperate characters and At the same time that Murfreesborough fortunes, no man felt safe while they was thus surprised, there came a fresh were near; the friends of secession raid into Kentucky, headed by the sometimes met with no better treat- noted John H. Morgan. Having ment than those who remained stead. crossed into Kentucky from Knoxville, fast in their loyalty. By the rapidity with about 900 men, he issued, on the of their movements and suddenness of 10th of July, at Glasgow, a proclamatheir attacks, these guerrilla bands were tion to the inhabitants, and called upon able to inflict vast injury upon the them to give him their aid and coun. Union cause in Kentucky and other tenance. His proclamation was full of portions of the South and West, and bighly wrought appeals, and the usual they gave great trouble to our gen- I stuff about “northern tyrants," " the
REBEL RAIDING OPERATIONS.
Hessian invaders," the “foreign hordes," its vicinity, and placed under Gen. ctc., and he evidently expected the Green Clay Smith, who set out at once people to “rise, one and all, and to in pursuit of the raiders. On coming clear out dear Kentucky's soil of its up with Morgan's cavalry near Paris, detested invaders." Morgan pushed he defeated them, retaking the cannon rapidly forward to the centre of the and horses captured at Cynthiana, with state and took possession of Lebanon, a considerable portion of the stolen prowhere he freely helped himself to sup-perty. Morgan, though pursued by plies from the abundant government Smith, made his escape into Tennessee, commissary stores, and the property of at the close of July, boasting of his the towns-people. Having destroyed, great success in his expedition. to a considerable extent, the railroad Henderson, on the Ohio, was also occommunication with Cincinnati, Mor-cupied by guerrillas at this same date, gan, on the 17th of July, at the head who crossed over into Indiana and plunof a motley force of about 2,000, with dered a hospital at Newburg. Russeltwo pieces of artillery, fell upon a body ville, the capital of Logan County, of 340 men at Cynthiana, in Harrison southwest of Bowling Green, was also county-volunteers and home guards, taken by guerrillas, on the 29th of July; for the most part poorly armed and and the same day, Mount Sterling, east undisciplined, under command of of Lexington, was assailed by a body Lieut.-Col. Landrum. This officer dis- of rebels. These, however, were driven posed his little force to the best advan- off by the citizens, and pursued to a tage, placing a number of his men at considerable distance. the bridge over the Licking River, and
Toward the close of the month of his single artillery piece, a brass 12 August, a large division of the rebel pounder, in the public square, com. troops in Tennessee threatened an inmanding the different approaches. The vasion of Kentucky. Gen. E. Kirby rebels came in by every road, street, Smith, having his headquarters at Knox. and by-path ; the force at the bridge ville, in East Tennessee, began his adwas soon dislodged, and a furious cav- vance on the 22d of August. After a alry charge having been made into the very difficult and fatiguing march, Smith town it speedily fell into the hands of entered Kentucky without opposition,
and on the 29th, appeared before RichA body of mounted infantry was immond, the capital of Madison County, mediately gathered at Lexington and forty-eight miles southeast of Frankfort.
Gen. Manson was in command of the * Cincinnati, though sisty miles distant, was some wht.c excited by tho news of this capture of Cynthiana, Union troops, which, mostly raw and unand apprehensions were felt for the safoty of the line disciplined, uumbered about 6,500 men. the U.S. army, took military command of the city, Smith's force was estimated to be very and volunteer companies were organized. Martial much larger, and, on the 30th of Aulaw was proclaimed at Covington, and every effort was made to hasten the sending troops into the field gust, after nearly a whole day's fightfor the protection of the state.
ing, in which our loss was very severe,
VOL. IV -28.
he succeeded in completely defeating of Cincinnati, Covington and Newport Manson and his troops.
on the 1st of September. Martial law The legislature of the state was at was declared, and the citizens this time in session at Frankfort, and so entered with enthusiasm upon alarmed were the members by this suc- the work of defence and preparations to cess of Kirby Smith, that, on Sunday meet the advancing rebels. So indus evening, the 31st of August, they pass- triously did they labor that, in a few ed resolutions to adjourn at once to days, there were not less than ten miles Louisville. The archives of the state, of entrenchments lining the hills and and about $1,000,000 from the banks furnished with cannon. For a while it of Richmond, Lexington and Frankfort, was doubtful what move the rebels were transferred during the night to would next make. On the 10th of Louisville. A proclamation was also September, it was thought that a battle issued by Gov. Robinson, who had re- was imminent, and special activity was cently succeeded Gov. Magoffin, and displayed in order to be ready for it; the people of Kentucky were urgently but the rebels, finding that there were appealed to in the existing critical state such means of resistance, and fearing an of affairs. “To arms! to arms !” he attack from another quarter, gave up
“and never lay them down till the attempt and retired. Gen. Wallace the stars and stripes float in triumph issued a congratulatory address, but throughout Kentucky.”
warned the people to be prepared for The rebel general, having occupied future emergencies. Lexington and Frankfort without op. It was not long after the failure of position, deemed it proper to issue a Kirby Smith's attempt upon Cincinnati, proclamation, September 2d, disclaim- that a more serious danger presented ing entirely any purpose of invasion for itself. This arose out of the projected the purpose of coercion or control, and invasion of the North-west by the main asserting that they were come, not as army of the rebels in Tennessee, under invaders, but liberators.
command of Bragg. Corinth, in MissisThere was, naturally, not a little ex. sippi, it will be remembered, was evacucitement in Louisville and Cincinnati in ated by Beauregard, at the end of May the present threatening aspect of affairs. (see p. 179), the retreat being continued In the former city, citizens, at the call of as far as Tupello, in the same state.
, enrolled themselves for home Gen. Buell, who had been left by Halguards; martial law was declared in leck in command of the Army of the the county, and the legislature co-Ohio, after much effort and difficulty, operated with the military authorities extended his lines eastward along the in measures for the defence of the state. Memphis and Charleston Railroad, to At Cincinnati, where the danger ap- Huntsville, Alabama, where he estab. peared more pressing, the most vigor- lished his headquarters. The rebel ous measures were taken for defence. general, anticipating a further move Gen. Lewis Wallace assumed commandment in this direction on Buell's part
GUERRILLA ROBBERS AND MURDERERS.
sent a portion of his force to Chatta- their disgrace, more than half his force nooga, thus outflanking Buell, and, was killed or captured. with Eastern Tennessee already in pos- Successes like these, in various direcsession, securing an open route in the tions, emboldened the guerrillas, and rear of Nashville to Kentucky. they became more troublesome than
Finding the guerrilla warfare particu- ever. Travel ceased to be safe, even larly annoying, in interfering with his near the capital; the mails were robbed ; communications, in destroying railroad Union men were seized and dragged off ; bridges, and in various other ways, and quite frequently small detachments Buell felt compelled to abandon his of Union troops were suddenly set line of defence in Northern Alabama, upon and killed or made prisoners. and withdraw bis divisions under Nel. The state of things became intolerable, son, Wood, McCook, Crittenden and and in the western part of Kentucky, Thomas from their several stations to they resolved to hang every guerrilla Murfreesborough and the line of the that was caught. In addition to the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad.* men who served under Morgan, Forrest,
On the 19th of August, Clarksville, and such like, there was a class of Tennessee, on the Cumberland River, marauders who followed or was surrendered by the officer in com- panied them, a desperate band, who mand, Col. R. Mason, to an inferior spared neither sex nor age, and who force and without firing a gun. In an- plundered and ravaged all alike. The other direction, to the north-east of same process of guerrilla warfare was Nashville, the famous John Morgan, on carried on against boats on the Missis. the 12th of August, made a dash with sippi, who were signaled to come near his guerrillas upon Gallatin, capturing the shore, as if for passengers or freight, Col. Boone and four companies of a and then fired into from ambush, or Kentucky regiment. The place was re- seized and plundered. At Randolph, taken directly afterwards, and the dam- on the Mississippi, an outrage of this ago done to the railroad, the bridges, kind was perpetrated, which led Gen. etc., was repaired. On the 22d, Gen. Sherman to send a force from Memphis R. W. Johnson, with about 800 men, and completely destroy the place. attacked Morgan and his raiders near The movement of the Army of the Gallatin, the result of which was, that Ohio was now in a northerly direction, Johnson was taken prisoner and, to parallel with the advance of Bragg Valley of the Sequatchie to Pikeville, the war, as they had the power, and to thence to Sparta, threatening Buell's refuse to let the East grow rich by army, and pursuing his route by Carth- tariffs and the like, imposed on them as age, entered Kentucky the first week in well as on the South. Very possibly, September, just after Kirby Smith had Bragg and his fellow laborers in a bad gained possession of Frankfort. At cause, may have thought that the inGlasgow, on the 18th of September, habitants of the North-west might be Bragg issued a proclamation, in sub- persuaded to aid them in their designs stance the same as those issued by Mor- by appealing to motives of self-interest gan and Kirby Smith, making the and narrow and unworthy prejudices; same pretensions and asking the same but, if so, they were grierously disapreturns.
through Middle Tennessee toward Ken* On the 5th of August, Gen. R. L. McCook was murdered by a body of guerrillas near Salem, Ala. tucky.* Bragg leaving Chattanooga He was sick at the time, and travelling in an ambu- on the 21st of August, followed up
the lance, one regiment of his brigade being in advance and the remainder some distance in the rear.
* The principal object of the present rebel invasion bundred guerrillas, lying in ambush, waited the favor was to obtain supplies of meat, the deficiency of which able moment of his being at a distance from his men, the disloyal states were feeling already very keenly. and rushing upon him, shot him down in cold blood. It was hoped also, that by means of a large military An able and excellent officer, his death was sincerely force within her borders, Kentucky might be coaxed lamented by all who knew him, especially the men or compelled to cast in her lot with secession and ro under his immediata command.
pointed. On the contrary, the loyal A few days before this, there was a supporters of the Union were nerved to sharp engagement between the advance fresh and determined efforts to put of Buckner's division of Bragg's army, down the rebellion. and the Union troops, 3,000 in number, Gen. Morgan, who held the importstationed at Munfordsville, on Green ant post at Cumberland Gap (see p. 180), River, where the Louisville and Nash- was cut off from his usual sources of ville Railroad crosses. The rebels de- supply by the invasion of Kentucky manded the surrender of the place, under Bragg. During two months which was refused by Col. Wilder, the from the date of the occupation of the commander of the troops. An attack Gap, Gen. Morgan had bravely mainwas made at daylight, which was re- tained his position; but apprepulsed with considerable slaughter. hension of famive, and of being The fight was renewed two days later, finally compelled to surrender, induced and continued till the close of the day. him, while he had opportunity, to make As Bragg was near with his main force, good his retreat. Accordingly, on the Col. Dunham, then in command, sur 17th of September, he gave orders for rendered the place, on the 17th of Sep. the evacuation. The military buildings, tember; his force amounting to about and all the stores which could not 4,500 in all, together with 10 guns. readily be carried away, were burnt.
Bragg next advanced to Bardstown, The escape of Morgan and his troops where on the 26th, he issued another along a wild mountain track of 250 proclamation addressed to the people miles, through the counties of Eastern of the North-west. In this document, Kentucky, by way of Manchester, which was a curious mixture of argu- Hazel Green, West Liberty and Grayment, entreaty and threatening, Bragg son, to the Ohio at Greenupsburg, gave expression to the sentiments which where they arrived on the 3d of Octowere largely entertained by the rebel ber, was one of the most perilous adleaders at the time. It was an elaborate ventures of the war, beset, as they effort to stir up sectional strife and di- were, by the enemy, by Marshall's and vision, begging them to put a stop to Smith's divisions, on whose flank they